Skip to main content

Full text of "The Journal of the Linnean Society."

See other formats

t -_ 

Mat 31. 



,^ J. 

JPrice 2s. 

■. - 

'-■ ^ 

-,:■■: ■.■. . ^ . V . . ■ ' '■■■,- ^'>,-:.^ '%;■ ■ '"■.'■: "-■■'■ ■'■ - ^ ■■', V ■-.■-, -^ ^ - ' ■■ . i ■ ,' V,- - '\ ^ ■ y-V--^ : r ---,.__ 



^ 'b 

\ h 

r - 

u- ^ b4 

^_ .- _ 



> L T 

tJ - 



^ *^ 

^ > 

',?;-' r ^- ' -.■... .. . 1 ' - ■ ^-^ - -■ .^- -v - 

^-. / ■ ^ * '^-V :^ ■ .-^ ^^ ■ ■ ■ . . ^^ .-* - r ^ ^ ■ n- ^- - 

^--H ^ . 'f-^ 

-i 1" 

1 - 

- X ^ 

J , x" 

OF ''' = '■■:■': />V: 

- ^ f ^ 


■ ^" 

£ T 

■^ ■ . 

/ I 

^ h ■- 

F I-' 

h ■+ H 


.^ -r^ -. "1^ : ^r r^ ■ - - ^ . ^\ ■ V 


^ -' 

^ J Ifr 





i: "vj- 

■r --' ; .\;' V< 

-F ^ 

^i ■>*■ . ■ ;--^ 


rJ _ 


' > ^ 

^ > ■ 

. t 




q V 

J ' ^5 " . ^ . '-■ 

Vol. XVI. U' BOTANY; No: 89; 


,, t*^ *■■ -. -.^'-. ,■■.. .-'^ 

X ' 

\ -\ 

^ s y ^ .-v- v\ 


v.. V ■ ■ ,:■ 


. J"' 

L ' 
■ -J- 

I. Note oil the Uses of a commercial Cane termed 


y - 

-A' ^.> 

.'- ^ 


h - t 

t - 


.^,..--lV.*|.- ^ 4 X O -N-^':^*^, 

i5r^ACK:so:s^, AX.S. 


a Species o^ PhyllostacTiys, Bj Johx 

W- -H 

. * _ 

# *«#*»« 4*V ««» **• «V* -'^/ 


II. JSTew British Licliens. By the Eev. W 


i ^ 

■ 1 

B.A., F.Ii.S 

*«• *<• •** *•« »** ••* •■* *•« **■ ••• *4»** 


? III. On the Eootstock of Marattiafraxinea. Sm. By JohK 

,\ t 

t >v 

.- .■ - ' -^ ■■..' ^ ■ 

- ^ 


.vi^AiS", F.L.S.i of the Geolofncal Survey of 

^.^^^ ^^^.v., ^-... v^,. 

I ^y 

; ifew Zealand. ^ (Plate I.) 



IV. Note on Algae* collected by Dr. I. B. Balfour at the 

H J -i 

Island of Eodris:uez. By Gteorge Dickie, M 


■i . . _ ^_ __ - ■ - .r .- 

J ■ r^L 


b H, ■ ■ ^ f 

■ Jl J « ^J» » • « • ■ 

*•*•««■«••■••« ••»»«*•••■•• •«• «■• **■ ■•■ ■■• *•« ■*»'- 


'n .^ 


V. Aspects of the Phaenogamic Vegetation of Rodriguez, 

Avith Descriptions of new Plants from the Island. 

.!* * 

-I -■ r - r- 

l^/" -^- 


-- *- ' 

By I. BATLEyBALrouE, D.Sc.F.L.S.:. 

A^I, The Tropical Perns collected by Professor Steere iu 

-1 -^ - 

_ -L 

L -m 

the years 1870-75. By M. W. Habro^gton, | 
M.A., P.L.S.y Assistant Professor of Botany, Uni-.; 
versity of Michigan , ..!.,... :^..i:^r 23 

L - ■ 

; ^ - ^ ■ ■ ^ 



■+ - 


4H - - H -: 


J -■ 

^ "-^ 1 r . ■ ^1 


-■■ I- ■ ■ 

ntributionsi to the Botany of H.M.S. * Challenger ': 
ixxviii. Enumeration of the Pungi collected 
during the Expedition of H.M.S. * Challenger/ 

^ ' 


IS 74-75. By the Eev. M. J. Beekelet 

. ^ 


--■- -'irr .'^^ " ' - '^' -.■.'..'•■.'■ ,-' L .-_ 'v ..■,.' ■■ ■ ■'^' .'■;.>-'. ■:,^- . "-i- ''^ 

^- #^^^^ Notice.) (Plate H.^, 

h" " "A; "t" - . fc— — ■ ■""::■ 

III On the Nature and Mode 

^^■" ■ -"* -■-■" ^ ^ - .v." 
■ -J I ' > ■■:■ ^ ■ 

foisoiig employed by the Samoan Islanders. By 

Rev. Thomas PoweIl, P.L.S. ............*. 

y'-' . ■-■■.'4: '^- . ■ • - . ■ . -- ■ ^^ ■- :-v J ■ ,:, ; — -- ■ -_ - ^ * . ■ ■ , i ' 



'"/ .^■. . .■ "'.' ■ :■" - ■.-.■ ■ >' t . --■:■■■. "■"-f..-' ' 

-------- ^ -■ . - < .■-.:- " :.-■ •■- . . /.J !■ 


' ™^ 

" ■■.■,; — '. :>■•■.' ^o.:"',..':;^/'-'- 

1 . 

. \ 



IF / - 


■f _ 

> ■ ■■ .f ■.- y.: y 



\ •-. '■'■ V 


■ ■■■ ■ "-V.V 

irt"-. '^' 



i:-'\ -' \. ^>t^' V^^;.r 

i - 

- - ^ ' 






_ ^ 

^ 4* - . ■ ■ ■ ^ 

_■-" f 

GARUtN Lidi 

M- -m mm w mr m ^ * J^ 

SEP 1 8 199B 



Vol. XV. Botany, {.. 491, line G from the bottoni; for Af/ai-er^ vend 

Aj^^.. mcv\ ^/a4 





Note on the Uses of a commercial Cane termed '* Whangee," a 

Species o{ Pht/llostachys. By Jonx E. •Tacicson', A.L.S, 

[Eead December 21, 1876.] 

Under the iiameof "Whangee," a jointed bamboo is imported in 
considerable quantities into tliis country, it is said from China, for 
tlie manufacture of walking-canes. For a long time the scientific 
name of the plant producing these canes was quite unknown ; 
latterly, however, they have been attributed to the genus PhyU 
lostacTiySj P. nigra being the species chiefly accredited with tlieir 
production; on this point, however, there is still some doubt. From 
whatever species of bamboo they may be produced, one thing 
seems clear, that the " AVhangee " canes, as seen in trade, are not 
the stems proper, as is generally supposed, but the under- 
ground stems, the small circular markings surrounding each 
joint being tlie scars whence the roots have been given off*, and 
tlie indentations on the alternate sides the points from which the 
aerial stems have arisen. The above-ground stems assume a 
different character, being, of course, minus the root-scars, which 
is a distinguishing mark and a point of beauty in the commercial 
cane. Thus two distinct canes seem to be produced by the same 
plant, one from the underground, and the other from the above- 
ground stem. The specimen (exhibited at the Meeting), which is 
from a plant grown at Chatsworth, seems to me sufficiently to il- 
lustrate this. One thing is remarkable, that all the imported 
" Whangee " canes are white, while the English-grown specimen 
is black. This I can account for only by supposing the former to 
be systematically bleached at the same time that they are straight- 





ened before exportation. The length required for a walking-stick 
is perhaps unusual for the rhizome of a bamboo ; but this may be 
attained by keeping the stem buried beneath the soil until it lias 
grown to a suificient length. That this may be done as a system is 
possible, when we know that in Algeria the young sticks of the 
Medlar are gashed transversely, while they are growing, to give them 
a knotted appearance, and so enhance their value in the market. 

New "British Lichens. By the Rev. AV. A-. Letghton, B. A., F.L.vS. 

[Read December 7, 1870.] 



In this communication the author describes in detail, and gives 
coloured drawings from nature, of the following eleven examples 
of Lichens new to Britain, of which the diagnosis &c. will appear 
in due course in the Society's ^ Transactions.* 

Lecidea wipressuJa, n. sp 

Z, tejpTirizanSj n. sp. 

L. ryssoJea^ n. sp. 

X. imponens^ n. sp. 

X. glaucomeria^ n. sp. 

L. par ell aria, 

L. endomelcena^ n. sp. 

Odontotrema majiis, n. sp. 
Verriicaria neottizans^ n. sp. 
V,fumosaria^ n. sp. 
y. perfemcis^n, sp. 

Owih^'Rooi-^tocikoiMarattiafraxinea, Sm. By JoiixBuciianax, 

F.L.S., of the Geological Survey of New Zealand. 

[Read February ITy, 1877.] 

(Plate I.) 

Mabattia fraxtnea, as now determined in the ' Species Filicum ' 
of Hoolter and Baker, has a very extensive range, being noted as 
found in South Africa, East Indies, Australia, and in several 
islands of the Pacific ocean. In New Zealand it is found only in 
the northern part of the North Island. In the eastern portion of 
this district it is very rare, being probably confined to two loca- 
lities of limited areas at the Bay of Islands and Whangarei Bay. 
The ropfcstock of this fern is used by the Maories as an article 


of food ; but they liave never cultivated it in a systematic manner ; 
they say that if a rootstock is smashed into numerous pieces 
and thrown on the ground, ever}^ piece will form a new plant : 
in this way they may have occasionally increased the number 
by scattering portions about in places suited to its growth. It is 
evident, however, that whether they used any means or not to 
increase the plant, it is always rare wherever they themselves 
are numerous ; and it is only in a few localities in the Avestern 
part of the district, where there are few native settlements, that 
it is abundant. 

AVhen ti'ansplanted to the southern parts of the North Island, 
as at Wellington, this fern grows freely in rich dump soil on the 
banlis of creeks under the shade of trees. 

At the commencement of the present year the Hon. AY. B. D, 
Mantell received from Taranaki a sackful of what was called 
pieces of the rootstock of the Uwipara (^Marattia fraxined)] they 
appeared, from their uniformity in shape and covering of black 
cuticular bark, to be more like distinct individual bodies than 
broken pieces from a large mass. A number of these bodies 
were planted out in the Botanical Crarden, Wellington, and a 
number in Mr. Mantell's garden ; and I was induced to watch 
the progress and method of their growth, and also to examine 
the structure of the mature rootstock of tlie full-grown plant. 
The following notes are therefore the result of observations made 
on the New-Zealand species of this genus {M, fraxinea^ Sm.), as 
to its method of reproduction by the root, which may add to 
the present knowledge on this subject. 

The rootstock or rhizome of JIaraftia is described by Hooker 
in the ' Flora of New Zealand' as " a large, rounded, hard, fleshy 
mass as large as the head," and in the * Handbook of the New- 
Zealand Flora ' as *^ a large tuberous rhizome." Again, DeYriese 
and Harting, in their illustrated monograph of ferns, published at 
Ley den in 1853, describe it as '^ a succulent, tuberous, irregularly 
shaped mass, upon which the stems are articulated." 

As no additional information is given in the more recent acces- 
sible work on ferns, 'Species Filicum,' of Hooker and Baker, I 
now add the foUowinir. 

The rhizome or rootstock of the New-Zealand species is com- 
posed of an irregular agglomerated mass of thick fleshy scales, 
each scale being formed by the enlargement of a stipe-base, the 
stipe separating by an articulation above the swelling after 

n 2 


the frond has performed its functions. The articulated surface 
of the scale shows a scar-mark much resembling the imprint of a 
horse-hoof. It is probable that the mobility of the stipe men- 
tioned by Colenso takes place immediately before separation, 
after decay at the articulation has commenced ; but I have not 
observed this. 

Such a rootstock approaches the scaly bulb more in structure 
than a fem-rhizome, but v^ithout a central mass round which the 
scales might be arranged in order. 

The continued addition of new scales outwards and upwards 
often raises the rhizome above the surface of the ground ; but 
the frond-buds of those scales only which are in contact with the 
soil throw out independent roots. This form of rootstock may 
therefore be named a scaly subaerial rhizome without internodes. 

The procedure in propagating Marattia by scales is very similar 
to that of the common potato. When the plant is grown from a 
detached scale, the buds may sprout from any part of its surface, 
differing in this respect from the potato in having neither points 
nor eyes; and when a frond-bud springs from the crown of the 
rhizome or from a scale above the surface of the ground, it derives 
its nourishment through the parent scales. The bud swells to a 
considerable size before the crozier bursts through the cuticular 
bark ; during this process the latter is split and the edges car- 
ried upwards, forming the so-called adnate stipules of authors, 
and remains as a sharp ridge round the scar where the stipe arti- 
culated. The new stipe begins to swell at its base at a very early 
period, spreading over the adjacent surface and forming a new 

The growth of the Marattia rhizome is remarkably slow, being, 
under favourable circumstances, only one inch diameter in one 
year ; and as the height is less than the diameter, it may be safely 
calculated that a Maori will consume in one day the growth of five 
years, which fact may account for this fern becoming rare in cer- 
tain localities. The rhizome, by a process of renewal and move- 
ment, lives for an indefinite time, shifting its position in the 
ground by its growth outwards from a centre, the exhausted scales 
a<jcumulating in a hard mass on the original site. In this way, 
as in certain fungi, rings or detached clumps may be formed at 
equal distances from the centre if no obstruction exists. 

Before the exhaustion of any part of the rhizome mass, adven- 
titious frond-buds may sprout from any part of its surface either 
above or below ground. 

J Buchanan . 

LlNN.SoC.JoTrRN.BoT.VoL.XV'l Pl.l, 



MAKHa/iViaH. irop 






I am also of opinion, although requiring longer observation to 
prove it satisfactorily, that the rhizomes of the New-Zealand Bo- 
trycTiinm and OpMoglossum are built up, or added to, on a similar 
method to that of Marattia. 

Note, — Since writing the above, I have been shown by Dr. 
Hector an old Maori vocabulary by the Rev. Richard Taylor, 
called *A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand ' (1848), 
where the author, under tlie name Owipara, gives the following : 
" edible fern^ tJieroot, which separates into scales, is eateTty^ showing 
that this peculiar structure had been noticed by Mr. Taylor 
twenty-eight years ago. 


Fig. 1, Front view of a scale, about one fourth natural size. It is composed of 

cellular tissue filled with starch-grains, fibro-vascular bundles, and 
covered by an adhering bari. The cut section shows numez'ous small 
orange-coloured spots, which exude on the surface, when newlj cut, 
a viscid gum-resinous matter. 

2. A scale after three months in the ground, showing the method of bud- 

growth with roots proceeding from the bottom of tlie bud. Rather 
under one fourth nat. size, 

3, 4 are two illustrations of the frond-growth above ground, showing the 

croziers in two stages of development and the formation of the adnata 
stipule. Eeduced to about one fourth nat, size. 

5. Hoot-process, shovring rootlets proceeding chiefly from the lower side of 

root ; the whole very flexible. About one fourth nat. size. 

6. 6a. Sections of root enlarged; the chief component mass is cellular 

tissue and starch- grains with lacunae ; there are also star-shaped nuclei 
of fibro-vascxdar and scalariform bundles, the bundles distinctly wedge- 
shaped, the root thus showing a stronger affinity in structure to the 
EquLsetaceae than to Ferns, and presenting an additional reason to the 
difierence in Sporangia why Marattiacese should be separated from 

7. Starch-grains of Marattia fraxiTiea, Sm. 









Kote on Algio collected l»y Dr. I. B. Balfour* at the Iislaiul of 

Kodriguez. By George Dickie, M.D., F.L.S. 

[Read February If), 1877.] 

This small collection of Algse was made during the sta}' of the 
Transit-of'A^enus Expedition in the island of liodrigaez in 1874. 
The short time devoted to the collection of marine forms accounts 
for its smallness. Of the 52 species and varieties herein enume- 
nierated, 39 are marine, a number so small that it manifestly 
cannot be considered a fair representation of the marine alga 
flora. None of them calls for special mention, as all are widely 

spread in the Indian Ocean and tropical seas. The remaining 
13 are freshwater forms. G of these have a general range 
tliroughout Europe, some being quite cosmopolitan. The rest are 
more restricted in distribution: 2 species, Thorea violacca, Bory, 
and Cladopliora hamosa^ Dickie, are peculiarly Mascarene ; Chan- 
transia c(Briilescens^ Mont,, is, strange to say, a Cayenne species ; 
whilst Conferva Ansonii, Ag., and C. moluccana^ Ag., are each 
confined to a single island in the Eastern archipelago ; and there 
is an Indian species (^Chidopliora Moettleri^ Ktz.). 

In addition to those enumerated in the list, fragments of others 
(such as Vaitclieria^ Odontidium, &c.) occur, but in too imperfect a 
condition for determination, 

A survey of the freshwater algae of Kodriguez shows us affi- 
nities with forms from all parts of the world; and while certain 
of the species are universally distributed, others are limited in 
their range ; and of these I may note that none are African spe- 
cies, but they point mainly in an eastern and Asiatic direction, 

Lut of Genera and Species, 

Sargassum vulgare^ Ag. 
iUcifolium, Turner. 

Turhina^na ornata^ Turner. 

Sydroclailirus cancellatus^ 

Mesogloia virescens^ Carm. 

Chroospora implexa^ Hering. Sphacelaria rigida^ Hering. 

Digenea simplex, Wulf 
Laurencia papiljosa^ Eorsk. 
' ohtusa, Hudson. 

Dictyota dicliotoma^ Huds. 
Padina Favonia, L. 
Zonaria nigrescens^ Sender. 
Asperococcus sinuosus, Roth. 

* A fuller notice of this collection of Algae will be published in the Roy. Soc. 
Qcn. Eeport on the Venus-trans. Exped., which, however, may be less eas^-of 
access to crypt ogamic botanists; hence the present excerpt. 

Jlagelliferay J. Ag. 



Amphiroa fragilissima^ L., 

var. linearis. 
Lithotliamnion mamillare^ 

Gracilaria corticata^ J, Ag. 
Hypneahamulosa^ Turner. 
— — ValenticG^ Wulf. 

Enteromorpha intestinalis, 


— compressa, Grev. 

ra7nulosaj E. B. 

Gelidium rigidum^ Vahl. 
Liagora viscida^ Forsk. 
Chylocladia rigens^ Ag. 
Catilerpa ericifolia^ Ag. 
Boryana, J. Ag. 

BatracTiospermum monilifc 
Ag., var. (EquinoctiaJe, 
Thorea violacea^ Bory. 

homhycina, Ag., var. 
incsqualis^ Ktz. 

phimarisj Vahl. 
mamillosa. Mont 

— Ansonity Ag. 

Cladopliora Roettleri, Ktz. 

pannosa^ Dickie. 


(Edogonium fonticola^ A. 

Brauu ? 

Codiitm tomenfosttm^ Stackh. MJiynclionevxa angitlarc^ Hass. 

Staurospermum capucinum^ 
Bory ? 

;, Lynghya majuscula^ Dillw. 

Leptotltrioi hitea, Ktz, 

Ilalimeda opuntia^ Lamx. 
tuna, Lamx. 

adlia^rens^ Ag. 

Talonia ccgagropila, Ag. 

Microdictyon Agardhianum, 


Dictyosp7i<jdria favulosa. Due. Noatoc commune, Vauch. 

Ulva latissima, L. 

Aspects of the Phsenogamic Vegetation of Eodriguez, with De- 
scriptions of new Plants from the laland. By I. Batlet 
Balfour, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

[Read February 1, 1877.] 

As regards the history of its flora, the island of Eodriguez bears a 
striking resemblance to St. Helena. We read of the latter island 

A full and descriptive account of the botany of Rodriguez, amply illustrated, 
will hereafter be published by the Royal Society in their general Report of the 
Venus-transit Expedition to that island. But as a wish has been expressed by 
several botanists that I should give a risumi of some of the novelties among the 
flowering plants withovit further delay. I herewith, by permission, lay an abstract 
of a few of tlie more important points before the Linncan Society. 


that fire, goals, auJ finally introduced foreign plants well nigh 
exterminated the indigenous flora ; and the same causes have ope- 
rated and, I regret to say, are still operating in Eodriguez. The 
result is that the primitive vegetation has been in great part 
destroyed, leaving the island a field for the rank and rapid growth 
of common tropical weeds. The old and luxuriant vegetation of 
two hundred years ago — thus quaintly described by Leguat*, 
"We could hardly take our eyes off* from the little mountains of 
which the island entirely consists ; they are so richly spread with 
great and tall trees," and, again, " 'Tis as I have hinted, composed 
of lovely hills covered all with fine trees whose perpetual verdure is 
entirely charming" — has now, to a large extent, disappeared, and 
is represented by only a few species, many of which are confined 
to the more unfrequented and less accessible places. It is indeed 
difficult to recognize in the barren and arid Eodriguez of the pre- 
sent day the "little Eden," '* lovely isle," ''earthly paradise" of 

The flora, as it now exists, is an exceedingly fragmentary one ; 
it is therefore a matter of some difficulty to determine its exact 
limits and to draw conclusions as to its affinities with the floras of 
other oceanic islands and of adjacent continents • This is the more 
to be regretted, as, from the geographical position of the island and 
the physical condition of climate to which it is subject, its flora 
might be expected, whether taken singly or as part of that of the 
Mascarene group, to contribute very important data towards the 
solution of the problem of the distribution of plant-life in that 
region. The following general statements may, however, be 

1. The flora is essentially insular. 

2. The facies is tropical. 

3. It is that of a dry rather than of a humid climate. 

4. It is characteristically Mascarene, but possesses a fair amount 
of individuality. ^ 

5. It presents affinities with the floras of many other regions, 
most markedly with the African ; but there are also some curious 
Polynesian and American relations, and strong Asiatic or eastern 

The flora, as I found it, is composed of 470 species: of these, 
297 are Phanerogams ; the remainder (173) are Cryptogams. Of 
the 297 species of Phanerogams now growing on the island, con- 

* 'A New Voyage to the East Indies/ English translation. London, 1708. 


siderably over one third have been introduced, and many of the 
remainder are widely spread weeds in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres. In this number I include many plants which have escaped 
from, or are relics of, former cultivation, and ought perhaps to be 
expunged from the list ; but I record their presence, as it is pos- 
sible that, in time, many of tliem may occupy a more prominent 
position in the flora. 

The prevailing natural orders of the flowering plants are Legu- 
minos9e,Convolvulaceae,Solanacese, Malvaceae, Compositse, Euplior- 
biacea), EubiacesD, Cyperacese, Myrtaceae, Liliacea>, and Eutaceae. 
All but the last three are, it will be observed, orders which, as a 
rule, compose a great part of the flora of any tropical islands 
reached by civilization. There are 35 endemic species of Phaeno- 
gams, and 31 species which occur nowhere out of the Mascarene 
islands- The 35 peculiar species belong to 30 genera, and are in- 
cluded in 21 natural orders. Monocotyledons constitute six of 
these species, or about one sixth of the whole. Of the endemic 
species hitherto undescribed diagnoses are now given. Of the 
natural orders in which peculiar species occur, Eubiaceae, which 
constitutes one thirtieth of the whole flora, is most largely repre- 
sented in them, including 5 species belonging to as many genera- 
Altogether ten Kubiaceous plants are found in Rodriguez. Two of 
these are introduced — Co^ea arahica, a relic of cultivation, and the 
common Vangueria edulis\ and of the remaining 8, 3 {Oldenlandia 
Sieherij Fernelia huxifolia, andAntirrhoeaff^anffiilacea) are Masca- 
rene only ; whilst 5 are peculiar, though 3 of them have repre- 
eentatives in other Mascarene islands. 

Of 11 Compositae, 3 species belonging to two genera are ende- 
mic, 2 belonging to Fsiadia^ and the third is a species of the 
curious genus Abrofanella ; and a fourth, a species of Senecio, is 


Other Dicotyledonous orders containing peculiar plants are : 
Myrtaceae, including a peculiar Eugenia-, Euphorbiaceae, embra- 
cing a new Euphorhia and a Phyllanthus found by Commerson ; 
Piperaceae, represented by 3 new species oi Peperomia ; Eutaceae, 
of which a Zanthoxylon occurs ; Meliaceae possessing a character- 
istic species of the Mascarene genus Quivisia ; Turneraceae, having 
a peculiar genus with Central- American affinities ; Verbenaceae, 
of which the Polynesian hitherto mouotypic Nesogenes is repre- 
i^enled by a new species, and there is also a Clerodendron ; Ascle-.^ 


piadacese, comprising a new genus of Indian affinity and a new 
ispecies of Sarcosteimna ; Anacardiacese, including a species of the 
African genua Sclerocarya ; Ebenacea?, with a new Diospyros ; 
Nyctaginese, containing a Pisonia ; Amaranthacese, represented by 
an ^rita ; and Urticacese by a Filea. 

The 6 peculiar Monocotyledons, included in 5 genera of 4 
orders, are amongst the most interesting of Eodriguez plants, as 
amongst them occur those which may be considered physiognomic. 
Tliese are the Pandanacese (Screw^ Pines), of which two species, 
both peculiar, occur. Three others are recorded, but on insuffi- 
cient evidence. It is curious tliat the family, though in indivi- 
duals far outstripping other families, is not rich in species. 

nix dactylift 


There are 


three species, all of Mascarene genera — Latania Yerscliafft 
Hyopliorhe Verschaffeltii^ and Dictyosperma alha^ var. aurea. 
representation of these Palms in other islands of the group by cog- 
nate species is remarkable and worthy of notice. The Eodriguez 
species of ifi^^cf7^^fir is represented in Mauritius by i. Commersonii, 
also found in Bourbon; and on Sound Island a third species, i. 
Loddigesiiy occurs. Again, HyopJierhe Vei'scliaffeltii, peculiar to 
Eodriguez, is represented in Mauritius and Bourbon by H. indica^ 
and on Eound Island there is H. amaricaulis, Dictyosperma alba, 
on the other hand, is a very variable Palm, and occurs in all the 
islands of the group, but under a ditferent form in each. In Eo- 
driguez it assumes a singularly graceful and delicate character, 
constituting a very distinct variety long known to horticulturists 
in this country and in Europe as Areea aurea. 

The paucity of Orchidacea> is a very striking feature j but we 
find one new species and a distinct variety of another. This paucity 
is more remarkable as contrasted with the profusion of this family 
in the sister isles, the dryness of the island and absence of 
forest no doubt mainly contributing to this result. 

Such is a brief indication of the endemic Phsenogamic vege- 
tation of Eodriguez ; and the following is a list of the species. 
Those marked with an asterisk have been already described ; of 
those not so marked a description follows. 


Zauthoxylon paniculatum, Balf.Jll, 

Quivisia laciniata, Balf.JiL 

Sclerocarja castanea, Baker, 

Eugenia Balfourii, BaJcer, 

*Mathurina peuduliflora, Balf.fiL in Linn, 

Soc. Journ. xv. 159. 

Danais corymbosa, BaJf. fil. 
Raudia heterophylla, Balf.Jll. 

Pyrostria trilocularis, Balf. fil. 

Scyphochlamys revoluta, Balf.JiL 

Psychotria lauceolata, Balffh 

*Psiadia Coronopus, ^^\^f ^(?/2/^. Gen. PL ii. 2So. 

P. rodriguesiana, Balffl. 

Abrotanella rhynchocarpa, Balf.JiL 

Lobelia vagans, Balf.fiL 

*Diospyros divers^folia, Iliern in Journ. Bat. 

K S. iv. p. 353, t. 172. 
Tanulepis sphenophylla, Balffil. 
Sarcostexnma odoutolepis, Balf.fiL 
Hy prestos rodriguesiaua, Balf.fiL 
H. iuconspicua, Balffil. 
Nesogenes decumbcns, Balf fil. 
Clerodendron laciniiitum, BalffiL 

Pisonia viscosa, BalffiL 
^rua congesta, BalffiL 
Pilea Balfourii, Baker. 

Peperoinia liirtaj BalffiL 
P. reticulata, Balf.fiL 
P. rodriguesii, Balffil. 
Eupliorbia dapbnoides, BalffiL 
Phyllanthus duinetosus, Poir. ; DC. Prod. 
XV. 2, 398. 
Listrostacbys aplirodite, BalffiL et S. Moore. 
Aloe lomatopylloides, -Br^7/!^Z. 
*Latania YerscbafFeltii, Gh. Bern. Ill, Hart. 229. 
*Hyopborbe Verschaffeltii, WendL III. Hort. 4G2. 

Pandanus Iieterocarpus, BalffiL 
P, tenuifolius, BalffiL 




Zanthoxylon paniculatum, BaZ/l^/., sp. nov. 

Arborea ; ramulis validis teretibus, spinis paucis, nigrescentibus, unci- 
natisy arcuatis ; foliis imparipinnatis 15-19, foliolatis, ad apicem ramu- 
lorutn confertis, breviter petiolatis; foliolis oppositis sessilibus sub- 
cordato-oblongis, obtusis, basis insequaliter cordatis, glabris, subcoria- 
ceis, supra nitidis, subtus pallidioribus, costa venisque prorainentibus ; 
paniculis subsessilibus, patentibuSj folio brevioribus, ramis puberulis, 
pedicellis brevibus ; flor. ign. ; capsula globosa, bivalvi, glabra, 
valide minuteque tuberculata, breviter stipitata ; sem. ign. 

Hab. in ripis fluvii Quitore prope ejus ostium. Nom. vulg. Bois Pasner. 

A small tree of which only two or three specimens were seen 
in the locality named. Is not far removed from the Indian 
species Z. Budrun^ay Wall. Hk. fil. Flor. Ind. iv. i. 495. 


QcivisiA LACTNTATA, Balf.JiL, sp. nov. 

Frutex glaber ramosissimus ; foliis oppositis v. suboppositis, subsessi- 
libus, adultis obovato-cuneatis, obtusis v. retusis^ integris, junioribus 
alte pinnatifidis 3-5-lobatis in formam adultam gradatim transeuntibus, 
nitidis, rigide coriaceis, reticulato-venulosis ; floribus in cymas axil- 
lares bifloras brevissime pedunculatas coUectis, pedicellis brevibus 
validisque erectis v, suberectis ; calyce cotyliforrai, minute 4-dentato, 
strigoso, dentibus deltoideis ; petalis 4 oblongo-ellipticis obtusis, 
patentibus ; staminibus 8, tube brevi ; ovario dense strigoso; styli 
apice subito incrassato ibique strigoso et constricto ; stigniate capi- 
tato leviter umbilicato, obscure 4-lobato, laevi. 

Hab, In insula late dispersa. Nom. vulg. Bois Balais. 

A heterophyllous species distinguished from the Mauritian 
Q. JiUpes, Baker, Fl. Maur. Seych. p. 46, by its heterophylly, 
stout floral pedicels, and larger flowers. 


ScLEROCARYA CASTANEA, Baker, Fl. Maur. Seych. p. 63. 

Arborea, ramuUs validissimis teretibus; fohis 7-11, imparipinnatis, 
foliolatis, ad apicem ramulorum confertis, petiolatis ; foliolis oppo- 
sitis sessilibus rarius brevissime petiolulatis, oblongis v. ovatis, acutis 
▼.breviter acuminatis, basiinaequaliter rotundatis, obscure creuulatis, 
submerabranaceis, supra nitidis glabrisque, subtus medio nervo sub- 
hirauto ; floribus dioicis (?), breviter pedicellatis in racerais brevibus 
sessilibus V. breviter pedunculatis solitariis in axillis foliorum termina- 
lium dense confertis ; 2 sepalis 5 minutis rotundatis ciliatis ; pe- 


talis 5, oblongis obtusis reflexis imbricatis; disco crenate lO-lobato; 

staminibus 10 partim anantheris; ovario oblongo, glabro, stylis 5 

validis, distantibus, brevibus, erectis divaricatis, sub apicem ovarii 

sitis ; stigmatibus capitatis, spongiosis ; ovulis solitariis pendulis ; 
fruct. ign. 

Hub. in vallibus prope fontes fluminum Palmiste et Mouruc. 

A rare species, differing in its symmetry and crenated disk from 
the published description of Scle^^ocarya. It approaches tlie 
monotypic Cape genus HarpepJiyllum^ Benth. & Hook. fil. Geu. 
Plant*, i. 427, which is unfortunately imperfectly known. It may 
"be a connecting link between these genera. 


Eugenia Balfourii, Bakery FL Maur, Seych. p. 116. 
Arborea, ramosissima, ramulis glabris tetragonis ; foliis breviter petio- 
latis oblongis v. ovali-oblongis v. oblanceolatis acutis, basi cuneatis, 

glabris, rigide subcoriaccis, pellucido punctatis, penninerviis, nervis 
tenuibus plurimis arete positis ; paniculis longe pedunculatis pauci- 
floris axillaribus folia a^quantibus glabris late patentibus; floribus 
sessilibus v. brevissime pedicellatis ^ calyce obscure dentato, denti- 
bus deltoideis. 
Hab. in valle fluvii Baleine prope fontera. 

' An uncommon plant having some aflBnity with the Bourbon 
E. paniculata^ Lam. Diet. iii. 199, = Syzt/r/ium j^aniculatum, DC. 
Prod. iii. 259. 


Danais corymbosa, Balf.^L, sp.nov. 

Herba scandens volubilisve, ramuhs tenuibus, glabris, tetragonis; foliis 
oppositis breviter petiolatis oblongis v. lanceolatisacutisv. acuniinatis, 
basi cuneatis, integris, glabris, subcoriaceis, reticulato-venulosis, sub- 
tus pallidis; stipulis minutis; cymiscorymbosis axillaribus in axillis 
foliorum terminalium densifloris breviter pedunculatis ; pedicelhs erec- 
tis tenuibus brevibus ; bracteolis minutissimis; calyce 5-dentato, tube 
cainpanulato, dentibus lanceolatis ; corolla hypocrateriformi, seg- 
mentis oblongo-spathulatis, acutis, patentibus, quam tubus dimidio 
brevioribus, fauce dense villosa; staminibus flomm brevistylium 
longe exsertis ; stylo furcato, tubum corolla aequaute, ramulis tereti- 
bus clavatis ; capsula globosa, glabra. 

Hab. In declivibus mentis " Grande Montague " sparse lecta. 

■niQfino-Tii'oTi^/l hv ifs Ipflvps and inflorescence from the Mascarene 

14 1)1?. 1. B. BALFOUK OlS^ THE 

D.fragrans^ Comm. (Corclcm. in Adans. x. 357), to ^Yliicll the spe- 
cies mentioned in DC. Prod. iv. 3G1 are reducible. 

Randia heterophylla, Balf.JiL, sp. nov. 

SufFrutex glaher^ ramulis tetrapjonis ; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, 
adultis oblongis v. ellipticlsj obtnsis, mucronatis v. emarginatis; ad 
extrcmitatemutramque rotundatis, sacpc lanceolatis et versus extremi- 
tales attenuatis, rigide coriaceis, glabris, supra nitidis ; foliis juveni- 
libus lineari-lanceolatis t'longatis, acutis, hispidulis, gradatim in for- 
mam adultam transeuntilms; stipalis brevibus, connatis^ subtinncatis ; 
cymis solitariis, ex*raaxillaribus, patentibus, 1-5 floris, peduncubs 

glabris, petiobjm longe excedentibus, bractcolis fere obsoletis ; flo- 
ribus sessibbus v. brevissime pedicellatis, erectis ; calyce anguste in- 
fundibuliformi, minute 5-deiitato ; corolla hypocrateriformi, fauoe 
breviter villosa, segmentis lanceolatis, Antheris parti mexsertis^ ligu- 

latis, acutis ; ovario 5-gono ^ fructu ovoideo oblongo 5-angulato. 
Hab, in locis seclusis insulye. Nom. vulg. Cafe Marron. 

A remarkable hcteropbyllous species of a genus hitherto 
unknown in the Mascarene Islands. 

Pyrostria trilocularis, Balf,JiL^ sp. nov. 

Frutex glaber, ramosus, ramulis tetragonis ; foliis adultis breviter pe- 
tiolatis, oblongo-ovalibus v, oblongis v, fere obovatis aoutis, jnvenili- 
bus subsesfeilibus, linearibus, mucronatis, rigide coriaceis, marginibii** 
leviter revohitis, glabris, nitidis, penninerviis, subtus costa prominente ; 
stipulis connatis, deciduis, longe cuspidatis, glabris ; floribus axillari- 
bus, caet. ign. ; fructu breviter stipitato, 3- rarius 2-loculari, globose, 

Hab. In insula late dispersa. Nom. vulg. Bois Chauve-Souris. 

A heterophyllous plant (provisionally referred to tbe genus 
Pyrostria) of which the seed is as yet unknown. 

Tbe plant was obtained only in fruit ; and there is therefore 
g^ome difficulty in determining its exact position. 

ScYpnociiLAMYs, gen. nov. 

Calycis tubus campanulatus ; limbus truncatusv. obscure 4-loba- 
tus, coriaceus, persistens. Corolla iufundibularis, iubo brevi, 
fauce Tillosa; limbi lobi 4-5(0 ?), lanceolato-triquetri, acuti, 
incrassati, valvati. Stamina 4-5 (6 ?), ori corollfe inscrta, fila- 
mentis brevibus ; anthera> dorso infra medium affixje, vix ex- 
serta?, lanceolato-acuta^. Discus annularis v. pulvinnris. Ova- 
riinn 4-5- (G- ?) loculare ; stylus validus, profunde 4-fidus ; 
ovula in loculis solitaria, infra apicem loculi pendul^. Fructus 
pyriformis, costatus. . . .(maturum non vidi). Semina pendula, 


non compressa. — Arbores parva?, glaberrimse, ramulis subtctra- 
gonis. _^6;//a opposita, brevitcr petiolata, rigide coriacea, penni- . 
nervia. Sti^idce interpetiolares, late, connatse, coriacCtT, per- 
sistentes. Flores in capitulum 6-12-floriim densum peduncu- 
latum congest! ; capitula intra bracteas duas oppositas conni- 
ventes crasse coriaceas pcrsistcntes in involiierum cyatliifonne 
connatas inclusa. 


Monotypic and endemic. 

S. REVOLUTA, sp. unica. 

Arbor parva, ramosa ; foliis heteromorphicis; adultis hreviter petiolatis 
ellipticis v. late ovato-oblongis nitidis vemilosis^ niarginibus revohitis 
3^-4 poll, longis 1^-2 J poll, latis (petiole excluso ^-^ poll, longo), 
juvenilibus linearibus 4-6 poll, longis, ^ poll. latis ; stipulis J poll, 
longis ; capitulis solitariis, axillaribus, ereeto-patentibus, pedunculis 

petiolum excedentibus, i-^-^ poll, longis; lavolucroi poll. diam. basi. 

iutus tuberculis appressis brevibus teretibus linearibus dense vestito ; 
corolla \ poll, longa, calyee triplo longiore ; fructu in singulo invo- 
liicro solitario. 

Hab, In insula dispersa. Nom. vulg. Rois Mangue. 

A near congener o^ Pi/rostria, Eemarkable for tbc large two- 
leaved persistent involucre embracing and enclosing the flowers, 
and also for its beteromorphic leaves. 


Frutex glaber ; ramulis tctragonis ; foliis opposltis lanceolatis acutis 
infernc in petiolum brevem gradatim attenuatis, coriaceis ; stipulis 
deciduis ; floribus in paniculam corymbosam pedunculatam^ ebrac- 
teatam v. minutissime bracteatani, in axillis foliorum supcriorum con- 
gestis, minutis, breviter pedicellatis ; calyce late cupuliformi truncatu 
obscure 5-dentato ; corolla subcampanulata lobis lanceolatis incras- 
satis tubo breviovibus, fauce dense pilosa ; antberis dorsoaffixis, fila- 
mentis brevibus; disco magno ; ovario 2-loculari ; ovulo solitario in 
singulo loculo, erecto, basilari, oblongo-ovato compresso; stylo fiir- 
cato, ranns brevibus ; fruet. ign. 

Hab. In declivibus mentis "Grande Montague" infrcquens. Nom. 
vulg. Bois Lubine. 

The specimens I obtained of this are very imperfect; and a final 
determination is impossible. Its position, therefore, in this genus 

is provisional. 



Suffrntex, ramulis teretibus pubescentibus ; foliis lanceolatis, aciitis. 


superne profunde serratis, inferne cuneatis integrisque et in petiolum 
pilosuin brevem attenua'tis, ilense pilosis, nervo centnili subtus pronii- 
nente nervos 5-7 adscendentes parallelos subtus prominulos emitteute ; 
capitulis breviter pedunculatis in corymbos laxos axillares patentes 
dispositis ; bracteis involucri glabri iutcrieribus lanceolatis v. oblongis 
acutis margine submembranaceis,exteriovibus brevloribuspostanthcsiu 
patentibus; achacniis compressis angulatis, rugis calvis, inter rugas 
strigosis; pappo rigido, setoso, scabriusculo. 
Hab. in locis excelsis non frequens. Nom. vulg. Bois de Ronde. 

A rare shrub, quite distinct from the Mauritian species of 
Psiadia^ resembling more nearly the Bourbon plants originally 
described under the generic name Gonyza, 


Abrotanella rhynchocakpa, Balf.fil., sp, n. 

Herba pusilla, pulvinata, glabra, caulibus dense confertis; foliis im- 
bricatis, stellatim patentibus, recurvatis, late amplexicaulibus, lyrate 
pinnatifidis v. pinnatipartitis, rarius simplicibus spathulatisque, acutis, 
coriaceis, uninerviis, nervo prominentej capitulis solitariis sessilibus, 
singulo 6-10-floro ; involucre 6-phyllo, bracteis ciliatis, exterioribus 
plurinerviis latioribus, interioribus 2-3-nerviis angustioribus ; recepta- 
culo foveolato ; floribus exterioribus feniineis, interioribusherniaphro- 
ditis fertilibus ; femineis corolla 3-dentata, basi globosa, stylo exserto 
breviter bifido ; herraaphodritis corolla 4-dentata, antheris inclusis 
ovoideis acutis inappendiculatis, stylo valido, tubo corollse subsequi- 
longo, alte biiido, ramis ciliatis ; achseniis obovatis, compressis, calvis, 
lente curvis, obscure 4-5-angulatis, apice in rostrum primum tortum, 
demum rectum elongato. 

Hab. In terra calcarea juxta oram maritimam solum crescit. 

A very distinct species of this curious South-Temperate-Ame- 
rican and Australian genus hitherto unknown as Mascarene. 


Lobema vagans, Bolf.fiL, sp. n. 

Annua ; caulibus repentibus tenuibus glabris; foliis merabranaceis, in- 
ferioribus ovato-lanceolatis v. elliptico-ovato-acutis v, obovatis, basi 
cuneatis, superne crenatis, inferne integris, breviter petiolatis, supe- 
rioribus lincaribus acutis v. obtusis, retusis v. submucronatisj subsessi- 
libus, crenato-serratis ; floribus solitariis in axillis foliorum superiorum, 
pedicellatis ; pedicellis bractea brevioribus ; calycis tubo obconico 
lacinias subulatas subaequante v. breviter excedente; corollse tubo 
calycis lobis quadruple longiore, lobo mferiore obovato-oblongo acuto, 
superiore lineari ; antheris 2 inferioribiis apice barbatis, superioribus 
pilosiuscuHs ; stylo longo; stigmate bilobato ; cjij)sula obovoidea. 

Hab, in vallibus nmbrosis prope fluminum fontes. 


Distinguished from the nearly allied Mauritian i. serpens^ 
Lam. (DC. Prod. vii. 368), and L . filiformis , Lam. (DC. Z. c.),by 
its broader leaves and larger flowers. 


TANTJiiEPis, gen. nov, 

Calycc minutus, 5-partitus, basi infus 5-glandulosus. Corolla 
subrotata, alte 5-fida, subvalvata ; coronae squamae 5-lineari-lau- 
ceolatse elongatae, petalis subsequilongse, antheras breviter exce- 
dentes, subincrassatse, basi connatae gynostegioque adhaerentes. 
Stamina filamentis latis brevibusque basi annulo coronaa affixa. 
Antherce apice cuspidatae, conniventes ; pollen granulosum in 
quoque loculo in massas duas subcohaerens, appendicibus latis, 
orbicularibus corpusculorum longe stipitatorum applicitum. 
Stigma 5-gonum ? Folliculi divaricati, tenues, subteretes, 
subcostati. Semina comosa. — Suffrutex volubilis, glaber. Fo- 
lia opposita nitidula. Oymcd laxe ramosae ad apices ramorum 
breviter pedunculatae. Flores parvi, pedicellati, Bractege mi- 

Monotypic and endemic. 

T. SPHENOPHYLLA, sp. Unlca. 

Caulibus tenuibus; foliis merabranaceis breviter petiolatis, lanceolatis 
acuminatis V. oblanceolatis basi cuneatis 11-2^ poll. longis (petiolo 
excluso f poll.)^ i-2 poll- latis, integris, nitidis, subtus pallidioribus 
penninerviis; cymis paucifloris, pedunculis ^^ poll, longis, bracteis 
deciduis, pedicellis ^~-\ poll, longis; coroUse lobis | poll, longis; 
stipite corpusculorum appendicem duplo excedente ; foUiculis fusco- 
nigris, glabris 2-3 poll, longis, iV-| poll, latis; seminibus compressia 
I poll, longis, latere bisulcatis. 

Hab. Per insulam totam crescens. 

"With the mouotypic 

W. & 

of resemblance ; but the elongated outer scales of the corona and 
their mode of attachment, as well as the character of the in- 
florescence, distinguish it. 

Sarcostemma Odontolepis, Balf.jiL, sp. n. 

Planta aphylla scandens v. decumbens, caulibus teretibus glabris carno- 
sis ad nodos articulatis ibique squamis minutis oppositis in loco folio- 
rum instructis ; umbelHs solitariis ad nodos sessilibus breviterve 
peduneulatis v. terminalibus. Receptaculo paleis vestito; florihus 
breviter pedicellatis; calycis segmentis ovatis v. suborbicularibus 



concavis margine ciliatis^ extus puberuUs ; corolla altelo bata, laci- 
niis oblongo-ellipticis glabris ; corona exteriore corolU^ adnata, alte 
5-partIta, lobjs tridentatis singulo squama? interiorl adhserente, dente 
central! maximo; interiore exteriorem triplo excedente, segmentis 
supcrne saccatis, dolabriformibus, gynostegio subfequilongis ; stig- 
mate apiculato, obscure bilobato, umbilicato. 
Hab, in insula late dispersa. Norn, viilg. Liane Cal^- 

Probably merely a variety of S, viminale^ R, Br. (DC. Prod, 
viii. 538), from which the only point of difference is the deeply 
5-partite outer corona. I have seen one flower in which there 
was an arrangement of the corona exactly halfway between the 
two forms. 


Hypokstes rodriguestana, Balf.JiL, sp. n. 

Ilerba pai'va ramosissima glabra, ramis crassis lignosis ; foliis longe 
petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis, inferne deltoideis, integris, subcoriaceis, 
substrigulosis ; racemis breviter peduneulatis in axillis foliorura con- 
fertis, bracteis obovatis v. oblanceolatis capitula uniflora opposita 
arete disposita gerentibus ; involucre tubuloso, subventricoso, tetra- 
phyllo, ad medium discrete, lobis insequalibus, exterioribuslongioribus, 
ovato-acutis, extus plaga lineari lateraliter notatis, interioribus lanceo- 
latis brevioribus ; calyce brevi extus hispidulo, laciniis tubo brevio- 
ribus, ciliatis j corolla alte bifida, pilosa, labiis tubo subsequilongis, 
superiore oblongo, inferiore trident ato v. trifidoj staminibus et fila- 
mentis exsertis ; ovario oblongo, eompresso, glabro ; stylo filiformi, 
Hab, in locis excelgis montis Malartic, sparse dispersa. 

A dwarfed plant allied to H, Bojerianum, DC Prod. xi. 506, 
of Madagascar. 

H. iNCONSPicuA, Balf.JiL, sp. n. 

Herba tenuis, caule repente valde articulato, ad nodos radicante ; folus 
oppositis distantibus ovalibus v. obovatis, obtusis v. snbaeutis, strigo- 
sis integris, inferne in petiolum subsequilongum longiorem attenuatis ; 
capitulis solitariis axillaribus subsessilibus, bracteis nuUis ; invohicro 
unifloro strigosotetraphyllo, laciniis lineari-lanceolatis inaequalibusque 
ad medium connatis, exterioribus dimidio longioribus ; calyce brevis- 
simo lobis lanceolatis acuminatis, involucre multo breviore ; corolla 
involucro longiore : ca;t. ign. 

Hab. In solo calcareo a litore remoto secus extremitatem occidentalem 

insulse sparse crescit. 

An ally of //. ser2)e7is, E. Br. ; DC. Prod. xi. 501. A Mauritian 
plant, which has larger leaves and glabrous involucres. 

■ ■ 

pH.T.xooAMTC TEaET.vTIO^' OF RonuiarKz. 19 


Nesogenes decumbens, Balf.fil.y sp. nov, 

rierba perennis diffusa; ramis laxis oppositis v. suboppositis, teretibus, 
tenuibus, divaricatis hurnifusis, glabris sed versus extremitatem bise- 
riatim pilosis ; foliis oppositis lanceolatis v. rhomboideis, acutis, iute- 
gris, margine ciliatis, inferne in petiolum brevem atfcenuatis, siccitate 
non nigrescentibus ; floribus in 1-2-floras cymas axillares dispositis ; 
pedicellis brevissimis pubescentibus ; calyce amplo \ poll, lougo, alte 
5-dentato, dentibus acutissimis, crenatis, extus intusque glandulosis ; 
corollse lobis subaequalibus rotundatis, tubo quintuplo v. sextuplo 
brevioribus; antheris oblongis ; fructu laevi corapresso, apice hispido, 
basi glabro, stylo mucronato, calyce cincto. 

Hab. In solo calcareo secus extremitatem occidentalem insuLe loco 
singulo reperta. 

An interesting species of a hitherto raonotypic Polynesian 

Clerodendron LAcrxiATUM, Balf.Jil.t sp. nov. 

Frutex v. arbor parva ; foliis oppositis petiolatis, coriaceo-membrana- 
ceis poroso-punctatis, adultis ovatis v. ovato -oblongis, acutis basi sub- 
deltoideis, integris, glabris, subtus pallidis, juvenilibus filiformiter tri- 
pinnatipartitis, segmentis distantibus puberulis ligulatis obtusis per 
formas interraedias in adultam transeuntibus j cymis axillaribus bre- 
viter pedunculatisj paucifloris; bis trifidis, patentibus, bracteolis mi- 
nutissimis ; calyce cupuliformi truncato, ore integro v. obscure lobato 
glabro, demum patulo ; corolla infundibuliforrai, calycem sextuplo 
excedente, tubo intus resinoso-papillato, laciniis obtusis tubo breviori- 
bus, genitalibus breviter exsertis. 

Hub, In insula late diffusum, Nom. vulg. Bois Cabri. 

C. 7ieferop7it/llum, R. Br. (DC. Prod. xi. 660), of Mauritius, is a 
near ally, but differs in the character of its heterophylly and in 
the flowers. 


Pisonia xiscosA, Bcdf, JiL, sp. nov. 

Arbor non armata, foliis petiolatis ovatis v. obovatis, obtusis v. acutis, 
v. breviter cuspidatis, basi deltoideis, subrepandis, membranaceis, 
prime subpuberulis demum scabrulis, siccitate nigrescentibus; pe- 
tiole tenui. cj panicula corymbosa in axillis foliorum termiualium 
oriente, brunneo-pubescente, densa; pedunculo compresso, bracteolis 
minutis deciduis ; perianthio infundibuliformi extus piloso, breviter 
5-dentato, dentibus reflexis ; staminibus 13 exsertis. $ panicula 
laxe lateque patente, pedicellis erecto-patentibus ; perigonio elongato, 
5-angulato, angulo singulo brevibus uncinatis glandulosis tuberculis 

seriatim instrncto. 

c 2 

20 Di^ I. ^' BALTOUtt OX TnE 

^HaL In littore crescit. In insula Frigate frequenter, scd in Rodriguez 
rarius invenitur. Nom. vulg. Bois Mapou. 

The bristly fruit completely filled by the seed, amongst other 
characters^ distinguishes this from F. ovalifoUa, DC. Prod, xiii, 2, 
441, a Mauritian species, of which probably P. lanceoJ<ita, DC. 
Prod, xiih 2, 442, is a variety. 


iERUA coxGESTA, Balf.fiL, sp.nov. 

Herba perennis, dense csespitosa, ramosissixna, pulvinata, ramis firmis, 
lignosis, humifusis ; foliis alternis, petiolatis, obovato-spathulatis, 
obtusis V. acutis, subcoriaceisj glabris, junioribus subtus pilosis ; 
spicis in axiUis villosis foliorum superiorum sessilibus, solitariis, ob- 
longis V. subrotundatis erectis ; bracteolis deltoideis perianthio brevi- 
oribus, glabrls ; perianthii segnientis oblongo-lanceolatis uninerviis, 
exterioribus duobus latioribus pilosiusculis, interioribus tribus an- 
gustioribus denseque pilosis ; staminodiis minutissimis, antheris ro- 
tundatis ; utriculo compresso suborbiculari glabro ; semine insequali- 
ter reniformi, minute tuberculato, margine obtuse. 

JIab. In terra calcarea solum crescit. 

A very distinct species, unlike any other Mascareue. 



PiLEA Balfourii, Baker, FL Maur. et Seych, p. 276. 

Herba parvula monoica perennis glaberrima, caule brevi 4-gono, basi 
caespitose ramoso, ramis patentibus oppositis exsiccatis cystolithiferis ; 
stipulis deltoideis minutissimis ; foliis oblanceolato-rhomboideis acutis 
v.acuminatisjbasi cuneatis, superne alte inciso-crenatis,inferne integris 
triplinerviis, nervis usque ad apicem productis, lamina exsiccata mem- 
branacea, paginis utrisquecystolithis linearibus suffultis; cymis paten- 
tibus, multifloris^breviter pednnculatis, axillaribus, petiole brevioribus ; 
floribus breviter pedicellatis; cJ perianthio bilobato, lobis concavis. 

subcucuUatis, acutis; $ achaeniis Isevibus, acute margiuatis, compres- 
sis, ovoideis, vix segmentum intermedium perigonii superantibus. 
Hab. in locis humidis umbrosisque in vallibus prope fontesfluminuni. 

Distinguished from the nearly allied Mauritian F. cuneiformts, 
Wedd. (DC. Prod, xvi, 133), by the habit, spreading inflores- 
cence, and long petiolate leaves. 


Peperomia hirta, Balf,JiL, sp. nov. 

Herba repens, pilosus^ caule siraplici v, ramose e nodis radicante ; foliis 
oppositis petiolatis ellipticis v. oblongo-ellipticis v. obovatis, 5-nerviis, 



utrinqiie villosis, nervulo obscuro juxta niarginem currente, petiolo 
villoso ; cset. ign. 
Hab. In locis siccis scopulosisque sparse crescit. 

The Mauritian species P. elliptical Dietr. (DC. Prod. xvi. 440), 
is the nearest ally ; but its non-pilose character sufficiently sepa- 
rates it. 

P. RETICULATA, Bulf. fil.y Sp. HOV. 

Herba carnosa repens, caule simplici v. uniramoso, in parte inferiore e 
nodis radicante, versus apicem adscendente ; foliis oppositis, petiola- 
tis, summis ternis, elliptico-rhoinboideis, apice emarginulatis v. acutisy 
utrinque glabris 5-nerviis et reticulate- venulosis, ner\'lilo obscuro juxta 
marginem currente; amentis solitariis axillaribus, breviter peduncula- 
tis, folia terminalia superantibus, bracteis subrotundatis peltatis bre- 
viter stipitatis ; ovario globoso imraerso ; stigmate umbilicato promi- 
uente, glabro. 

Hah. in locis excelsis urabrosisque insula?. 



petiolate leaves. 


Herba repens ramosissima caruosa, caulibus ad nodos radicautibus sub- 
pilosis ; foliis oppositis petiolatis obovato-ellipticis, basi cuneatis ob- 
tusisy utrinque glabris, ciliolatis, subtus albido-pallidis subtiliter 3-5- 
nerviis, enervulosis, petiolo piloso ; cset, ign. 

Hab, In locis umbrosis sparse crescit. 

Has a close affinity with P. Ventenatii^ Miq. (DC- Prod. x!v. 446), 
an East-Indian species. 


Euphorbia daphnoides, Balf.JiL, sp, nov. 

Suffrutex, caule tenui, ramulis lignosis teretibus ; foliis ad apicem ramu- 
lorum confertis, breviter petiolatis, oblanceolatis, obtusis, mucronatis, 
tenuiter coriaceis, glabris, cito deciduis, exstipulatis ; cymis termlna- 
libus, pedunculatis, bracteis 2 magnis coriaceis ovalibus v. suborbicula- 
ribus mucronatis, v. retusis v. emarginatis ; involucris campanulatis 
breviter pedicellatis glabris, lobis brevibus, glandulis 5 rubris rotun- 
datis V. lunatis poroso-punctatis integris ; stylo brevi ; capsula glabra 
depressa trjsulcata, transverso diametro nrnjore, coccis paulum com- 
pressis, seniinibus ovoideis irregulariter papillatis glabris. 

Hah, in valle " Riviere de TEst " sohim. 

A very distinct species. 


Aloe lomatophylloides^ Ba^./f., sp. n. 

Subacaule&cens, foliis stellatim patentxbus ensiformibus, versus apiceiii 
gradatim attenuatis, acutis, dentibus deltoideis paulum incurvatis 
subrigidis aniiatis, carnosis, subtus convexis, supra concaris, pa- 
ginis Isevibus, atroviridibus; scapo ramoso, striate, compresso, inferne 
subalato, alis obscure dentatis, ramulis 2-3 adscendentibus racemos 
densos gerentibus ; bracteis lanceolatis niembranaceis ; floribus 
breviter pedicellutis ; perianthio obclavato, segmentis lanceolatis, 
tubum oblongum rectum dilatatumgue dimidio superantibus ; stami- 
nibus perianthio subsequilongis, filamentis membranaceis alatis, ba»i 
dilatatis ; capsula angulari ovoidea. 

Hab. In insula late diffusa. Norn. vulg. Ananas Marron. 


Pandanus heterocarpus, Balf.fiL, sp. n. 

Arbor ramosa^ caudice Isevi, radicibus aereis plurimis, ramis patentibus ; 
foliis lanceolato-acuminatis, basi amplexicaullbus dilatatis, erecto-pa- 
tentibus coriaceis strlctis viridescentlbus, basi ssepe glaucescentlbus 
subplanis, marginibus per totum costaque subtus a medio distanter ru- 
bro-splnosls spinulis subincurvatis; ^ capitulis solitariis globosis sub- 
depressis V. elliptico-oblongis, nunc longe nunc breviter pedunculatis, 
pendulosis v. inclinatis, spathis pluribus brevibus deciduis ] drupis 
2-5-locularibus obpyramidalibus non compressis 5-6-gonis, fere per 
totum coadunatis, apice breviter pyramldali, rarlssime couvexo saeplus 
applanato v, umbilicato, distincte 5-6-angulato, areola centrall stig- 
mata plana sessilia reniformia suberosa cingente. 

Hah. Per insulam totam late dispersus. Nom. vulg. Vacoa Cale rouge ; 
V. Caleblanc; V. Sac; V. Poteau; V, Parasol. 

A very variable species, approaching P. utilis, Bory, Voy. ii* 
2, but distinguished by habit, and by its drupes with wide and flat- 
tened sunaunts. 

P. TENUIFOLIUS, Bulf. JlL.^f, n. 

Arbor parva, caudice Isevi, radicibus aiereis panels, ramis erectis crassis ; 
foliis anguste lineari-lanceolatis acuminatissimis, apice subflagellatis> 
basi dilatatis lateque amplexicaullbus, coriaceis recurvatis pendullsque, 
subplanis, atroviridibus, saepe basi dealbatis, marginibus subincrassatis, 
per totum costaque a medio rubrospinosis, spinis brevibus acutis, in- 
curvatis^ adscendentibus ; capitulis solitariis pendulosis, pedunculo 
curvato, paucidrupatis, snbglobosis; spathis pluribus, deciduis ; drupis 
subpyriformibus, 2-5-locularibus non-corapressis, usque ad |-| a basi 
coadunatis, parte conjuncta 5-6-gona obpyramidali, apice libero rubi- 
ginoso rotundato umbraculiformi obscure 5-6-angulato, vertice appla- 
nato v. depress©, areola marginata stigmata plana sessilia reniformia 



Hab, In vallibus montibusque a litore retnotis crescit. Nom. vulg. 
Vacoa Chevron. 

A species belonging to the ITtilis group, and by some (perhaps 
hybrid) forms approaching very near P. Iieferocarpus, but easily 
distinguished when typical by habit, the narrow drooping leaves, 
and the large drupes with rounded apices. 

A very marked feature in the Eodriguez flora, and one worthy 
of special notice, is the variability in size, form, and habit exhi- 
bited by the leaves of many plants at diflFerent stages of growth. 
The variation is confined almost absolutely to small trees and 
shrubby plants, occurring in seventeen species, all of which are 
either endemic or Mascarene, one only extending into Africa. The 
young plant, in these heterophyllous species, produces leaves of a 
lower stage of development tlian the adult; and as the individual 
grows older the leaves successively developed are more like those 
of the mature tree, until at a certain age only the form of leaf 
typical of the adult is produced. But in an adult plant, should 
any adventitious shoots be given off from the stem below its first 
branching, these have the juvenile, not the adult form. The he- 
teromorphism varies greatly in degree and kind; but each species 
presents variations always of the same kind. Whether all the 
species of the same genus on the island exhibit, when they vary, 
the same type of heterophylly, I had no opportunity of determi- 
ning ; certainly representative species in the adjacent islands do 
not always do so. The phenomenon is confined to no special 
family ; but it is worthy of note that of Eubiacese no less than 
four species exhibit it. 

"We may best understand the variations in size and form by 
considering that there are three types of variations. 

In the first the diff'erence between the leaves of the young 
and the adult is mainly one of size, the relative proportion of 
length and breadth of lamina being the same in both ; and in each 
the margins of the lamina are usually entire. Sometimes the 
parenchyma is deficient at the margin in the juvenile, so that it 
is slightly spiny, this character gradually disappearing in the adult. 
This kind of heterophylly is observed in three species — Zudia se^- 
siliflora, Fernelia luxifolia^ Carissa Xylopicron, 

The second kind of variation results from the non-development 
in breadth of the leaves of the young plant, usually accompanied 
by a great increase in length, the relative proportion of length 


to breadth of lamina being vastly different in the juvenile form 
from what it is in the adult. The lamina is entire, developing 
equally, though toothings characteristic of the adult may be seen ; 
but it is never lobed or cleft. The leaves in the young plant are 
thus more or less linear or lanceolate, and, as a rule, greatly exceed 
the adult in length, being sometimes twice or thrice as long. This 
is the commonest Itind of variation, occurring in nine species, viz. 
Dombeyaferruijinea^ El<Jeod€ndron orientalej Terminalia JBemoin, 
Foetidia mauritiana^ Mathurina penduliflora^ Handia heterophylla, 
Pyrostria trilocularts, SeypTioclilamys revoluta^ and Diospyros diver- 
sifolia. Only in Pyrostria trilocularis and Diospyros diversifoHa 
the linear juvenile leaves do not greatly exceed the adult in length. 
Probably JEugenia cotinifoUa is also heterophyllous after this 

In four species the third type of heteromorphism is seen. Here 
the lamina in the leaves of the young plants develops unequally, 
and thus a lobed or cleft leaf is formed ; but the relative propor- 
tion of length to breadth of lamina is the same in both juvenile and 
adult. The amount of lobation in the juvenile leaves varies ; they 
may be even twice or thrice cleft ; and according as the leaf is 
pinnately or radiately veined, the leaf is pinnatifid, or palmatifid. 
The species in which this type is seen are Aphloia mauritiana, 
Hibiscus liliijlorus yQuivisia laciniafa^^nA Clerodendron laciniaiunt* 
In Hibiscus liliijlorus the palmatifid form occurs ; the other three 
are pinnatifid. In Abrotanella rJiyncocarpa^ a small Composite 
herb, the leaves as they get older tend to become pinnatifid, the 
young being quite entire. Its variation, then, is the converse of 

this third type. 

In addition to the alteration in form, there is often a difference 
between the habit and consistence of the leaves in the juvenile 
and adult plants. Dombeya ferruginea shows this very well. Its 
green glabrous juvenile leaves are, in the adult, clothed on the 
under surface with a dense brown tomentum. The converse is 
sometimes seen, for instance in Mandia heterophylla, where pu- 
bescent juvenile leaves become glabrous in the adult. As to 
consistence, the hard rigid young leaves of Ludia sessilijlora and 
Carissa Xylopicron become in the male more flaccid and coria- 

It is curious that Hibiscus {Paritiuni) liliaceus is not hetero- 
phyllous In Kodriguez, though it is recorded as being so on the 



(Linn. See. Journ. xv. 83), H. 

insular form of this plant. 

The Tropical Ferns collected by Professor Steere in the years 
1870-75. By M. W. Harrington, M.A., F.L.S., Assistant 
Professor of Botany, University of Michigan. 

[E«ad March 1, 1877.] 

In the following list the American ferns were collected earliest, 
and are mostly from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. The For- 
mosan and Philippine ferns were collected in 1874-75. The spe- 
cimens were in part identified by me before bringing them to Kew, 
where Mr. Baker completed the identifications, thus eliminating 
the novelties for me. My special thanks are due to Mr. Baker, 
who has aided me much, and to the authorities at Kew, who 
gave me free access to the herbarium and library. 

The order of arrangement is that of Hooker and Baker's ' Syn- 
opsis Filicum ;' and before each new species I have given the 
number nearest to which they would fall in the series as given 

I. Old- World Forms. 

Gleichenia dtchotoma, Willd. Posia, Formosa. 

Ctathea spinulosa, Wall, Balabac Is., Philippines. 

Alsophila IjXt kbrosx, Hooker. Luzon, Philippines. 

DiCKsoNiA Barometz, Link. Posia, Formosa. 

14*. HyMENOpnTLLrM thuidium, Harrington, n. sp. 

Stipe slender, 1-3 inches high, winged, from 2-5 in. long, 1-2 
in. broad, ovate to oblong, tri- or quadripinnate, erect; rachis 
and branches winged like the stipe ; pinnse 1 in. long or less, del- 
toid ; wing and ultimate divisions of lamina finely crisped through- 
out ; surface glabrous ; sori few to many on the upper part of 
the frond, at the ends of the ultimate divisions, large ; involucre 
divided nearly to the base j valves large, ovate, crisped. 

jNIountains of Panay, Philippines, growing thickly on the 
trunks of trees. 


The fiaely crisped wing and margin of the pinnae give the plant 
a resemblance to some of the mosses ; hence the name assigned to 
it. The margins are sometimes denticulate ; and exceptionally 
pubescence is present. The plant has affinity with H. tortuosmn. 
Hooker; but it is nearer H, crispum^ H. B. K. 

Htmenophtllum polyaxthos, Swartz. Luzon. 

H. JAYANICUM, Sipreng. Luzon. 

H. DiLATATFM, Sivartz. Luzon. New to this locality. 

H. TUNBRiDOENSE, Smith, Luzou, Not found here before- 

67*. H. FKATERNUiM, JlaTTington^ n. sp. 

Stipe slender, 2 inches high, winged ; frond 21 inches long, \\ 
inch broad, oblong, erect, tripinnatifid ; rachis and branches 
winged ; pinnae ovate, | in. long or less ; ultimate divisions linear ; 
margin of wing and lamina crisped, denticulate ; sori terminal, 
sessile, medium in size, scattered over the frond ; involucre the 
width of the ultimate divisions, cleft to the base ; valves elliptical, 
laciniate at the apex, elsewhere entire and crisped. 

A single plant was found groAving with the H, thuidium^ as 
described. The denticulate margins and laciniate valves locate 
this plant near S. tortuosum^ Hooker, 

H. Neksii, Hooker, Luzon. 

Trichomanes parvi'Lum, Poiret. Luzoii. 

T. sAxiFRAGOiDEs, Pvesl. Tcruate. 

' T. DiGiTATUM, Swartz. Luzon. 

_ \ 

T. PALLIDUM, Blume. Luzon. 

T. AUEicuLATUM, Blume. Luzon ; Formosa. 

T. Smithii, HooTcer. Luzon. 

T. APiiFOLiUM, PresL ' Luzon. 

Several specimens of this species were found of uniform size 
and mature, but only about 5 inches high ; probably a local variety 
of the species, 

T. BiGinrM, Sicartz. Luzon. 

Datallia parallela, Wallich. Amboyna. 

D, PEDATA, >Sw*7A. Luzon; Formosa; Swatow, China. 

D. AEPiNis, Hooker. Luzon. Locality new. 

D. ^^^TiTXy Blume. Luzon; Swatow, China. 

D. UYMENOPHrLLOiDEs, Baker. Luzon. Locality new. 

D. piLciiELLA, Hooker. Luzon ; near top of volcano, 


1). KEPEXS, Besv. Luzon. 

D. CONTJGUA, Sicartz. Luzon. 


Davallia pektaphtlla, Blume. About 2500 feet up the 

sides of iTie volcano at Ternate. 
D. elegans, >S'M?arf2r, Luzon. 

D. HooKEKiANA, Wallich. Tsuisia, Formosa. 

D. ^^l'RTGO^^.J Swartz. Interior of Formosa. 

63*. D. (Microlepia) philippi:^e]S^sis, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Caudex clothed thickly with narrow rufous scales ; stipe about 
6 inches long, dark brown, with a few scales below like those of the 
caudex, glabrous above ; frond deltoid, 3-9 inches long, with about 
the same width ; rachis glabrous ; lower pinnee deltoid and again 
pinnate, the upper becoming simple, at the apex confluent ; pin- 
nules linear, crenately lobed, with the divisions extending halfway 
to the midrib ; the first pinnules on the lower side much larger 
than the others ; texture coriaceous ; surface glabrous ; venules 
immersed, ascending; involucre decidedly intramarginal, broader 
than deep. 

Mount Mahayhay, Luzon. Near _D. antboynensis^ Baker. 

D. TEiPiTuiEOLiA, Swartz. Kelung and Posia, Formosa; 

Swatow, China. 


L. ELABELLULATA, -Dry. Tsuisia and Kelung, Formosa. 

Several forms were found. The pinnse may be short and rounded 
or long cuneate, entire or sharply serrate ; the lower pinnae may 
be simple or again pinnate. 

L. LOBATA, Foiret. Luzon and Balabac and Philippines. 

L. DAVALLioiDEs, JB/^^^. Luzou. New locality. 

Adiakti'm lvkteatum, Burm. Lnzon, Formosa. 

A, CAi'DATUM, i. Taiwau fu, Formosa. 

A. CAPiLLrs-YENEEis, i. Laisia, Formosa. 

A. ELABELLATVM, i. Kcluug, Formosa. 

Cheilanthes TENViroLTA, Sicartz. Balabac Is., Philippines, 

C, EAEINOSA, Kaulf. Elevated mountains, Formosa. 

Okychium jAPOJfiCTJM, Kunze. Taiwan fu and Poisia, For- 

Pteris longieolia. Taiwan fu and Takoa, Formosa. 

P. CEETiCA, i., var. sTENOPHYLLA. Laisia, Formosa. 

P. sEHKrLATA, L.Jil, Tau^sui, Formosa. 

P. ENsiFORMis, Burm. Tamsui, Formosa. 

P. sEMiPiNNATA, L. Posia, Formosa. 

, var. nispAK. Kelung, Formosa. 


Ptems QTJABiiiAURiTA, Seiz, KeluDg, Formosa. 

p. AQUiLiNA, L. Hong Kong. 

P. iKcisA, Thunhg. Luzon ; Formosa. 

12*. LoMABiA ATiEGLABTs, Harrington^ n, sp. 

Caudex long, slender, t\yisled, naked ; stipe 6 inches long in 
the sterile, nearly twice as long in the fertile fronds, glabrous j bar- 
ren frond ovate, 4-6 inches long, 3-4 in. broad, pinnate ; pinnae 
7—9, lateral nearly sessile, terminal stalked, form linear-lanceolate, 
2-3 inches long, ^-| in, broad, acute, finely serrate, obtuse or 
rounded at the base ; texture coriaceous ; nerves forming a 
series of arches close to the midrib, thus forming on each side 
a row of long narrow areolae parallel to the 'midrib; beyond 
this, nerves are free and simple or forking ; surface naked, except 
that the midribs and nerves are a little chaffy below ; texture 
subcoriaceous ; fertile pinnse 7-9, narrowly linear, 1^-2 inches long 
ratber distant; indusium narrow, marginal. 

Growing among the leaves of a Pandanns, Mount Mahayhay> 


The venation of this plant is peculiar in the genus, as there is 
no other species known in which the veins always unite to form 
areolae. Were it not for the indusium, which is readily overlooked, 
except in young plants, the specimens would be placed in the 
genus Acrostichum, group SfenochlcBna, The species could fairly 
form by itself a subgenus of Lomaria^ characterized by its pecu- 
liar venation. 

Blechkum ortbktale, L. Tsuisia, Formosa. 

WooDWABDiA KAUiCANS, Smith. Laisia, Formosa. 

AV. JAPOKTCA, Swartz. Tsuisia, Formosa. 

AsPLENiUM NiDirs, i. Amboyna; Luzon, 

A . WiGHTTANTJM, Wall, Luzou. New locality for this plant. 

A. TENEKUK, Forst. Luzon. 

A. LUNULATUM, Sw. Mountains of Panay, Philippines. 

64*. A. Steebet, Harrington, n. sp. 

Stipe dark grey, 5-6 inches long, firm, with a few small, brown, 
scattered scales ; frond 8-10 in. long, 2-2|- in. broad, oblong-lanceo- 
late ; pinnae 12-15 on each side, short-petioluled, ll~2in. long, ^ 
in. broad, apex acute, margin coarsely crenate, unsymmetrical ; 
upper side abrupt at the base with a more or less distinct large 
lobe ; lower side obliquely truncate ; lower pinnae slightly de- 
flexed ; texture firm, herbaceous ; surface dark green above, 
brownish below ; veins distant, simple, or once forked ; sori 2-8 


in a row on each side of the midrib, regular, falling a little short 
of midrib and margin. 

Growing in small clusters on tree-trunks, Mount Mahayhay, 

This species has affinities with A. lunulatumy Sw., -4. persicifo- 
liumj J. Sm., and A, ohtusifolium^ L. 

AsPLExiuM RESECTUM, Smith. Mouutaius east of Changwha, 

A, AFFiNEj/SM^arfr. Luzon. 

A. lanckum:, T/m72&. Kelung^ Formosa. 


A. BANXAMENSE, Bokev. Balabac Island, Philippines. 

A. japontcum:, Thunhy var. coreanum, Baker. Changwha, 

A. LATiFOLiUAJ,Da/r. Tsuisia, Formosa. 



A. AMABILE, Blume, Posia, Formosa. 

A. YARiuM, ^S'?^. Posia and Kelung, Formosa. 

A. ARISTATUM, Sw, Luzou ; Posia, Formosa. 

A. FALCATUM, Sio. Kcluug, Formosa. 

Nephrodium decursivo-pinnatum, Baker. Posia, Formosa. 

N. IMMERSUM, Hooker. Sides of volcano, Ternate. 

53*. N. (Lastrea) Luersseni, Sarrington^ n. sp. 

Stipes clustered, firm, shining, light purplish ; frond 11-21 feet 
long, 6-10 inches broad, oblong, tapering abruptly to the base ; 
pinnae 4-8 inches long, 1-1| inch broad, lanceolate, acuminate, 
jointed at the base, cut down almost to the rachis (rarely quite to 
the rachis) into numerous linear or oblanceolate lobes, which are 
1-1^ inch long and 1-1^ line broad ; the lowest pinnae very small ; 
texture membranaceous ; surface naked ; veinlets 8-12 on a side, 
simple, free, distant ; sori one for each vein, marginal. 

Bulukai Island, Philippines. Growing in clusters on the 
margin of a pond. Nearly related to N. prolixiim^ Baker. 

N. FiLix-MAS, Bich. Ternate. 

N. Eatoni, Baker^ var. formosanum, Harrington^ n. var. 

Smaller and more robust than the type ; the sori are larger and 
more crowded. 

N. ODORATUM, Baker. Near Takow, Formosa. New to 

155*. N. Bakert, Harrington^ n. sp. 
Stipes clustered, light brown, vlUose or scaly, 2-5 inches long; 


frond 3-6 inches long, |-1 incli broad, oblong-oblanccolate, obtuse, 
coarsely crenate, the divisions extending about one third the dis- 
tance to the midrib, with usually 2-4 distant, oblong-obovate, 
sessile pinnae at the base, rather smaller than the lobes ; texture 
papyraceous ; surfaces villose throughout ; venules usually 6 on 
each side, of which i unite with the opposite venules of the adja- 
cent lobc; indusium small, hairy, rarely present. 

Found growing in small clusters on the ground in very shaded 
places. Mountains of Panay island, Philippines. 

This plant is closely related to Hooker's iV^. Skinneri and N. 
scolopendrioides \ but they are both American forms. 

Nephrodiu^ sophoroides, ~R> Broivn. Tsuisia, Formosa. 

A reduced form of this plant, probably merely starved, was 
found in Formosa. The fronds are only 4-6 inches long (with 
the stipe) ; the pinnae are obtuse, and broader ; texture coria- 
ceous. Mr. Baker suggests that it bears the same relation to 
A^. sophoroides that N. latifolium does to A^. moUe. 
N. MOLLE, Desv, Svvatow, China. 

N. TRuyCATUM, PresL Luzon. 

202*. N. (Saokxia) suBPEnAxr^r, Ilarrinfjfon, n. sp. 
Stipe 1 foot long, slender, stramineous ; frond 6-8 inches long, 
5-7 in. broad, ovate, simple, 5-lobed, the lower divisions slight, the 
upper extending two thirds of the way to the base ; apex acumi- 
nate, base cordate, margin slightly undulate ; the central lobe Is 
largest, ovate ; texture papyraceous ; areolae copious, each with 
1-3 included free veinlets ; veins distinct nearly to the margin ; 
sori few, small, scattered. 
Near Takow, Formosa, 

An interesting fern, but only two specimens, only one of 
which is fruiting, I have not found the indusium ; but its close 
resemblance to N, ternatum. Baker, leads me to place the species 
in the genus NepTirodium. It may possibly, with fuller material, 
prove not to be distinct from A^. ternatum. 

N. LATiroLiFM, Baher. Formosa. 

. N. cicuTARiUM, Baher. Formosa. 

Nephrolepis coRDTroLTA, Presl. Kelung, Formosa. 

N. ACUTA, Presl. Luzon. 

N. RAMOSA, Moore. Isabella de Batilan, Philippines. 

N. FLOCCTQERA, Moorc. Amboyna. 


74*. P, (Gomopterts) aortsttsorum, Harrington, n. sp. 


CauJex short and thick, with slender brown scales ; stipes 
clustered, 3-6 inches long, slender, grey, slightly pubescent 
above ; frond 6-10 in. long, |-1^ in. wide, linear-lanceolate, the 
lower pinnae reflexed ; pinnae 20-40 on each side, 6-8 lines long, 
3-4 lines broad, elliptical, slightly falcate, obtuse, coarsely crenate, 
auricled on the upper side, short-stalked or sessile ; texture sub- 
coriaceous; rachis and under surface of veins pubescent; veins 
pinnate, 2-3 veinlets on each side, of which usually but one unites 
with the opposite one of the next lobe ; sori indefinite. 

Mountains of Panay, Philippines. Growing in clusters on the 

The sporangia are scattered over the under surface of the 
frond, though a grouping into indefinite sori can be distinguished. 
The plant is related to the American P. reptansj Swartz. 


p. ciJCULLATUM, JVees. Luzon. 

P. MixuTUM, £L Luzon. 

169*. P. (Eupolypodhtm) Schexkii, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Caudex thick, horizontal, densely clothed with slender brown 
scales; stipes clustered, 2-3 inches long, brown, pubescent, firm, 
erect ; frond 0-12 inches long, l|-2 in. wide, oblong, tapering 
gradually above and below, pinnate ; pinnae numerous, |-1 inch 
long, 1-2 lines broad, linear, obtuse, entire, broadened and nQVLvlj 
confluent at the base ; lowest pinnae small, triangular ; fertile and 
sterile pinnae alike ; texture membranous ; rachis pubescent, sur- 
faces otherwise naked ; venules simple, free, falling short of the 
margin ; sori not confined to one part of the frond, deeply im- 
mersed, margins of the depression neai'ly covering them, oblong, 
4-8 in a row on each side of the the midvein, obliquely falling a 
little short of midvein and margin. 

Growing in clusters on trunks of trees. Mountains of Panay, 


Nearest to P. hlechioides, Hooker, 

169**. P. (Eupoltpodium) CKATERisoRrM, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Caudex clothed with dense, brown, lanceolate scales ; stipes 
clustered, |-1^ inch long, hirsute with brown hair, firm, erect ; 
frond 8-12 inches long, 1^-2^ in. wide, oblong or oblong-oblan- 
ceolate, tapering above and below, pinnate ; pinnae numerous, 
linear, about 1 inch long and 2 lines broad, obtuse, entire, broad- 
ened and more or less confluent at the base, passing below into the 
narrow, lobed wing of the stipe ; rachis pubescent, surfaces other- 


wise naked ; texture membranous ; venules simple, free, falling 
short of the margin ; sori confined to the upper part of the frond, 
immersed, oval, 5-10 in a row on each side of the midrib, about 
• halfway between it and the margin. The edge of the cup, in which 
the sorus is sunk, forms a projecting rim, but does not cover the 


G-rowing in small drooping tufts, some distance up the trunks 
of trees, Mount Mahayhay, Philippines. 

Closely related to the P. Schenkii just preceding, but distin- 
guished by its shorter stipe and by its sori, which are confined to 
the upper part of the frond, oval in shape and not covered by the 
rim of the depression. 

PoLTPODiUM ABNASCENS, Swarfz. Tcmate, Philippines. 

P, LINGUA, Sit\ Swatow, China, 

P. ACCEUENS, Blwne. Luzon. 

299*. P. (PiiYMATODEs) HAMMATisoRUM, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Ehizome long and slender ; scales thin, membranous, long-lan- 
ceolate, light brown; stipes scattered along the rhizome, i-l^ iii* 
long for the sterile frond, 1-3 in. long for the fertile, slender, 
naked, erect ; sterile frond elliptical, |-1| in. long, |-1 in. 
broad, obtuse, coarsely and shallowly crenate, except at the 
tapering base ; sterile frond linear, 2-5 in. long, 2 lines broad, 
with a lobe under each sorus ; texture coriaceous; surfaces 
smooth ; veins immersed ; midrib distinct ; sori about 20 in a row 
on each side of the midrib, nearly opposite, large, giving the fer- 
tile frond a knotted appearance. 

Mount Mahayhay 

rostratwn. Hooker 



Stipes very short or none ; frond 5-12 in. long, 1-2| in. broad, 
simple, oblong-oblanceolate, obtuse to acuminate above, gradually 
tapering below ; margin entire, slightly thickened ; surfaces 
naked ; texture coriaceous ; midrib strong ; sori copious, small^ 
irregularly scattered, on the ends of free or backs of united vein- 
lets ; areolae abundant, irregular. 

Shaded places under overhanging rocks, Apes' Hill, Takow, For- 

Near P. superficiale^ Blume, but distinguished by its thicker 
texture, smaller and more numerous sori, and the very short stipe. 

P. TRiQUETRUM, Bh Temate. 


/3, ZiPPELLTI, H. 4f 


PoLTPODiuM HASTATUM, Thuuh. Kelung and Posia, Formosa 

P. PTEROPUS, Blume. Posia, Formosa. 

P. DiPTERis, Slume, Luzon. 

P coKjiTGATTTM, i«w. Hongkong ; Posia, Formosa. 

P. PoRTUNEi, Kunze. Changwha, Formosa. 

P. PALMATiTM, Blume, Luzon. 

P. MosKLEYi, Baker, Side of Volcano, Ternate. 

Recently described by Mr. Baker from specimens collected in 

the same place by the ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

NoTHOCHL^NA HiRSUTA, Desv. Taiwan fu, Formosa. 
MoNOGRAMistE JuNGHuuNii, Hooker. Kelung and 

Posia, Formosa. 

Gtmnogramme lanceolata, Hooker, Near Takoa, 


G. Wrigiitit, Hooker. Kelung and Posia, Formosa. 


G. ellipticAj Baker, Posia, Formosa. 

Meniscium TRiPH^LLrM:, Sw. Posia, Formosa. 

Antrophyum immersi'M, Mett, Amboyna ; Philippines- 

A. plaktaginei'm, KauJf. Amboyna; Mts. of Formosa" 

A. CALLiEFOLiUM, Blunie, Mts. of Panay, Philippines. : 

A. sEMicosTATUM, Bluwe. Luzon. 

ViTTARiA ELONGATA, Sio. Amboyua ; Luzou ; Balabac 


V. falcata, Kunze. Luzon. 

V. lineata, Sw, Amboyna. 

Drtmoglossum carkosum, Hooker, Amboyna. 

Same, rar. obovatum, Harrington^ n. var. 

Sterile fronds obovate, |-1 inch long, |-| in. broad, witli a stipe 
\-\ in. long; fertile frond 1-1^ in. long, stipe g-1 in. in length, 
sori close to the midrib ; areolae including each, only one free 

Climbing on trees, Posia, Formosa. 


variety subcordatum. 

Same, var. subcohdattjm, Hook. ^ Baker. Tamsui, For- 
mosa. Smaller than the preceding. 

D. piLOSELLOiDES, Presl. Luzon. 

Hemionitis cordata, Boxl. Formosa. 



Hemionitis Zollingeui, Kutz. On exposed rocks, 

not very elevated, Mts. of Panay, Philippines. 

Aceostichum: latifglium, &w. Luzon. 

A. QUEECiFOLiUM, ^etz. Formosa. 

No fruiting fi'onds found ; but the species is unmistakable, 

A. ATJEEuivr, X. Balabac, Philippines. 

A. SPICATUM, i. Ternate. 

A. PLATTr^nTNCHos, Hooker. Luzon. • 

OsMUXDA JAYANiCA, Blume. Hongkong. 

Lygodium dichgtomuMj Sw, Balabac, Philippines ; 


L. scAXDEKs, Sw. Luzon ; Posia, Formosa ; Swatow, 


Soffm. Luzon. 

Ophioglgssum PEis-nuLUM, L. Amboyna. 

Helminthostacuts zetlamca, Hooker. Balabac, 

Ltcgpoditjm ceenuum, Z. Old part of crater, Ternate- 


Selaginella ategyieidis, /^rfwy. Hongkong; Posia, For- 

Selagikella. Mts. of Panay, Philippines. 

Without fruit ; near 8. caulescens : probably a new species. 

n. Ameeica:n^ FoEMs. 

Q-leichekia pubescens, -ff. B. K, ' Mountain-tops, 

Cumbassauma mts., Peru. 

Alsgphtla ferox, Fr. Pebas, Peru. 

Wgodsia mollis, J, Sm. Matucana, Peru. 

W. OBTtJSA, RooJcer. Peru ; Ecuador. 

Hymeis-ophyllum POLTANTHGs, Swartz. Peru; Ecuador. 

Teighom:anes beachypus, Kunze. Pebas, Peru. 

T- CEispTJM, L. Peru. 

A very variable species. 

Dayallia in^qualis, Kunze. Peru. 

Cystopteeis feagilis, BernTi. Peru ; Ecuador. 

Ltj^dsaya teapezifoemis, -Z^ry., var. falcata. Peru. 

Adtantum Kaulfussii, Kunze. Ecuador. 

13*. A. Steeeei, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Stipes 4-8 inches long, naked, polished, dark brown; frond 
rather shorter than the stipe, pinnate ; pinnae |-1 in. broad, §-f 


in. deep, dimidiate, lower margin straight, lateral and upper mar- 
gins rounded, broadly crenate, stalk of pinnae slender, ^ inch long 
below, becoming less above ; uppermost pinnae cuneate, lowest 
more or less completely non- dimidiate with opposite sori; texture 
subcoriaceous ; veins free ; surfaces naked throughout ; sori 25 
or less to a pinna, reversed reniform, as broad as deep, apparently 



Chachapoyas, Peru ; also hanging from damp rocks, Poma Cocha, 
Peru, July 1872. 

The margins of the cuts at the base of which the sori lie are so 
closely approximated that the sori appear intramarginal. The 
plant is related to A. ShepTierdij Hooker, but has affinities with 
A. lunulatum, Bnrm., and A. Galeottianum, Hooker. 


A, ^THiopicTJM, L. Peru ; Ecuador. 

Cheilanthes Matthewsii, Kunze. Peru. 

C. MiCROPHTLLA, Stoartz. Peru. - 

C. MYEioPHTiiLA, Besv. Peru ; Ecuador. 

C scARiosA, Kaulf. Peru. 

Pell^a geraniifolia, Fee. Peru. 

P. TERNiFOLiA, Fee, Pcru ; Ecuador. 

P. MARGiNATA, Bahe)\ Peru ; Ecuador. 

P. CORDATA, J. Smith. Peru. 

Pteris cretica, L. Peru, 

Same, var. stenophtlla. Poma Cocha, Peru. 

p. AQUiLiNA, L. Peru. 

P. PEBATA, L. Peru. 

p. iNciSA, Thunbg. ^ Contumarca, Peru. 

Blechnum occinENTALE, L. Pctu ; Ecuador. 

B. serrttlatiim, Rich. Mouth of the Amazon. 
AsPLENiTJM FRAGILE, FresL Cumbassauma mts., Peru. 
A. monanthemum, L. Peru. 

A, TRicHOMANEs, i. Peru ; Ecuador. 

A. EXTENsrM, Fee. Peru. 

A. LUNFLATrM, Sw. Peru ; Ecuador. 

A. RHizoPHYLLUM, L. Ecuador. 

A. AURiTUM, Swartz. Peru. 

A. FURCATUM, Thtmh. Peru: Ecuador. 

H, B. K. Foot 

of Chimborazo. 



AsPLEKiuM TRiPHTLLiJM, PvesL ^ Near Q 

A small form from the Peruvian Andes between Motucana anc 

A. cicuTARiUM, Sioartz. Peru ; Ecuador. 

A. FiLix-F(EMiNA, Bernh, Peru. 


Nephrodium coxciknum, BaTcer, Peru ; Ecuador. 

N. FiLix-MAS, Bich. Peru. 

N. EEEUSUM, Baker, Peru. 

PoLTPoniTTM DELiCATULUM, M. Sf O. Peru ; Ecuador. 

P. PLUMULA, H. B. K. Peru. 

P. PLEBEiUM, ScTileclit, Ecuador. 

P. MURORUM, HooTcer, Ecuador. 

P. PiLOSELLoiDES, i., var. ft, H. Sf B. Caviana, Brazil. 

Same, var. y, H, ^ B, Peru. 

P. L0RICETJM5 Z. Ecuador. 

P. ATTENUATTJM, -ET. -S. ^. Cairaua, Brazil. 

P. ADNATUM, Kunze, Cairana, Brazil. 



p. ixcANL'MjvSzi?. Cairana, Brazil; Peru. 

261*. P. (Goniophlebium) xantholepis, Harrington^ n. sp. 

Khizome witli dense, lanceolate, brown scales ; stipe 2-5 inches 
high, black, with distant, membranous, brown scales, wiry, usually 
with the frond more or less spirally coiled ; frond 2-5 in. long, 
-I5 in. broad, long, triangular to lanceolate, cut nearly to the 
rachis into spreading, subdistant pinnse, |-| in. long, linear, 
entire, obtuse ; midrib broad, green ; texture coriaceous ; under 
surface thickly clothed with large, brown, lanceolate, membranous 
scales, naked above ; sori large, uniserial. 

Oroya, between San Bartolomeo and San Mateo, Peru. 

Tery near P. incanum, Swartz, but lacking entirely the lepidote 
character and silvery aspect of that species. It is also somewhat 
larger than the P, incanum. 

P. aureum, i. Cairana, Brazil. 

P. AKOirsTT FOLIUM, 8w. Near Quito. 

P. SPHENODES, Kunze. Peru. 

P. L^viGATUM, Cavan. Cairana, Brazil. 

, var. EiGiDUir, Harrington^ n. var, Eio tJtcubamba, 

Texture rigid ; venation entirely goniophlebioid. 


PoLTPODiuM PERCussuM, Cavan. Peru. 

p. LANCEOLATUM, L. Ecuadop ; Eio TJtcubamba, Peru. 

The specimens from the locality are all pinnately lobed nearly 

to the rachis. In neither lot of specimens are the sori immersed. 
P. PEHsrcABi^FOLiuM, ScJivad, Peru. 

P. CKAssiFOLiuK, L. Peru. 

NoTHocnL^NA sixuATA, Kaulf. Peru. 

N. EERRuaiNEA, HooJcer. Peru ; Ecuador. 

jS". doeadilla, Colla, Peru, 

N. TENERA, Gill, ' Peru. 

N. NiVEA, Desv. Peru. 

Gymnogramme pumila, Spreng, Brazil. 

G-. TOMENTOSA, Desv, Peru. 

Gr. ANGUSTiERONs, Baker. Peru. 

Gr, TARTAREA, Dcsv. Near Quito. 


Kaulf.t var. denudata, Harringt 

The farina almost completely absent. 

Antrophtu:m liijheatijm, Kaulf. Peru. 

ViTTARiA stipitata, Kunze. Peru. 

T^NiTis ANGusxiroLiA, JR, Bvown, Cairana, Brazil. 

AcROSTicniTM liATiroLiuM, Sw. Mountain-tops, Cumbas- 

sauma mountains, Peru. 
A. scoLOPEXBRiroLiUAr, Baddi. Peru. 

A. sPATiiULATiTM, Bovy, Near Quito. 

A. MTJscosuM, >S^i(?. Ecuador; Peru. 

A. SQUAiiosrM, Sw, Mountain-tops, Cumbassauma 

mountains, Peru. 

A. AUREUM, L, Mouth of the Amazon. 

Anemia tomentosa, Sw. Peru. 

A. pHYLLiTiDis,/8'?^7. Peru. 

Ltgobiuh tenustfm, ^2y. Cairana, Brazil, 

Lycopodium linifolium, i. Peru. 

Selaginella cuspidata, Xjw^. Pern. 

S. exaltata, Spring Peru. 

S. GENicuLATA, Spring, Para, Brazil. 






XXXVIII. Enumeration of the Fungi collected during the Ex- . 
pedition of H.M.S. ' ChaUenger/ 1874-75. Bj the Kev. M. { 

J. Bekkelet, M.A., E.L.S. (Third Notice.) j 

■ i! 

[Bead February 1, 1877.] 

(Plate II.) 

Pek]^a]s^t Hills, Pakamatta. June 1874 

ta) tagixatus, SulL 


84. A. (Abmtllabia) m 

transversim squamoso. 

On dead wood. 

It is very possible that this may be quite a distinct species ; but 
in the absence of all indication as to colour, I am content to point 
out its aflBnities. 

85. A. (Flammtla) sapineus, Fr. Hym. Eur, p. 251. 

This species in most cases probably occurs on imported deal, 
exactly as we have northern species on timbers in our railroads. 

86. A. (Psalliota) campestris, L. 

87. A. (Pan^oltjs) campanulattjs, L, 

88. Lactabius subtomeijtosus,^. ^ Bav. Ann. Nat. Hist. Oct. 

89. Canthabellus cibabitjs, Ft. Hym. Eur, p. 455. 

90. C. coxciNN-as, B. Pusillus ; stipite sursum incrassato, 
lamellis furcatis angu?tissimis ; interstitiis Isevibus. 

Pileus I inch across ; stem | inch high, 2 lines thick at the 
apex, half as much below. 

91. Mabasmius PBiMULiJms, B. Pileo e convexo explanato 
primulino, demum umbilicato pulverulento ; margine striato ; 
stipite brevi gracili furfuraceo ; lamellis crassiusculis concoloribus. 

Pileus ^ inch across ; stem \ inch high. 

M. oPAcus, B, & 


94. Paxillxjs MtTLLEEi, B, Linn, Soc, Journ. vol, xiii. p. 159. 

95. ScHizopHYLLUM COMMUNE, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 492. 

96. Boletus subtomentosus, L. 

97. B, ANAN^cEps, ^. Linn. Soc. Journ. vol. xiii. p. 161. 




99. P. (Pleueopxjs) rugosus, Nees^ N. Act. xii. tab. 7. 
Sometimes the stem is central with a regular pileus ; sometimes 
the pileus is very imperfectly developed and scarcely rugose. 

100, PoLTPORtJS (PlEUUOPUs) SANGtriNEUS, i^r. 

101. P. (Pleuropus) EHiPiDiUM, jB. Hook, Loud. Journ. 1849, 
p. 319. 

102. P. (Pleueopus) peeoxtbatus, B. Teuuis suhorbicularis, 
rubiginoso-pulverulentus ; pileo leviter zonato rugoso ; stipite 
brevi crasso ; hymenioconvexo ferrugineo ; poris angulatis ; con- 
textu rhabarbarino, 

. Pores y^ inch in diameter. Colour of pileus like that of per- 
oxide of iron. 

103. P. (Anodermei) tephroxotus, B. Fl. Tasm. ii. p. 252. 

104. P. (Ajs'odeemei) ocheoleuctjs, -B. Hook. Lond. Journ. 
1845, p. 53. 

105. P. (Anodeemei) semidigitaltformts, B, Gregarius; 
pileo ungulato e mycelio tomentoso oriundo albido mgoso tomen- 
toso ; poris majoribus, postice lamellatis. 

Scattered over the flat surface of dry wood. Pileus \-\ inch 

■wide ; pores jV~i?V '^^^ ih diameter. A very curious species 
which has sometimes a tendency to become imbricated. 

lOG. P. (Placodermei) poetextosus, B. Hook. Lond. Journ. 
1844, p. 188. 

107. P. (Placodeemei) australts, Fr, Eh p. 108. 

108. P. (IxODERMEl) SCRUPOSrS,/'/'. ^. p. 473. 

109. P. (IXODEUMEI) CIXXABARIXUS, i^r. Sj/sf. Mj/cip. 371. 

110. p. (IxoDEEMEi) lilaci:n'o-gilvus, B. Ann. Isfat^ Hist. iii. 
p. 324. 

111. P. (EEsrpiNATi) OBLiqvvSjFr. Ep. p. 482. 

112. Trametes eigida, B, ^ Mont. Sf/IL p. 168. 

113. T. occiDEXTALis, Fr. ; Kloizsch, Linn. viii. p. 486. 

114. T. DEVEXA, B. Linn. Soc. Journ. xiii. p. 165. 

115. T. MOLLIS, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 585. 

116. D^DALEA GLABEEsCENs, B. Pulviuato-expausa crassa e 
scabro-tomentoso glabra zonata pallida, margine acuto, lamellis 
crassis rectis quandoque postice insiguiter flexuosis. 

Pileus 6 inches wide, 3 long. 

Allied to D. tenuis, but with far thicker gills. 

117. Hydxum (Mesopus) NiGErMj/'r. Uym. Eur. p. 605. 

118. H. (eesupinatum) XAifTiiUM, J5. ^ 0. GreviUea^ Xot. N.^ 
Am. Fung. p. 10, var. Aculeis non compressis pendulis totum re- 


supinatum pallide aurautiacum ; aculeis subacutis e strato la^tiore 
ceraceo oriundis. 

Hym. Eur 


121. Clavaria flat a, BclKBff. ; Ft. Hym. Eur. p. 6GG. 

122. C. BOTBYTis,P. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. G67. 

123. C. AUBEA, Schijeff. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 670. 

124. GrUEPIIS^IA SPATUULAKIAj Fr. El. p. 32. 

125. Tremella ll'tescens, P. ; Fr. Syst. Myc. p. 213. 

126. Hymenangium Moselei, B. ^ Br. Suborbiculare basi 
attenuatum citrmnm glabrum ; hymenio ochraceo basi distincta 
alba ; sporis ovatis apice attenuatis pedicellatis hyaliiiis Isevibus. 

About -^ an inch in diameter ; spores '0006 inch long with one 
or sometimes two nuclei. 

127. Sepebokifm cheysospermfm, Lk. Sp. i. p. 29. 



130. G-. DXJBius, B. Peridio externo crasso globoso Isevi sub- 
tiliter pulverulento cervino, centro depresso, dcmum aperto, my- 



About 1 an inch in diameter ; outer peridium^ when dry, con- 
sisting of two distinct layers, while the mass of flocci aud spores 
is surrounded by a thin inner peridium. As far as appears from 


the specimens, the outer peridium does not become stellate. 



ToNGATABu. July 1874. 

132. PoLYPOEus (Pleueopus) amboinensis, Fr, Ep. p. 442. 
A stemless form on cocoa-nut stems. 

133, Teametes Moselei, i?. Imbricatus; pileis reuiformibus 
vertice affixis spadiceis marginem versus lietioribus rubiginosis, 
repetite zonatis liueato-rugodia ; contextn albo. 

Pileus 3 inches across, 2 loug ; pores .}^ inch in diameter. 
Has somewhat the appearance of P. Bersoonii. A very noble 

134. COPEINUS AYCUTUEMERUS, 5^^Z/. Fr. Ep. p. 251. 

Api (New Hebiudes). Aug. 18, 1874. 
135. SeuizoruYLLUM commune, Ji^>\ Ep, 403. 



Pores not stratose ; flesh without harder parallel layers, as in 
the form from Ternate. 

137. Hikxeola polttkicha, Mont. : Fr, Funa. Nat. d. 26. 

Somebset, Cape Yobk. Sept. 1-8, 1874. 

138. PoLTPOBUS (MesopL's) xain-thopus, JV. Ohs. ii. p. 255. 

139. P. (Mesopus) dicttopus, Mont. Ann. Sc. Nat. 135, iii. 
p. 349. 

140. P. (A]!fODERMEi) FCEDATus, B. Pileo subtenui reniformi 

azouo umhrino fuliginoso ; margine pallido radiato-rugoao sterili; 

centextu pallido sericeo ; poris punctiformibus acie obtusis pallida 


Pileus 3 inches across, 1^-2 inches long ; pores -^ inch in dia- 

141. P. (PLAConEEMEi) i]S-CEASSATus, ^. Durus renifomiis ; 
pileo primum tenui azouo, demum incrussato rugoso margiuem 
versus repetite zonato pulverulento coffeato ; cuticula dura ; hy- 
menio cinnamomeo- margine demum sterili sulcato; contextu 
ferrugineo ; poris punctiformibus, dissepimentis obtusis rigidis. 

Pileus 3 inches across ; pores -^ inch in diameter. 

142. Hexagoxa tenuis,^/-. Ep, p. 498. 

143. Stereuk peolieicans, B. Gregarium infundibuliforme, 
stipite brevisslmo ; pileo suleato-zonato velutino spadiceo ; hymenio 

. laevi plicato nitido brunneo. 

Pileus 2 inches across, 1 inch high, with a number of young in- 
fundibuliforra pilei at the base with the liymenium superior or 
reniform, attached by a distinct orbicular base, repeatedly zoned 
and sulcate, of a rich brown ; hymeuium dark brown, sometimes 

slightly zoned. 

144. HiENEOLA BUFA, B. Ann. Nat. Hist, vol x. p. 384. 

" These fungi were all found in the dry condition, being collected 
in the dry season. Some are attacked by an insect-larva whose 
dung takes the form of a curious flufly mass." 

Abu. Sept. 22, 1874. 
145. Agabicus (Flammula) sapineus, Fr. Hym.Eur. p. 2ol. 


147. Mabasmiis aeueksis, B. Pileo ccutro depresso fulvo 


Bubtiliter pulverulento ; stipite gracili e basi crassiuscula oriundo 
e fulvo brunneo ; lamellis fulvis. 

Pileua |-1 inch wide ; stem 5-!^ inch bigb. 

148. Mabasmius aleueocephalxjs, B, Pileo convexo aleuriato 
rugoso-plicato fulvo ; stipite compresso brunneo basi inerassato. 

Pileus i inch across ; stem ^ incb high. 
Specimens few and in bad condition » 

149. M. BiBEPTus, B, Pusillus albidus rugosissimus ; pileo 
primum horizontali demum reflexo ; stipite centrali direpto ; la- 
mellis paucis adnatis crassiusculis acie obtusis. 

About 1 \ line across ; stem torn off, as the pileus is turned back 
and left in the centre ; the rugose crumpled pileus, under a lens, 
is very peculiar. 

150. Lentinus Leyeillet, ^. Linn. Tr. xx. p. 112, and a small 

151. L. HooKERTANrs, jS. Hook. Jburn. 1851, p. 44. 

152. L. STBIGOSTJS, -B. Fr. EL p. 47. 

153. PoLYPORrs (Mesopus) xanthopus, Fr, Obs. ii. p. 285. 

154. P. (Pleuropus) aepinis, JSfees, Fr. Ep. p. 445. 

155. P. (PleuropusJ cochlear, JSfees, Act. Nat, Cur. xiii. 
tab. 6. 

156. P. (Plexjkopus) lxjteus, JVees, Fr. Fj>. p. 445. 

157. P. (P1.EUR0PUS) MELEAGBis, B. Pilco flabelliformi stipite 
brevissimo affixo zonato radiato lineato brunneolo ; margine lobato 
acutissimo quandoque striate ; hymenio e pallido umbrino ; poris 
angulatis hie illic sinuatis, dissepimentis rigidiusculis. 

Pileus 2-3 inches across, 1| long ; pores y^^ in diameter. Some- 
times infundibuliform. There is a variety (a single specimen only) 
with a longer stem which is slightly laccate. 

158. P. (Anoi>ermei) armekiacus, B, Hook. Journ. 1856, 
p. 197 ; P. armeniacus, Eng. Fl. is P. amorphus. 

159. P. (Akodermet) abruptus, B, Durissimus imbricatus 
reviviscens ; pileo lignicolori hie illic rufescente glabrato; hy- 
menio noduloso, juniore pallido, seniore pallescente ; poris puncti- 

Pilei by confluence 2-3 inches across, adnate, and decurrent 
behind, very rigid, the hymenium reproduced irregularly and no- 
dulose. A. coarse species. 

160. P.(Placodermei)austbalis, J^r.-2^.p.464. A small form. 

161. P. (Placodermei) zonalts, B. Hook. Lond. Journ. 1847, 
p. 504. 

162. P. (Pi.ACODERMEi) sENEX, N, Sf Monl. SylL p. 160. 


163. P. (Placodermei) aetjensis, B. Pileo dimidiate tenui 
sulcato-zonato radiato-rugoao primum pulverulento brunneo, mar- 
gine tenuiori ; hymenio concolori ; poris demum elongatis ; con- 
textu ferrugineo, 

Pileus 2 inches across, 1| long ; pores ^ inch in diameter. 

164. PoLTPORUS (Ikobermet) scRHPOsrs, -Fr. Ej^. p. 473. var. 
Pileo duro renifermi velutino repetite sulcato-zonato umbrino 
contextu rhabarbarino. 

165. P. (Inodermei) tabacinus, Mont. Ann, Sc, Nat 1835, 
iii. p. 349. 

166. P. (Inodermei) ELORiDANrs, JB. Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 376. 
167- Trametes occidentaliSj Fr.; Klotzsc7ijLinn.Yiii.ip.4i86. 

. 168. T. coGNATirs, B. Pileo dimidiato sulcato-zonato subtiliter 
scabroso-tomentosopostice glabrescente ochraceo ; hymenio piano, 
poris punctiformibus acie subtiliter tomentosis. 

Pileus 1 J inch across, 1 inch long ; pores y|-^- in diameter. Ex- 
ternally resembling J! Mulleri, B. ; but the pores are very different. 

169. T. BicOLOR, -B. Pileo reniformi lobato postice sanguineo, 
antice pallido ruguloso ; hymenio umbrino ; poris e subhexagonis 
elongatis ; contextu pallido. 

Pileus 2 inches across, 1 inch long; pores -^ inch in diameter. 

170. IIexagona ARATA, B. Tcuuis rigidiuscula imbricata di- 
midiata v. flabelliformis regulariter sulcato-zonata scabroso-tomen- 
tosa umbrinella; hymenio e luteo-umbrino cinnamomeo ; poris 

Pores jy- inch in diameter. Allied to H. sericea, 

171. Hexagona aefixis, B. Lond. Journ. 1843, p. 4. 

172. Payolus SACCHARiNrs, _B. Pileo flabelliformisessili sub- 
tiliter velutino glabrescente ; poris sinuatis flexuosis. 

Pileus ^-1 inch across, at first very minutely velvety so as to 
have a saccharine appearance ; pores arranged in lines proceeding 
from a common base. 

173. P. ERASiLTEKSis, Fr. Ep. p. 498. 

174. Laschia lois-gtpes, B. Pileo tenui umbilicato pallide 
aurantiaco, margine lobato ; stipite elongato sursum dilatatato 
fissili ; poris brevibus angustis sinuatis radiantibus. 

About 1 incb across ; stem 2 inches high, not 1 line thick. 
Specimen bad, but very distinct. 

175. Leiszites applai^ata, Fr. Fp. p. 404. 

176. D^OALEA iNDURATA, B, Pilco albido, disco parvo aflfixo 
radiato-rugoso marginem versus zonato ; hymenio ochroleuco ; 
poris minutis sinuosis. 


Pileus 1| inch across, 1 long ; pores ^ inch in diameter. A 
very distinct species, of which there is a single specimen only. 

177. Irpex maximus, Mont. Syll. p. 174. 

178. Steeeum lobatum, Fr. Ep. p. 547. 

179. S. VESPILLONEUM, B. Tenuc flabelliforme vertice parvo 
orbiculari aflBxo ; pileo badio rufo zonato velutino ; hymenio badio, 
margine sterili pallido. 

Pileus 2|-3 inches across, 2 long, then repeatedly zoned velvety 
with a few dark, nearly smooth interstices. 

180. S, EFFUSUM, B. Pallidum margine inflexo lacerato-lobato, 
lineato pulverulento ; hymenio lineato. 

Pileus by confluence 3 inches wide. Pileus sometimes scarcely 
lineate, and then more pulverulent, 

181. S. iNDURATUM, B. Durissimum conchiforme concentrice 
sulcatum velutinum ; hymenio laevi subtiliter pulverulento, con- 
textu rhabarbarino. 

Pileus 3 inches across. Distinguished at once by its very hard 

thick substance from S, ostreatum and its allies. 

182. Thelephora lamellata, B. U,S. Exp, Exp. tab. Fungi, 

fig. 7. 

There is also a specimen in the collection from Taviuni given 
by Dr. Good, of H.M.S. ' Dido.' 

183. Lachis^ocladium furcellatum, Lev. Ann. So. Nat. 1846, 
V. p. 159. 

184. L. semivestitum, B. Sf C. Grevillea^ Not. N.-Am. Fungi, 
no. 226. 

185. Hir:neola rufa, B. Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 3S4. 

186. Peziza Hixdsii, B. Lond. Journ. 1842, p. 456. 

187. Xtlaria piliceps, B. Clavula subturbinata coffeata 
rimosa mollifragili ostiolis subprominulis punctata; stipite gracili 
concolori laccato rimoso, contextu pallido. 

Stem I5 inch high ; head ^ inch high, ^ wide. I find no spo- 

188. Hypoxylon concentricum, Grev. t. 324. 

Terxate (MoLrccAs). Oct. 1874. 

189. Polypobt7s(Placoi)erma) australis, -Fr.,var. appla:n^ata. 
Pores not stratose. The soft dark substance of the pileus has 
harder strata intermixed. 




191. PoLTPORUs (Inodekmei) russogramme, B. Umbone 
affixus spadiceo-rufus coriaceo-mollis rigescens ; pileia imbricatis 
subzoaatis radiato-lineatis, margine acutissimo tenui lacerato ; 
poria irregularibus ; dissepimentis acutis tenuibus dentatis flexuo- 


Pores ^-j-j inch in diameter. 

Little K£. Sept. 24. 


193. P. (Placodermei) Persoonii, Ft. — Dcedalea sanguinea^ 
Kl. I c, p. 481. 

194. Trametes occidentalis, Ft. 

195. Htpoxtlon a'ernicosum. Ft. Summ. 

Camiguin, Malanipa, Malamon (Philippines). 

Jan. 30-reb.4, 1875. 

196. Lentinus Leteillei, B, Tr, Linn, Soc: xv. tab. 9. fig. 5. 
Cainiguin, Originally from Surinam. 

197. L. abnormis, B. Gregarius caespitosus ; pileo tenui in- 
fundibuliformi hispidulo; margine tenui lobato ; stipitibus elon- 
gatis luteis furfuraceis e basi orbicular! confluentibus, sursum 
dilatatis; lamellis angustissimis decurrentibus integris. 

Pilei 1-2 inches across, stem 3 inches high, 1-2 lines thick, or- 
bicular base 5 inch. 

198. L. ExiLis, KL ; Fr. Syn. Lent, p. 10; Ep, p. 393. Pileus 
2|-3 inches across, deeply umbilicate, virgate, smooth, margin in- 
curved, stem 1 inch high, ending abruptly as if there had been a 
trace of a ring, above which the space, which is really part of the 
pileus, is quite smooth and even, marked only with the trace of the 
gills, which are very narrow and decurrent, very minutely toothed 
and echinulato-glandulose. Malanipa. 


Malanipa, Camiguin. 

200. PoLYPORUS (Mesopus) xanthopus, Ft. 

Malanipa, Malamon. 

201. P. (Mesopus) grammocephalus, B, 


202. P. (Pleuropus) affinis, I^ees. 

Malanipa, Malamon. 


203. PoLTPOKUs (Plettropus) lucidtjs. Ft. Ep. p. 442. 

204. P. (PiiEUROPUs) GiBBOSUS, Nees ; Fr. Ep. p. 443. 

205. P. (Pleubopus) sajS^guixeus, Fr. 
Malamon, Camiguin. 

206. P. (A:yoi)ERMEi) LJETICOLOR, B, Pileo dimidlato postice 
leviter decurrente armeniaco rugoso subtiliter velutino, margine 
tcDui irregulariter lobato ; contextu molli cinnabarino, primum 
armeniaco ; bymenio cinnamomeo, margine ocbroleuco; pons 
minutis acie acutis. 

Pileus 3 inches wide, 2 long ; pores i^ in diameter. Looks at 
first like a thin state of PoJyporus nlnarius. 

207. P. (A:s-odebm:ei) osTBEiEFORMis, -B. Imbricatus albidus ; 
pileo dimidiato tomentoso postice innato-fibroso rugoso, margine 
acuto ; hymenio piano ; poris angulatis, dissepimentis tenuibus 
acie integris- 

Pilei 1| inch across, 1 long ; pores j\^ inch in diameter, sub- 
stance brittle, rigid when dry. 

208. P. (Placobermei) zon^alis, Tr. 

Var. SEMiLACCATirs. Pileo reniformi rigido postice laccato rufo 
decurrente, antice pallido zonato rugoso ; hymenio pallido \ pons 
punctiformibus ; contextu pallido. 

Pileus 3 inches across, 1 long ; pores y4-^. 

Malamon. The species Is extremely variable. 

209. P. (Placodermei) caliginosus, B. Pileo tenui rigido 
saepe longe decurrente zonato lineato -rugoso atrobrunneo ; mar- 
gine acuto crenato-lobato ; contextu hymenioque ferrugineo ; 
poris minutis. 

Pileus 5-6 inches wide, 3| long ; zones narrow, sometimes pro- 
jecting in a scalariform manner, as if the growth were at times 
suddenly arrested ; pores smaller than in P, australis, and not 
merely punctiform, stratose. In one specimen fixed by the vertex 
the pileus is still decurrent. Malamon. 

210. P. (Placobermei) seiiex, Mont. Very old and cracked. 

211. P. (Placodermei) endotheius, B. Pileo ungulate fulvo 


pulverulento-velutiuo ; contextu dure sulphureo ; hymenio pallide 
umbrino; poris punctiformibus. 

Pileus 2 inches across, 1| long, 2 Wgh. Malanipa. 

Allied to P. igniarius. Pileus with two or three obtuse convex 

212. PoLYPOKUs (Placodeemei) iGNiARirs. Malaraon, 

213. P. (Placodee:mei) pectinatus, KlotzscTi, Z. c. p. 485. 

Apparently so old as not to show the rhuLarh-coloured hyme- 
nium. In Klotzsch's original specimens, however, and also in 
that from Cuba, the old hymenium is brown. 


214. P. (Inodeemei) capebatl'S, -B. Ann. Nat. Hist. x.p. 391. 

215. Trametes conchatus, B. Pileo pallide nmbrino-ochro- 
leuco sulcato-zonato subtiliter tomentoso ; contextu pallido seri- 
ceo ; poris angulatis umbrinis. 

Pileus nearly 6 inches across, 3 long ; pores -^-^ in diameter. 

Allied to T. lactineus^ B. ; but the pores are wider and the dis- 
sepiments not so rigid and obtuse. They are evidently, when fresh, 
of a much softer consistence, so that they contract when dry. 


216. T. MOLLIS^ Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 585. 

217. T. occidentalis, Fr, 


218. Hexagona crinigera, Fr. Fung. Guin. f. 10. 

Pores -^2 " I ^^^^ ill diameter. There is a variety with smaller 
pores quite devoid of bristles, 
Malanipa, Malamon. 

219. H. ALBiDA, J?. Disco orbiculari affixa ; pileo reniformi 
leviter sulcato-zonato ruguloso scabro, margine acuto ; poris sub- 
flexuosis intus scabris pallidis. 

Pileus 2^ inch across, 1^ long ; pores ^q in diameter. 
Intermediate between Hexagona and Dcedalea. Though the 
pores are flexuous, there is not the slightest tendency to radiate. 


220. H. FLABELLiroRMis, B. Pileo tenui flabelliformi rufulo 
radiato-lineato subtiliter et sparsim velutino glabrescente ; poris 
demum elongatis amplis setulosis. 

Small but distinct. Pores Jg- inch in diameter. 

221. H. CLADOPHORA, B. Pileo primum processibus molari- 
bus rugose, interstitiis bombycinis, demum laeviore scabroso 


rufulo, siccato contracto ; poris denium elongatis dissepimcntis 


Pileus 2^ inch wide, 1 inch long ; pores ^ inch in diameter. 
This is a very curious species, and may possibly be nearer allied 

to Merulius. 

Mai am on. 

222. FAYOLrs scabek, B., and var. platyporus, Journ. Linn. 

Soc. xiv. p. 57. 

Malamon, Malanipa. 

223. Lenzites applakata, Fr. 
Little Ke. 

224. Irpex zonatus, B, HooTc, Lond, Journ. 1845, p. 168. 


225. Stereum ostrea, Nees ; Fr. UL p. 175. 


226. S. MosELET, B. Pileo ex infundibuliformi flabellato sub- 
tiliter velutino subzonato cervino, margine pallidiore ; stipite e 
basi parva oriundo opaco pallido ; hymenio rufulo. 

Pileus about ^ an inch across ; stem | inch high ; sometimes 

several spring from the same confluent base ; stem occasionally of 

the same colour with the hymenium. 
Malamon, upon sticks. 


Little Ke. 

228. Xtlaria uypoxtlon, Orev. Fl. Ed. p. 355. 

A minute form with sporidia -tdV^ inch in diameter. 


Admiralty Islands. March 1875. 

229. AoARicus (Pleuhotus) scabriitsculus, B. Conchifor- 
mis postice depreasus, pileo subtiliter pulverulento-tomentoso 
demura leviter radiato-plicato ; stipite brevissimo laterali cylin- 
drico quandoque applanato; lamellis decurrentibus nee postice 
porosis integris. 

Pileus 1-2 inches wide, an inch or more long, soft and pliant, 
when dry, of an ochraceous tint. 

230. A. (Pleurgtus) lachnocephaltts, B. Pileo excentrico 
tenui campanulato subtiliter velutino saccharino rufo umbilicato 
sulcato ; stipite cylindrico pulverulento e basi orbiculari albo 
oriundo ; lamellis latiusculis decurrentibus. 

About i inch across ; stem \ inch high, not 1 line thick. 


There is a form with a longer, less excentric steiiij which has 
the appearance of a Marasmms. 

231. Agamcus (Pleubotus) semisupinus, B. ^ Br. Journ, 
Linn. Soc. xi. p. 529. 

232. Mauasmius eulyiceps, B. Hook. Loud. Journ. 1847, 
p. 490. 

233. M. HispiDULus, B. Pileo e convexo explauato fulvo his- 
pido ; stipite gracili deorsum albo-furfuraceo, sursuin primitus 
subtiliter velutino brunneo ; lamellis ventricosis adnatis. 

Pileus 2-3 lines across ; stems ^-^ inch high. 

There is also a barren Marasmius on Tricho^nanes javanicus. 

234. Lentinus HrGUOMETEicus, _B. Pileo infundibuliformi, 
subtiliter tomentoso lineato, margine exsiccato lobato iuflexo ; 
stipite gracili sursum dilatato furfuraceo glabrescente ; lamellis 
augustissimis decurrentibus. 

Scattered on blackened dead wood. 

Pileus f inch across when expanded; stem 1 inch high, not a 
line thick. 

235. L. YiLLOsus, Fr. Ep. p. 388. 

336. PoLYPOBUs (Mesopus) xaxthopus, Fr. 

237. P. (Pleuropus) affinis, Nees. 

238. P. (Plefropus) sanguineus, Fr. 

239. P. (Mesopus) grammocephalus, B. 

240. P. (Pleueopus) elegans, Fr. Ep, p. 440. 

241. P. (Pleuropus) rastpeSj B. Pileo flabelliformi conchato 
sericeo lineato subvelntino zonato rufo, exsiccato incurvo ; stipite 
brevi applanato hispidulo ; liymenio pallido ; poris minutis augu- 

latis, dissepimentis tenuibus. 

Pileus f-1 inch across ; stem i inch high, dilated upwards ; 



The short 

hairs on the stem sometimes pointing upwards. 


p. 308. 

243. P. (Placodermei) igniaeius, Fr. 

244. P. (Placodebmei) australis, Fr. 

245. P. (Placodermei) exotephrus, B. Durus ; pileo sulcato- 
zonato, primitus subtiliter tomentoso glabrescente, margine sul- 
cato prominulo obtuso lobato; contextu ligni colore; poris brun- 
neo-ferrugineis minutis. 

Pileus 2\ inch wide. 

Has somewhat the appearance of P. caliginosus^ B. ; but the 

flesh is pallid, not deeply ferruginous. 



246. PoLYPORUS (Placodermei) CALIGINOSUS, B. 

247. p. ( Placode rm:ei) Persooxii, Fr, 

248. Trametes occidextalis, Fr. 

249. t. lactixeus, b. 

250. Hexagoxa affixis, -B. 

251. H. PicTA, -S. Pileo dimidiato, postice sanguineo-rufo, 
antice pallido, lineato-ruguloso plicato, primum pulverulento ; 
hymenio iimbrino ; poris hie illic margine undulatis. 

Pileus 2^-3 inches wide, f inch long ; pores -^^, 

252. Lascttta teemellosa, Fr, 

253. Stereum elegaxs, Fr. Ep. p. 545. 

254. TlIELEPnORA lamellata, B. 

255. Htrxeola polytricha, Mont, 

256. H. EUFA, B. 

257. Peztza HixDsir, B, 

*' The largest, very thin specimens, from the base of littoral trees, 
were constantly being bathed and often immersed in sea- water." 

Japax*. April 28, 1875. 

258. Agaricus (Armillaria) edodes, B, Pileo carnoso 
convexo fusco ; stipite solido cylindrico e basi crassa orbiculari 
oriundo ; annnlo angusto ; lamellis postice rotundatis. 

Commonly eaten in Japan and exposed for sale in large quanti- 
ties in the shops, Japanese name Shi-taJci. 

* The following interesting Japanese species hare been received from Mr 
F. V. Dickins :— 

a. Agaricus (Pleuropus) guepiniipormis, B, Pileo spathulato fisso ; strato 
superiore gelatinoso Iseticolori croceo ; lamelhs decurrentibus concoloribus. 

About 1 inch long, J-l inch wide. 

b, Agaricus (Pleuropus) subfuxereus, B. Pileo spathulato palumbino glabro 
e stipite candido cylindraceo ramoso oriundo ; lamellis tenuibus integris lineato- 
decurrentibus pallidis. * . . • 

Pileus ^-| inch wide, 1 inch long ; stem ^ inch high, 1 line thick. 

c. Cantharellus flabellatus, B. Pileo flabeUiformi, postice elongaXOt at- 
tenuato, radiato-rugoso, tenui ; lamellis angustis dichotomis sinuatis. 

Pileus 1^ inch across, 2^ long, the attenuated stem-lite base sometimes 

d, PoLYPORUs (Pleuropus) vernicipes, B, Pileo tenui conchiformi pallido 
zonato crenato subplicato radiato-striatulo zonis umbrinis picto ; stipite brevia- 
simo polito poris albis. 

Pileus 1^ inch wide, 1 long ; pores ^^^ inch in diameter. 

f. P. (Pleuropus) Dickinsii, B. Pileo tenui papyraceo spathulato, basi sti- 





Pusillus, pileo e con- 

vexo depresso glaberrimo fulvo ; stipite tenui obscuriore ; lamellis 
umbrinis ventricosis adnexis vel leviter adnatia. 
On decayed wood. 

The dried specimens have a very rigid appearance, so as to re- 
semble at first sight some small Polyporus, 
Pileus ^ inch across ; stem | inch high. 

260. PoLYPOErs (Pleubopus) rxjfesce]s-s, Ft, A resupinate 



263. P. (Inodermei) sfbpellfcidus, B. Imbricatus ; pileis 
tenuibus lobatis sericeo-liirsutis leviter zonatis ; hymenio e pallido 
brunneolo; poris parvis dentatis, dissepimentis cartilagineis. 

Pileus -^-sr inch in diameter. 


Attached to the delicate stems of some climbing herb, densely 

264. PoLTPORrs (Ikodermei) elongatus, B. IIooJc. Lond. 
Journ. 1842, p. 149. 

265. P. (Inodermei) yersicolor, Fr. 

266. D^DALEA rxicoLOR, Fr, 

267. Irpex CONSORS, 5. Imbricato-reflexus ; pileis pulveru- 
lento-tomentosis mox glabrescentibus leviter zonatis ; dentibus 
compressis umbrinis apice candidis. 

Spreading for several inches, and then putting out either at the 
edges or from the hymenium a multitude of imbricated pilei, 
which are at first slightly tomentose, but then smooth with one or 
two zones ; teeth umber, compressed, pallid at the tips. 

pitiformi angustato, subtiliter tomentoso glabresceute, hie ilUciisso, poris aiiiplis 
brevibus sinuatis decurrentibus, margiue inflexo. 

Pileus dirty white, 21 inches wide, 3 inches long ; pores ^^ in diameter. 

/. P. (Inodermei) pocas, B. Pileo reniformi, vertice affixo, leviter zonato, 
Tillis radiantibus ornato, postice leviter decurrente, margine tenui ochroleuco 
acuto sterili ; hymenio pallido, postice cinerascente ; poris punctiformibus acie 


Pileus 2\ inches long, 1 inch wide. Eesembles externally P. vellerens, B. ; but 

the pores are very different, 

g, Hydnum olidum, P. Stipite brevi centrali impolito ; pileo zonato floccis 
lineari-lasciculutis squamoso cinerascente; aculeis elongatis sporisque pallidis. 

Pileus 2 inches across ; stem collecting leaves by means of its iloccose surface ; 
mycelium delicate. Colour at first apparently greenish, but dark cinereous when 
old. Smell strong, like that of melilot. Agreeing with H. graveolcm iu its 
smell and dirty-white spores. 


268. Stereum cojs'trarium, B. Eigidum conchiforme ; pileo 
nigro zonato hispido, hie illic glabrescente, margine pallido, hy- 

menio candido revivescente. 

269. PucciNiA corticioides, B. & Br, Soris confluentibns 

armeniacis ; sporis pellucidis subellipticis, centro demum con- 
tractis; pedicellis longissimis. (PL II. figs. 7, B.) 

On the stems of some large G-raminea, probably Arundinaria. 
Kobe, Nippon. At first appearing under the form of little tawny 
specks ; at length forming apricot-coloured patches, which assume 
the form of some Oorticium ; pedicels '007-'008 inch long ; spores 
'0008-*001 long, globose w^hen young. The specimens do not give 
sufiicient information to trace the whole life-history of certainly 
the most curious species of the genus. 

270. Uromtces depormaxs, B. ^ Br, In apicibus discifor- 
mibus pedunculorum situs ; peridio operculiformi ; sporis obovatis, 
margine striatis, albis. (PL II. figs. 1-6.) 





" in 

Thuja dolabrata. Hakone. Peridium operculiform, shiningj pale 
fawn-coloured; spores springing from a reticulated mass on dis- 
tinct pedicels, obovate, with a striated border, •0015-*002 incli 
long. Curious as this fungus is, there does not seem to be any 
character by which it can safely be separated from JJromyces. The 
processes on which the TJromyces is developed seem rather to be 
transformations of branchlets than multiplication of fruit-stalks. 


Whole crops were often seen affected with the TTstilago on a 
journey along the Tokaido from Kioto to Yokohama, May 1-10. 

Tahiti. Sept. 24, 1875. 


273. P. (Eeslpiis^ati) benetostus,-S. Late effusus, subtus mar- 
gineque albidus ; hymenio spadiceo areolato-fisso j poris minutis. 

Widely effused, three or four inches across, at first orbicular, 
dirty white, with a membranous not byssoid margin. Hymenium 
the colour of lightly toasted bread, cracked into distinct fascicles 
of tubes after the manner of Badulum quercinum; pores about 
y|^- inch in diameter. 

274. HiR>^EOLA POLYTRicHA, Mont. Feb. 1876. 

Juan Terivajvdez. Nov. 13-15, 1875. 
275« Xerotus tei^er, B. Sf Br. Journ, Linn. Soc. xiv. p. 45. 




278. P. (Placodermei) australis, Ft. 

279. P. (Placodermei) scansilis, B. Levis, pileo pulvinato 
brunneo repetite profunde sulcato-costato coiFeato ; cuticula 
tenui rigida ; contextu crasao candido fibroso in pores brunneos 
punctiformes desinente. 

Several incbes across, attached behind ; pileus with prominent 

ridges all round. The light white substance consists of vertical 

fibres, which end in the deep umber tubes, whose orifices are punc- 
tiform with flat interstices. 

280. P. (Inodebmei) hibsutus, Ft, Ep. p. 477. 

Some of the specimens are very thick and rigid, sometimes 
nearly smooth, and if there were no intermediate forms might be 
considered distinct. 

281. Merulius corium, Ft, El, p. 55. 

282. Cora payonta, Fr. Ep. p. 556. 


The subjoined fungi have nothing to do with the * Challenger ' 
collection ; but they are inserted here as gathered in an island 
situated in nearly the same latitude as one visited by the Expe- 


Lord Howe's Islak^d. 

Fungi communicated by J. P. Fullager. 


On decayed Palm-stems. 


y. PoLTPOEus (Pletjegpus) flabellifoemis, Klotzscli in Linn. 
viii. p. 483. 

I. P. (Pleueopus) sakguikeus, Ft, 

€. P. (Iis'gdeemei) aeatus, jB. Luteo-olivaceus ; pileo dimi- 
diato subimbricato flexili concentrice sulcato nitido glabrato ; 
margine tenuissimo, subtus sterili ; contextu concolori ; poris 
parvis rigidiusculis saturatioribus. 

Pileus 3^-4 inches wide, 3 inches long, smooth and shining 
when fully developed, flexible ; pores subhexagonal, about ^'-^ inch 
in diameter. I have a Folj/p or us from Brisbane communicated by 

54 ON THE ruNai or the ' challe:noee ' expedition. 

Mr. Broome (P. luteo-olivaceus^ B. & Br.), which at first sight 
looks very like this ; but instead of being flexible it is hard and 
coriaceous, while the pores, which are smaller, are deep umber and 

C P. (Placodeemei) Fullagert, B. Durissimus ; pileo pul- 
vinato, postice nigrescenti-brunneo, antice subtiliter velutino rha- 
barbarino rugoso parce sulcato ; vertice elongato ; contextu fulvo ; 
poris minutissimis. 

Pileus 3] inches wide, 1| long, 1| high, with elongated vertex ; 

pores yJ-^ inch in diameter. Very hard, cracked behind with two 
or three concentric grooves, 

T}. Hexaoona eigiba, B. Dimidiata, postice decurrens, rigida ; 
pileo umbrino concentrice zonato- sulcato radiato ruguloso gla- 
brescente ; margine sulcisque elevatis subtiliter tomentosis ; hy- 
menio pallido ; poris magnis. 

Pileus 3 inches wide, or 6 by confluence, 2 long ; pores iVn^ 
in diameter. When fully developed quite smooth, cream-coloured 
within. There is a variety with slightly narrower pores andlobed 
margin ; also a bleached state just intermediate. 


Fig. 1. Sketch of a spray of Thyja dolahrata, with the TJromi/ces defor77ians, 

B. & Br., in situ. Drawn from a specimen In the Kew Herbarium, aud 
of the natural dimensions. 

2. Branchlets from which the Uromyces has fallen, but enlarged. 

3. One with the peridium perfect ; still more enlarged. 

4. Branclxlets with and without fungus ; very considerably magnified. 

5. A view of the spores in situ ; also highly magnified. ' 

6. Two separated spores, still further enlarged. Spores -0015, '002 inch 


7. Vuccinia corticioides, B. & Br., the plant ; of natural size. 

8. Spores of the same, greatly magnified. The heads of spores '0008 to 

OOl inch long, globose when young ; stalks -007 to 'OOS inch long. 


LiNR.Soc. JouRH.BoT. Vol XVI Pull 



Fit ci I. imp 


On the Nature and Mode of Use of the Vegetable Poisons em- 
ployed by the Samoan Islanders. By the Eev. TnoMAS 

Powell, F.L.S. 

[Read March 15, 18770 

The death of that great and good man the late Commodore Good- 
enough, from the poisoned arrows of the people of Santa, having 
invested those deadly weapons with so peculiar an interest, I am 
sure no apology will be required for my presenting to the Linnean 
Society at one of its Meetings the following particulars upon the 
subject of poisoned spears and arrows. 

I have in the mission establishment here a native of Efat, 
(Sandwich Island) in the New Hebrides. He is the son of the 
late chief of the village of Erakor, whose name was Torlie, and 
who, under the influence of our Samoan evangelists, embraced 
Christianity in 1845. He then adopted the name of Pomare. 
This son of his, who is about 35 years of age, obtained from him 
the following particulars upon the above subject. 

Poisoned Spears and Arroivs, 

The Preparation of the Points. — This, together with the prepa- 
ration of the poison, was a regular business, and practised only 
by the initiated. They were distinguished by constantly wearing 
the osfemoris of a pig inserted between the arm and the armlet. 

When these men heard of any person suffering from some very 
acute disease indicated by excessive delirium, they watched for 
his death and then noted the place of his burial. After the lapse 
of five or six months they would stealthily open his grave and 
carry thence the large bones of both extremities and the parietal 
bones of the skull. Of these they made the points of the speara 
and arrows. Of the femoral bones alone were made the points of 
the spears. These were prepared by sawing off the upper part 
below the processes separating the outer condyle, and rubbing down 
the inner one to a fine point. A wooden handle was then inserted 
into the upper end and securely fastened with the bark of a twi- 
ning plant coated with some gummy substance which made it im- 


The other bones were sawn into small pieces from an inch to 
two inches long, and then rubbed down on stones to a very fine 
point. On account of the convexity of the parietal bones, the 


points made of them were often very short, in order to have them 
perfectly straight. These, however, were considered the choicest. 

For a saw they used the spines of the large Echinus. To make 
these answer this purpose, two sharp edges were formed on each 
by rubbing it on stones. Each spine, therefore, M^as equal to two 
saws. A goodly number of these were needed, as they soon be- 
came dull. 

The points, when finished, were inserted into a cane shaft made 
of a species probably of Joinvillea^ aad fastened in the same way 
as the spear-points. They were then ready for the application of 
the poison. 

Frepai^ation of tlie Poison* — In this preparation a great num- 
ber of poisonous plants were used — different plants by different 
persons. Three, however, were used in common. 

1. The most virulent of all is called on Efat Na Toto ; na is 
the article, toto the noun. This is a large tree, which my informant 
compares to a Calo'pTiyllum InopJiyllum. Inflorescence abundant, 
white. Emit a drupe, about the size of an almond, dark red 
when ripe, attached to a long peduncle. Every part of the tree 
is a virulent poison. When cut, a white milk exudes from it, 
which causes blindness when brought into contact with the eyes. 
Its sap, when introduced into the circulation, causes death. Of 
both these effects my informant gave me a memorable illustration, 
of which his own mother was an eye-witness. She was a Samoan, 
and one of a party who, with a number of Tongans, were drifted 
from Samoa in a double canoe to the New Hebrides about fifty 
years ago. They landed on the western end of Efat and acted 
the part of freebooters. Again embarking, they proceeded east- 
ward, calling at several villages and acting in the same way, in- 
tending finally to make their way back to Samoa. At a place 
called Mole, near Eraker, the people, expecting a visit from these 
depredators, prepared for them in a way which they little sus- 
pected. They had, as is common in similar places, an enclosure 
of water on the beach which at low tide served both for drinking 
and bathing. They pounded a quantity of the leaves of the toto 
previously dried in an oven ; and when they saw the canoe coming 
they threw these pounded leaves into the bathing-place. As soon 
as the canoe anchored, most of the crew, after native fashion, 
rushed to the fresh water to drink and to bathe. They were im- 
mediately thrown into convulsive agonies : those who only bathed 
became blind ; and those who drank died. The survivors settled 


down in the neighbourliood ; and, as above intimated, one of the 
women became the wife of Tahi and mother of my informant, 
from whom he received this account. The original party num- 
bered about fifty; in 1845, when the mission-ship first visited the 
island, only nine were left. 

But to resume. The tree grows near the sea-beach. It is 
very tenacious of life ; for when cut down, shoots soon spring 
up from the roots. It is probably common in the New Hebrides ; 
my informant had noticed it growing on Aneiteum. 

So closely does this description agree in many respects with 
that given by the late Dr. Seemann, 'Flora Vitiensis,' p. 233, of 
the Sinu gaga of Fiji, JExccjecaria agallocha, Linn., that it seems 
highly probable that the toto of Efat is identical with it, or is a 

closely allied species. 

2. Na suaea is the name of the second of the plants referred 
to above. Being told that this plant is found in Samoa also, I 


sent the man for a specimen. It proved to be the Puttj of Samoa, 
which Professor Oliver has identified as Taherncemontana orienta- 

lis, E. Br. 

3. Na Sola. This is the Fanuamamala of Samoa, a species of 

CarumUtim ; but since we have, according to Baron von Mueller, 
probably three of these, viz. C.j>edicellatu7njpopulifoUum, and acu- 
minatum, I cannot say with which the Efat species agrees. They 
are all however, considered by the Samoaus to possess poisonous 
qualities, yet to be useful in some diseases. 

The leaves of these three plants were carefully picked, the stems 
and points were nipped oflF, and they were put into a shed to dry. 
When quite dry, they were taken in equal parts and reduced to a 
fine powder in a wooden mortar with a pestle made of the ara wood, 

that is, the toa of the eastern Polynesians (Casuarina equiseti- 
folia). To this powder was added a portion, in quantity equal 
to that of each of the leaves, of very fine scrapings of an old piece 
of ara. The whole was then weU rubbed together in the mortar. 

The next ingredient was from the animal kingdom. A very 



the sand were emptied out, and it was exposed to the sun suflEi- 
ciently long for all the water that remained in its substance to 
evaporate. It was then put into a leaf of Calocasia Indica and 
placed in the shade till it became a putrid liquid. The bowl 
having been previously lined with a leaf of the Calocasia in order 



to prevent adhesion to its sides, the powder was again put into it 
and the liquid added in quantity sufficient to form a thin paste, 
which was then well stirred with a stick or brush prepared for 

the purpose. 

There was still one more Ingredient considered necessary to 

render the poison sufficiently virulent. In the woods, in the 
neighbourhood of wasp-nests, were accumulated on the branches 
of trees small mosses of what the natives considered the wasps' 
food. It had the appearance of dried earth, and was probably 
merely accumulations of material for building-purposes. It was 
called Na LET(=?ffy^), which was the name also of the wasp, as in 
Samoa a species of white ant and its nest are both called ane. 
This substance, " the food of the let," was collected, and a quan- 
tity, equal to that of each of the other ingredients, rubbed to a 
very fine powder in a separate mortar kept for the purpose. The 
OS femoris, the badge of office already referred to, was used as a 

pestle. . . ^ 

This wasp-earth was considered by the natives the most active 

of the ingredients, since when convulsions and lock-jaw ensued 
from the poison, they would say of the person so afiected "iV^« 
puatia na lef'^- — that is, " he is seized by the layf.'' 

This fine powder was added to the mixture, stirred in ; and the 
whole was then exposed for a while to the sun in order to evapo- 
rate any remaining humidity. To this mixture some were in the 
habit of adding the juices of various other poisonous plants ; but 
these were not considered absolutely necessary. 

The next step was to grate down the flesh of an old cocoa-nut 
and wring out the milky oily juice, which was added in proper 
proportion to the mixture. The mass was then stirred frequently 
for about a month, till it became a cloudy dark oil. It was then 
put into gourd bottles, which were suspended to the roof of the 
house. In about twelve months it became consolidated to the 
consistence of lard and was considered fit for use. 

Prom this account, then, we obtain the following formula for 
the preparation of 


The Poison for Spears and Arrows. 
Take, in equal parts, of 

r ExccBCaria AgaTlocha^ 

the leaves of \ Taherncemontana orientalts, 

^ Carumhium pedicellatum7 


The fine dust of an old piece of Casimrina equisetifolia, 
Einely powdered dust of accumulations formed by a 

species of wasp. 
To be well rubbed together. 

Add the putrid liquid of HolotJiuria vittatay sufficient 
to form a thin paste, and evaporate all humidity. Add 
the expressed juice of an old cocoa-nut ; stir frequently 
for about a month till the mass becomes a dark cloudy 
oil ; bottle and preserve for twelve months, when it will 
be fit for use. 

Hon of the Foison to the Points of the Spears and Arrows. 

When about to apply the poison to the points a kind of kiln 
was prepared for smoking them. One hole was made in the 
ground in a slanting direction, and another perpendicularly to 
serve as a chimney. lu the slanting one was made a fire of the 
Casuarina w^ood. The spears and arrows already prepared were 
placed ready at hand. A bottle of the poison was taken down, 
and a small portion taken out on the point of a stick ; this was care- 
fully rubbed on the bone point of the spear or arrow, which was 
then held over the smoke ascending from the chimney. Having 
been well smoked, it was carefully placed upon a rack over the 
common fire-place. A large number were prepared in this way 
at one time. 



and protected, the arrows were tied in bundles and placed in a 
quiver formed of one of the cylindrical layers of the trunk of the 
Banana, and again hung up over the fire-place to keep them dry. 
They were thus ready for use or for sale whenever needed. It 
will be observed that from first to last great care was used to 
exclude humidity. The reason of this may be that humidity 
destroys the virulence of the poison ; and hence the comparative 
harmlessness of the poison of such arrows as have been obtained 
as specimens by gentlemen of war- vessels and others. 

The points of the spears were carefully preserved from injury 
in the spathe of the Mountain Plantain {Musa troglodytarum, 


Effects of the Poison and tie Means of Cure 
taken internally, was always fatal. Hence occasionally a woman 
when determined to get rid of a hated husband, would scrape off 
the poison from the point of an arrow, put it in her husband's 



food, aud thus surely effect her purpose. And however much 
she might feign grief, the symptoms of the sufferer would at once 
proclaim the cause and the author of his agonies and death ; for 
men never resorted to such means of revenge. 

"W hen introduced into the system on the points of spears or 
arrows, the effects were often diversified. In some instances the 
local pain would be very severe, followed by general disturbance 
of the system in two or three days, and ending in convulsions, 
lock-jaw, and death. If the incisions were in such cases made at 
an early stage, the patient might recover. 

In other instances the effects were more gradual and insidious, 
causing at first but little local or constitutional disturbance, but 
gradually inducing fever, convulsions, lock-jaw, and death. The 
tetanus was one symptom of every fatal case. 

There were men who professed a knowledge of antidotes to the 



against every thing which might startle him, as a very slight shock 
would induce convulsions and lock-jaw, and render the case hope- 
less. The antidotes were kept a secret by the craft ; but Pomare, 
who had often been wounded, assured his son that his conviction 
was that he had been saved, not by these antidotes, but by making 
free incisions in different parts of his body, so as to allow the 
escape of the poisoned blood. 

Upolu, Samoa, Oct. 1, 1876. 





From Vol. IX, tlie Zoological and Botanical portions of tlie 
Journal have been published separately, and each consists of Eight 


The price of each separate number, whether Zoological or 

Botanical, is 2^. to the public, and 1^. 6d. to Fellows. 

Each volume of eight numbers, when subscribed for and paid 

in advance, Avill be charged 12^. to the public, and 95. to Fellows* 

Ant Candidate for admission as a Fellow must be proposed on a 
written Certificate, to be signed by three or more Fellows, from 
their personal acquaintance with him, or knowledge of his charac- 
ter or writings. 

Fellows, on their election, pay an Admission Fee of £6, and 
are thenceforth liable to an Annual Contribution of £3, which may 
be compounded for at any time by one payment of £30 in lieu 
of all future contributions. 

Fellows residing abroad, and not compounding, are required to 
provide such security for the payment of their Annual Contribu- 
tions as shall be satisfactory to the Council. 

The Fellows are entitled to receive, ym/ia, all Volumes, or Parts 
of Volumes, of the Transactions and Journal, that may be pub- 
lished after they shall have paid the Admission Fee ; and they 
may be supplied with any of the Society's publications at a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent, under the common selling prices. 

The 1st Series of the Transactions is now completed in 30 vols. 
Sets of the first twentv volumes will be supplied to the Fellows 
at the reduced price of £20 ; or of the first twenty-five volumes, 
with the General Index to the whole, for £30. Any Fellow pur- 
chasings, at one time, ten or more volumes, may obtain those 
from the Isfc to the 20th at £1 per volume, from the 21st to 
the 25th at £2 per volume; and single volumes, or parts, to 
complete sets, may be obtained at the origmal prices, xhe price 
of the index to Vols, i-25 is 8«. to the public, and 6*. to Fellows; 
of the Index to Vols. 26-80. 4«. to the d 

^ I 


I K 

e -P 



the Apartments of the 

Society, to IVtkKippist^ Librarian, for such volumes as they may 
be entitled to, or be desfrous to. purchase: but no volume can be 
delivered gratis to a Fellow* whose yearly Contributions are m 
arrear, nor can any be delivered unless applied for within five 
vears from the time of publication.— Of the 2nd Series, of the 
Transactions, Vol- 1, Parts I.-IV., Zoology and Botany, are 
now ready for delivery. A few copies of the several papers 
contained m the later volumes (from Vol. 26 onwards) have been 
printed off" for separate sale ; and most of them may still be had. 

The Library is open to the Fellows and their friends daily, 
between the hours of 10 and 4, and on Meeting-days at 7 p.m. 

With certain restrictions. Fellows are aUowed to borrow Books 

from the Library. .. 

The Council-room, which will in future be used as a reading- 
room, will be open daily from 10 a.m. till 6 p.m., except on Satur- 
days, when till 4 p.m. only. 

Communications intended to be made to the Societj may be addressed to th< 
President, or to the Secretary, at the Society*s Apartments, Burlington House, 
Piccadilly, London. 


.' ^ - - 



■■-■■ ■ . ■ ■ -.,■■. 



.'-*.-■ - 


> ■-"- 

' ' 

July 14. 

_ V 

Price 2#. 



^^- n^..^ 

-t _ 


Tl ^'H 

_ f 


'v r 

^ . ' 

J ^ \ b^ 

J" - 
"^j -it 

■J . ^ 

ri 4 

^ . L 



H ■-. '^ 



l - 


4 ■- 


—r _■ 

b f 

* X > 

"- ^ 




- . : fc- 


■ > 

^ r f .. 


< . % 

. T 

^^ .^ - 


^ ■ -*" 



^ - 

.. ' -j^ 

' i 


1 *- _i*' 

T L" 


^ ■ - ■ J 

r ^ 

-J H ^ _ 

^ \ 


j ■ > 

^' J 

:- ^"- ^ 

-b--^ 7- 


r ; ^ - .b 

' ( 


' 1 

I .1 


^1 ^ \ 

^ .^ 

- '^-.f 


_- V 


-f . 


1^ ■"- 

- "N 

- ^^ 

: - ' .r 

^ - -^ 



T -^- ^-.- 

.-:- * . r :i 

1- I "■" 

^\ J 

^ A 

r r^ 

■-^ H 


r ' ± - - 

- - I 

_n - * ■- --j^ 

J . ^ J 

L- ' - 

"> J ^ I- 


- ' J. , j 

'i^K ■ 


^^1 ,^ 





+ *!- 


^ H 



■'■■ >.^ 


J. "■ 

- ^1 k 




^ >^ ^ Lj ^ 

_. - t 

_- J 

■ C 


. , F-.liJ-i^-.-x ■ 

^ - 

-- -^ _ ' 

1 . ' 

_^ . 

^ -^ 

_ Y 
I ^ 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 90. 

1 r 

.i-. jr;..-.' 

, y 



^ V 

- V 

- .\ - » 

-, 1 ^ . 


._! " I ■ 

^ r 

- — :^- ;"--, * 




I I ^ 

I. Sj3tema Iridacearum . By J. G. Bakee, Esq., F.L.S 


.^.-^-. .. 

.- p'-i 




- i 

- I" 

V . 


■(.- _ 

SEP 1 9 1996 










MR. s. Or. baker's st3tem\ irid.vcearum:. 61 

Systema Iridacearum. By J. (r. Baker, Esq., F.L.S. 

[Read December 7, 1870.] 

On"K of our gi^eatest wants at the present time in evcry-day her- 
barium-work is a key to the genera of Iridacese, and a means of 
ready access to the great mass of scattered Iridaceous figures and 
literature. AVe now know in the order about seven hundred 
species and between sixty and seventy well-marked genera. 
Nearlj' all the Iridaceae inhabit temperate regions, and may be 


The order 

includes seA^eral of our most familiar garden genera, as, for in- 
stance, Gladiolus, Crocus, and Iris. How it comes that such an 
order has been so much neglected by systematists, I have never 
been able to understand. It was one of the few orders of Mono- 
cotyledons that were not treated in Kunth's ' Ehumeratio ;' and 
leavincr out of count Dr. Klatt's papers, which are scattered 
throut>-h several volum'es of the ' Linnaea,' for the latest continuous 
synopsis of the order we must go back to Dietrich's ' Synopsis 
Plantarum,' published in 1839, and this a mere compilation from 

other books. 

During the first thirty, or perhaps we may fairly say forty, 

years of the century the order was energetically studied in this 
country. The principal worker in the field was Gawler, who 
afterwards changed his name to Bellenden Ker, left England a 
generation ago, and died at Nice within the last few years. He 
published, in 1805, in the first volume of Konig and Simjj's 'Annals 
of Botany,' a paper containing a complete synopsis of genera, with 
a list of all the species then known. In this paper many of the 
genera as now admitted were for the first time named and 
fully characterized. For many-jears, during the editorship of 
Dr. Sims, he contributed largely to the ' Botanical Magazine,' and 
during that time gave figures and descriptions of a large propor- 
tion of the Irids then in cultivation, a number many times greater 
than we possess at the present day. In 1827 he published sepa- 
rately at Brussels a paper entitled ' Genera Iridearum,' in which 
he gives a synonymic list of all the species then known, and a 
full description of the thirty genera under which he classifies 


them. ..J 

What I am aiming at in t^e present paper is to do for 187G 

what Ker did for 1827. We now know nearly 700 species, against 






a little over 300 with which he was acquainted ; and I admit G5 
genera against his 30. Salisbury studied the order very carefully, 
and in the first volume of the 'Transactions of the Horticultural 
Society ' gave names to several genera that now stand ; but he 
never characterized them, and his fragmentary ' Genera Planta- 
rum,' issued a few years ago by Dr. J. E. Gray, stops short ab- 
ruptly at the very beginning of the order. Dean Herbert made 
a special study of Crocus^ and published a good many new species 
and genera of Iridacese in the * Botanical Magazine ' and ' Bota- 
nical Eegistcr/ Tor the last generation the order has been 
neglected, and many of the less hardy Cape species which were 
introduced in the days of Ker and Salisbury have been lost from 

The only considerable contribution to its literature during the 
last thirty years is a series of papers by Dr. P. W. Klatt, of Ham- 
burg, which extend from the 31st to the 35th volume of the 
' Liniia^a.' These, taken together, constitute a general synopsis of 
the order. They are founded principally upon the Berlin Her- 
barium ; and of the plants for which the author had access to 
proper material the descriptions are full and clear. 'But he gives 
no citation of synonyms ; so that if we want to look up the refer- 
ences to any particular plant, these papers do not help us, and 
we have to fall back upon Ker's w^ork of 1827. And not only has 
Dr. Ellatt omitted many species which were known at the date 
when he wrote, but he has left, I think, great room for improve- 
ment in the making of a key to the genera and their general 
arrangement and nomenclature. 

What I propose therefore to undertake now is to give, In the 
first place, a description of the genera, referring, of course, to 
their proper places, so far as I can judge, the numerous generic 
synonyms which by this time have accumulated, and constructing 
a general key to the tribes and genera upon the model of those 
which have been found so practically useful in Benthara and 
Hooker's ' Genera Plantarum,' and, secondly, to give under each 
genus a synonymic list of the known species with a brief note of 
their geographical distribution. The general plan of my paper 
is, as I said before, to do for the order in 1876 what Ker did in 
1827. I have added to the scope of Ker's plan only by giving the 
preliminary key to the tribes and genera, and by including the 
geographical element. On the other hand, I have worked upon a 




¥ ■ 


. .1. 












materially smaller scale as regards synonyms, because, except 
ill the case of figures, I have only cited the original authority 
for each name, and have omitted all reference to pre-Linnean 


Without at all attempting to trace in detail the range of cha- 
racter which the different organs present, it will make matters 
more clear if I say a few preliminary words under each as to the 
characters for tribes and genera which they furnish. 

Soof stock and Soot, — In respect of rootstock, just as in Liliacese, 
the order falls into two unequal halves — a bulbous, and a non- 
bulbous series : there are 48 genera of the former, 17 of the 
latter. As a general rule, the non-bulbous differ tangibly from 
the bulbous genera in floral characters ; but this is not invariably 
the case. For instance, the bulbous Geissorhiza answers per- 
fectly to the non-bulbous Scliizostylis, the bulbous Xiphion to the 
non-bulbous Iris. In each series we have a wide range of varia- 
tion in root-character, so that in fact we get w^ithin the bounds of 
the order nearly every type of Monocotyledonous root and root- 
stock represented. In many species of Sisyrincliium we see a 
dense tuft of slender adventitious root-fibres without any root- 
stock, as in the ordinary grass type. In SisyrincJiium graminifo- 
Hum ^vA jpachyrhizum these fibres become fleshy and cylindrical. 
The short-creeping, thick, firm rhizome of the ordinary Irises is 
familiar to every one. In X arenaria this becomes a slender 
wide-creeping rhizome similar to that of Carex arenaria. The 
typical tunicated bulb is very common. In Crocus and Morcea 
oorms with tunics of various texture are abundantly represented. 
In Ferraria we have a large irregularly shaped tuber like tliat of 
Eriospermum. The character of the bulb- or corm-tunics some- 
times runs through a genus w^ith great uniformity, and sometimes, 
as in CrocuSy varies greatly in closely allied species, and furnishes 
one of the best specific characters. Nearly all the non-bulbous 
Irids are perennials ; but we have an instance of an annual 
fibrous-rooted species in SisyrincJiium micranthum, which is one 
of the few plants of the order which have become naturalized 
far away from their original home. 

Stem.—ThTee small Cape genera (Witsenia and its neighbours) 
are decided shrubs with acutely-angled stems, densely clothed 
up to the inflorescence with distichous, amplexicaul, linear leaves. 
All the other genera are herbaceous ; Crocus, Galaxiay and Sy- 



ringodea are acaiilescent, witli a very short undergrouBd scape. 
The habit so common in Liliacese and Amaryllidaceae, leaves all 
congested in a basal rosette, and a produced, naked scape sup- 
porting the inflorescence, is rare here. The common type is a 
produced, terete or acutely-angled stem with a few, more or less 
reduced leaves intervening between the base and the inflores- 
cence. In SisyrincTiium the diff'erence between a terete and flat 
stem separates a large and difiBcult genus into two unequal halves. 
In Marica the stem is not merely flat, but as broad as the leaves ^ 

and quite leaf-like in appearance, and produced unaltered beyond 
the single lateral cluster or corymb. 

Leaf, — The leaves of Iridacese are always either membranous or 
coriaceous in texture, never fleshy ; so that in appearance and 
persistence they are more like those of Cyperacese than the otlier 


two great bulbous orders. Very few Irids are destitute of pro- ]. 

duced leaves, or have the leaves developed at a different time 
to the flower. To the first, Bohartia apliylla^ to the second. Crocus 
midijlortcs viwd speciosus are exceptions. The common type in the 
order of leaf-form and arrangement, a distichous basal rosette of 
linear or ensiform leaves so compressed that they clasp one ano- 
ther by their inner edges at the lower part, occurs abundantly, in ' * 
company with all the leading types of perianth-structure, for 
instance, alike in Ixia^ Iris, and Gladiolus. Narrow, deeply 
channelled, multifarious leaves in a dense basal rosette run uni- 
formly through some genera, as Crocus and Bomtdea. Next to 
the distichous-flabellate, the most striking type in the order is the 
flat strongly plicate leaf, usually narrowed, either symmetrically 
or obliquely, into a sort of petiole, a type which nearly always } 
runs without exception through the genera in which it occurs, 
and is represented at the Cape by Baliana, and in Tropical Ame- 
rica by Tigridia^ EleutTierine, and several other small genera. 
There are bulbilli developed on the axils of the leaves in species 
of Sparaxis, HesperantTia,, and Morcea. 

Inflorescence and Bracts. — Iridaceae also agree with Cyperacese 
and G-ramineae, and differ from Liliacese and Amaryllidacese, in 
the fact that in inflorescence and bracts we get some of the best 
characters for groups and genera. Here, as in the structure of 
the perianth, we have in the order three well-marked types, 

VIZ. : — 


1. Spathe essentially one-flowered and two-valved. Flowers 


J i 







comparatively persistent, nearly always arranged in centripetal 
spikes, which are often panicled. To the normal form of this type, 
of which w^e have examples in Gladiolus^ Ixia^ Watsonia^ Sparaxis, 
and Antholyza^ about one third of the genera of the order belong. 
We have this type running into abnormal forms in Lapeyrousia^ 
in which the flowers are arranged in corymbose panicles, but iu 


some species they run into spikes at the end of the branches — and 
in Romulea and Spatalanthits^ in which the flowers are often soli- 
tary or, if more than one, umbellate. Taking the three primary 
subdivisions of the order founded on perianth-structure, we find 
this type of inflorescence runs through all the GladiolecB^ includes 
about half of the Ixiecd^ and is not represented at all in the Iridem 
proper. It is correlated with flab e Hate- distichous leaves, the ab- 
sence of a peduncle inside the bract, the presence of a distinct 
tube to the perianth above the ovary, a perigynous insertion of 
the stamens, and a comparatively firm texture and long duration 
in the floner. In this type the shape and texture of the two 
bracts of the spathe vary greatly from genus to genus, and 
usually run through a genus with great uniformity. As illustra- 
tions of peculiar forms, I may mention the short, oblong-truncate 
type, membranous in texture, with two or three cusps at the tip, 
which marks Ixia^ MorpMxia^ and Tritonia^ and the membranous 
lacerated spathe- valve conspicuously variegated with brown and 
white, which marks at a glance Sparaxisirom all the other Ixioid, 
and Synnottia from all the other Gladioloid genera. 

2. Plow^ers one or many to each bulb or corm, sessile in the 
centre of a multifarious rosette of generally narrow leaves, each 
furnished with a tight-clasping, long, membranous spathe of its 

own, divided at the top into one or two valves, and these, if the 
flower be more than one, not enclosed in a general bract of firm 
texture, as in the next group: examples — Crocus^ Galaxia^ Sy- 
ringodea. The flowers in this type are always regular and upright, 
with a long slender tube, and the leaves never flabellato-di- 


3. Flowers essentially clustered, the bracts superposed, the 
two outer ones generally green and firm in texture at the 
flowering-time, the inner ones membranous. The number of 
flowers in a cluster varies greatly. Rarely, as in some of the 
Irises, it runs down to one, in which case there are no membra- 
nous bracts inside the two outer green ones. Often the number 

66 MB. J. a. ba.keb's systema iridacearum. 

of flowers in a cluster i« from three to six, as in Tigridia and Rigi- 
delta] but sometimes, as m Aristea and Libertia C(sruJescens/\t 
runs up to twenty or thirty. The clusters are sometimes solitary, 
and in that case may either be terminal or lateral as regards the 
main axis of the stem. If more than one, they usually form 
corymbs, but sometimes;, as in one section of SisyrincMum^ only a 
compound spike. Taking the divisions of the order as founded on 
perianth-structure, this type includes all the Iridete proper, about 
half the Ixie(3e^ but none of the Gladiolece — as a whole, more than 
half the genera of the order. The flowers are more fugitive than 
in the solitary-flowered, spicate type, and usually stalked within 
the spathe-valves ; and the flow^ers in a cluster expand in succes- 
sion, beginning with the lowest, the pedicels elongating so as to 
push up the limb above the level of the cluster of bracts. The 
limb ofteu expands only for a few hours in the middle of the day, 
and, after once closing, does not open again. We have examples 
of this type of inflorescence, in the Old World, in IriSy Patersonia, 
and Aristea; and all the American genera, such as Sisgrinchitim, 
Marica, Tigridia^ and Cgpella, belong to it exclusively. As the 
outermost flower is the first to expand, it would seem at first 
sight as if these clusters of flowers represented one of the Gladio- 
loid spikes congested ^ but Mr. Bentham has lately pointed out 
(* Flora Australiensis,' vol. vi. p. 399) that they really represent 
congested, unilateral cymes — the pedicel of the first flower being 
not in the axis of the first bract, but opposed to the second bract 
with the rest of the cluster between them, the third bract placed 
on the same side as the first with the second flower opposed to it, 
and so on to the end. That such is the case it is often easy to 
see in Iris ; but frequently the clusters are so excessively con- 
gested that it is difficult to make out their true character. With 
this type is correlated either a long, clavate ovary, or the presence 
of a pedicel inside the bract; and it is to this that the epigynous 
stamens, ovaries protruded at the top from the perianth-tube, 
and (except in Bahiana) the plicate leaves are restricted ; and in 
this type there is much less variation in the form and texture of 
the bracts that, under the centripetal spicate type and special 
forms of bract, are not characteristic of particular genera. 

PeriantJi. — We get within the bounds of the order three dis- 
tinct types of structure, viz. : 

1. A regular perianth, with a straight tube and symmetrical 

- h 









MB. J. O. baker's SrSTEMA IHIDACKAUUM. 67 

limb, in which all the six divisions arc alike in shape and di- 
rection, correlated with symmetrical stamens spreading from 
the axis in the same direction as the perianth-segments which 
they subtend — as in Crocus and Ixia. 

2. A regular perianth with stamens as in the last type, but the 
three inner segments decidedly different in shape, and often in 
direction, from the three outer — as in Iris and Tigridia. 

3, An irregular perianth with a more or less decidedly arch- 
ing tube and segments of the same row different in shape and 
direction, correlated with stamens unilateral and arching in the 
expanded flower — as in Gladiolus and Monthretia. 

This difference in perianth-structure furnishes, in my view, 
the best primary subdivision of the order for systematic pur- 
poses. It is a difference which is both important from a 
structural point of view and easy of application ; and there is the 
advantage that each of the three groups thus formed contains 
a considerable number of genera. Out of 65 genera in tlie order, 
32 belong to the first, 20 to the second, and 12 to the third type. 
The principal difficulty in its practical application is, that, if we 
look at perianth-structure alone, it is difficult to draw the line 
between the first group and the third ; but if the direction of tlie 
stamens be attended to, the difficulty almost entirely disappears. 
As I have already indicated, these three types of perianth-struc- 
ture, to a large extent, run parallel with the three types of inflo- 
rescence. AU the 12 Gladioloid genera have the spicate, centri- 
petal inflorescence ; all the 20 Euiroid genera have the congested, 
cymose inflorescence ; but in the 32 Ixioid genera all tlie three 
types of inflorescence are shown. For the rest there is little 
about the perianth that need be alluded to here. Even in the group 
where the two rows of segments are dissimilar, the outer row 
is always thoroughly petaloid in texture. The difference between 
the absence or presence of a tube above the ovary sometimes occurs 
in plants otherwise very closely allied, and cannot, I think, be 
regarded as a constant mark of genera. The distinct beard of 
strong hairs that runs down the claw of the outer segments to 
form a cushion for the stamens in one large section of Iris is re- 
markable ; but in another section of Iris, as also in species of 
Morcea and Vieusseuxia, the claw is clothed with a finer, more dif- 
fused cushion. In another section of Iris the claw of the outer 
segments shows a petaloid crest; and in several of the American 






Iridese the three inner segments are permanently convolute, — all 
arrangements prohably in some way connected with fertilization, 
the import and mode of action of which have still to be worked out. 
Stamens. — In the anther throughout the order there is no ma- 
terial difference in struetui^e ; neither can we regard the differ- 
ence between the epigyuous and perigynous insertion of the sta- 
mens as here of much account, as one slides into the other very 
gradually. The three stamens, whatever may be their direction 
in the expanded floAver, are always inserted opposite the outer 
segments of the perianth. In the Australian genus Diplarrhena 
the three filaments are unequal in length, and one of the anthers 
is abortive. In one solitary instance, for a typical Iridaceous 
plant {EleiitJierine anomald) Herbert has recorded the presence of 
six stamens ; but it has never been seen again, and may perhaps 
have been a monstrosity of the common American EletUherine 
plicata. Mr, Bentham regards as an anomalous member of Iri- 
dacese the Australian genus Campynema, which has always six 
stamens. I have spoken already of the different direction of the 
stamens in the expanded flower, and how in this respect we get 
two well-marked types correlated with the shape of the perianth. 
The three filaments, when free, never become dilated andpetaloid ; a. 

but in a considerable number of Iridacea? the stamens are more or 
less decidedly monadelphous ; and for this reason, in the old books, 
the order is separated out under tw^o Linnean classes far removed 
from one another. In a small number of genera, such as Tigridia^ 
Tieiisseuxia^ and Qalaxia^ the filaments are completely and 
thoroughly monadelphous ; and in a large number, such as Crocus 
and GladiohtSj they are completely and unmistakably free. But 
in other genera, well marked by habit, inflorescence, and perianth- 
characters, such as Sisyrinclimm and Libertia,vie get very various 
degrees of union in plants thoroughly uniform in other points. 
Txia^ a well-marked triandrous generic type, embracing wide spe- 
cific diversity, has two monadelphous representatives, Ixia mona- 
delpha and curta. Bomuleay a genus with 36 triandrous species, 
with a habit peculiarly its own, has a monadelphous analogue in the 
single species on w^hich Sweet founded his genus SpatalantTius. 
So that, as a whole, we must say that triandrous pass gradu- 
ally into the monadelphous Iridacese along several lines of 

PistiL — In the ovary there is no material diftercnce in the order, 









except that in the monotypic genus Jlermodactylus the three 
placentas are parietal, and t!ie ovary conseciuently one-celled. 
The ovules in each cell are always more than one and super- 
posed. In style and stigma there is a very wide variation 
within the bounds of the order. We can always trace out three 
distinct style-branches. Sometimes, as in most of the Euiridea?, 
these are opposite to the stamens, and consequently to the three 
outer segments of the perianth ; but in another large section of 
the order, as in Sisyrinchium, Lihertia, and Patersonia^ the style-, 
branches are alternate with the stamens, and consequently op- 
posite to the three inner segments of the perianth. In Aristea the 
three branches are mere cusps ; but, as a rule, they are of con- 
siderable length. Sometimes they are subulate, and then may 
be either entire or more or less deeply forked. A common type 
is that of Gladiolus, in which the stigmas are represented hj small, 
flat, oblauceolate, petaloid expansions. We have an extreme 
type in the large, petaloid, crested style-branches of Iris and 
Morcea, As a whole, we may safely say that some of the best 
characters of genera are taken from these organs ; and, as a 
rule, it seems that we may safely hold a material difference in 
style as the mark of a distinct genus, although in Crocus we get 
a wide range of diversity in plants otherwise very near to one 


Fruit and Seeds, — The fruit is always capsular, with loculicidal 
dehiscence. In some cases, as for instance, Tigridia^ Migidella^ 
and Herbert ia, the top is protruded beyond the perianth- tube, 
and this leaves a distinct free operculum at the top of the cap- 
sule, at the bottom of which, at any rate temporarily, the dehis- 
cence stops. The seeds are generally angular; and in those 
genera in w hich they are typically discoid we get species in which 
the discoid character is lost. Gladiolus segetum^ wath globose 
seeds, is very difficult to distinguish from G. hyzantinus^ in which 
they are as flat as in a tulip. Iris and Antholyza are genera in 
which we get a very individualized type of flower in combination 
with seeds of a very different shape. So that for purposes of sys- 
tematic distinction the seeds in the order are not readily avail- 
able. The testa in the order differs materially in colour and tex- 
ture, and needs greater study of fresh specimens than I have been 
able to giA^e. In embryo and albumen I know of no material 
difference within the bounds of the order. 

70 MR. J, o. bakek's systema ieidaceaeum. 

Bounds of the Order, — Unlike the LiliacesD and Amaryllidacere, 
IridacesD is one of the most strictly limited of natural orders. 
The only genus about which there can be any doubt as to whether 
it should be included in the order or not is Campynema^ which has 
an inferior ovary, six stamens with extrorse anthers, melauthoid 
leaves, and a tuft of fleshy root-fibres. It was placed by Brown in 
Melanthaceee, by Mueller in Ilypoxidacese, but in Mr. Bentham's 
view is better regarded as an anomalous Irid. 

Geographical Distribution. — As I am giving a table showing ^ 

the distribution of each genus, it is not needful to say much on 
this head. The great concentration of the order is at this Cape, 
where we get 312 out of 698 species. Out of G5 genera, 25 are 
exclusively Cape and 7 are mainly Cape plants, but are feebly 
represented in Tropical Africa. Of the three great subdivisions 
of the order, the Gladiole^e are confined to the Old World, the 
other two common to both the Old and the New. Although 
Europe comes next to the Cape in number of species, it has only 
one endemic genus {IIermodacti/lus),SiJid all its other species belong 
either to Crocus and Xiphion (which it shares with Temperate Asia), 
to Iris (which has the widest dispersion of any genus of the order), 
or to Gladiolus^ Bomulea^ and Mor<ea (which it shares with the Cape 
and Tropical Africa). The 56 Tropical- African species are out- 
wandering representatives of the great Cape genera. Australia 
has two endemic genera {Patersonia and Diplarrhena), a single 
Iris^ and Orthrosanthus and Lihertia (which it shares with Tropical 
America). Out of 21 American genera, 17 are endemic. Out of 
a little over 100 American species, all but 2 are endemic. Very 
few of the species occur in more than one of the climatic districts. 
The two most widely dispersed plants of the order are Sisyrin- 
chium Bermudianum^ which is common to Ireland and North 
America, and Iris sihirica^ which extends from Sweden and France 
to Japan, and just touches North-west America. There are 6 

plants which I have treated as species which are known in gardens 










Romulea ... 


Geissorhiza , 
Ilesperantha . 
Morphixia . . . , 

Sparaxis *. 


Ilexaglottis . 
Eleutlierine . 

• ft 





Spathalanthus . . . 




Chlamydostjlus . . . 






Belemcanda ... 







Phalocallis .... 


Mortca *. 

• • • 

Herbertia . 



« * 

• « * 

t • 

t • 

* • 

« » 

4 « 

* ft 

« ■ i 

• ■ 

« » 

« • • 

4 * 

« t 

« « 

» m 

ft 4 

« • « 

4 4 # 

« * 

t * 4 

• * 



* A 4 

* « * 

t m 

* ■ 

4 i * 

* t 


« # ■ 

4 4 # 

Totals 57 

jf the Genera of 
















¥ 4 


« « 

4 • 

« • 

« « 

■ * 

4 4 

4 4 

f * 

4 fe 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

• • 


« ■ 

* * 


4 4 

t « 

« t 

4 4 

4 t 

4 * 





^ . 


4 4 

• « 

» » • 

4 * 

• • * 

1 4 

4 4 « 

4 4 4 

• • • 

4 4 


t ft 


• 4 * 

■ 44 

• • • 

t • 4 

« • » 

• * 4 

4 « * 


4 * 

t « ■ 

ft 4 

t * « 


■ « ■ 

4 4 * 


• » « 

4 ft 4 

4 4 

# 4 















4 4 4 

• • » 

4 4 t 

• ■ • 

« A 


4 4 

# 4 * 

« ■ « 

• * 

• • * 

* ft 

* ft » 

4 4 

f « • 

* 4 • 

t * ft 

4 4 » 

# t 

4 * 

» * • 


« « 

• « ■ 

• • * 

4 4 

« * • 

4 4* 






4 ■ • 

4 * * 

4 # 



ft 4 4 

• « • 









4 # 









* • * 


« 4 * 

4 4 

4 « ■ 


* 4 


• « • 




.2 N 



t « • 

» * • 

« t * 












MR. J. G. baker's systems IRIDACEARUM 

G enera, 

Brought forward 













Homoglossum ... 




Melasph.Trula . . . 








« 4 * 


■ # 

• « 

• * 

* t 

• t 

■ « 

■ « 

» * 

• » 

* ■ 

• « 


• • • 








4 « 4 

* « 


# * 

4 « * 

t ■ • 

4 * 

4 « • 

» • * 

t • 

• • • 

* * * 

* * 

« ■ 4 

• •• 

4 % 





c3 -r* 


• 44 


* 4 

4 • 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 

4 # 

4 4 

■ # 

4 # 

4 # 

4 4 

4 4 

4 4 









« 4 




* 4 












4 4 

• # 

4 4 

4 # 

• # 

4 4 

» « 

t 4 

4 4 

4 tf 

» • 











4 t 

■ t 

4 4 

4 • 

• * 

4 * 

4 4 

4 4 

* 4 

4 4 











J; oj 



A ^ » 














Table of tJie Genera of lridace<E. 




Crocus 51 

Syrhigodea 3 

Romulea 36 

Ixia 18 

Streptanthera .,. 2 

Geisdorhiza 26 

Ilesper antlia 12 

Morphixia 9 

Sparaxis 3 

Dierama 2 

Hexaglottis 2 

Eleutherine 2 

Calydorea 8 

Cardiostigma ... 1 

Nemastylis 3 



Xipbion 16 

Spbenostigma ... 1 

Cipura 2 

Alophia 3 

Lansbergia 7 

Hesperoxiphion. . 2 

Phalocallis 1 

Cypella 2 



Anomatheca 4 

Lapeyrousia 18 

Watsonia - 13 

Acidanthera 1*^ 

Homoglossum ... 3 

Tritonia 9 

Freesia 3 

Babiana 19 

Melasphairula ... 1 

Montbretia 14 

Synnottia 3 

Gladiolus 87 

Antholyza H 












a S S 



Talle of the Genera of Iridacece (coutiuued) 



Spatalantlius .. 




Chlamydostylus . 





Schizostjlis , , 

Witsenia , 





Belemcancla .., 








Tapeinia .... 
Solenonielus , 

■ « ■ 






Mopiea 35 

Vieu3seuxia 11 

PJerbertia '6 

Eigidella 3 

Hjdrotienia 1 

Tigridia 6 



Heriiiodactjlus. . . 
Diplarrhena . 


rv • • • 



Libertia 8 

Patersojiia 19 


Genera 32, species 289. Geaera 20, species 215. 


Genera 13, species 194. 


Scries T. TxiE^. Perianthium regulare, segmentis interiorlbus 
exterioribus consimilibus, staminibus irquilateralibiis. 

Tribua 1. Ckoce^. Herbse bulbosse staminibus liberis. 

* Spath(B uniJlor(2. Flares hand spicati. 

1. Crocus. Acaulis, spathse valvis angustis elongatis tnembranaceis. 
Periantbii tubus longissimus. Stigmata Integra vel multifida. Europa, 
Asia accident alts y Mauritania. 

2. Syringodea. Acaulis, spathas valvis angustis elongatis merabrana- 
ceis. Periantbii tubus elongatus. Stigmata integra cuneata. C. B. 

3. RoMULEA. Caulescentes, floribus solitariis vel paucis corymbosis. 
Spathse valvre lanceolatae, exterior viridis. Periantbii tubus brevissi- 

' + 

74 MR. J. G. baker's ststema iuidacearum. 

mus. Stigmata bifida ramis brevibus subulatis. Regio Medit., Africa 
tropicalis, C. B, Spei, 

** SpatJicB uniflorce. Floras spicati. 

4. IxiA. Perianthium rotafcum, tubo cylindrico. Spathae valvar breves 
membranacese, apice 2-3-dentatae. C, B. Spei, 

5. Strept ANTHER A. Perianthium rotatum^ tubo brevissimo cylin- 
drico, Spathae valvae membranacese brunneo-punctatse apice lacerata?. 
C. B. Spei. 

6. Geissorhiza. Perianthium infundibulare, tubo cylindrico. Spathae 
valvse oblongae virides integrse. Stylus ex tubo protrusus, stigmatibus 
brevibus subulatis, C. B, Spei, Madag., Monies Cameroon. 

7- Hesperantha. Perianthium infundibulare, tubo cylindrico, Spathse 
valvar oblonga; virides integrfe. Stylus ex tubo vix protrusus, stig- 
matibus magnis subulatis. C. B. Spei, Abyssinia. 

8. Morphixia. Perianthium infundibulare, tubo cylindrico brevi vel 
lougo, collo turbinato. Spathae valvae breves membranacese, apice 
2-3-deutatae. C. B. Spei, 

9. Sparaxis. Perianthium infundibulare, tubo brevi. Spathae valvse 
membranaceae brunneo-punctatae, apice laceratae. Folia brevia mem- 
branacea. C. JB. Spei. 

10. DiERAMA. Perianthium infundibulare, tubo brevi. Spathae valvse 
magnae pallidae membranacese parce laceratae. Folia dura elongata. 

C, B. Spei. 


SpathiB 2~pluriflor<B . 

11. Hexaglottis. Capensis, perianthii tubo producto, spathis sessi- 
libus spicatis. 

Americanly perianthii tula nullo.spatMsjpedunculatis^foUis 

scepissime plicatis. 

1 2. Eleutherine. Stigmata 3 Integra subulata. Flores albi. Amer. 

13. Calydorea. Stigmata 3 subulata apice emarginata, Flores 
caerulei, raro lutei. Amer. trap. 

14. Cardiostigma. Stigmata 3 plana obcordata. Flores cserulei. 

15. Nemastylus. Stigmata 6 elongata subulata. Flores cserulei. 
Amer. bor.'Orientalis. 









Tribua 2. Galaxie^^. Ilerbse bulboase, staminibus coalitis. 

* Capenses, stigmatibus plus minus applanatis. 

16. Galaxia. Acaulis, floribus sessilibus solitariis, tubo producto 
filiformi. Stigma peltatira trilobatum. 

17. Spatalanthus. Acaulis, floribus solitariis pedunculatis, tubo 
brevi infundibulari. Stigmata ligulata emarginata. 

18. IIomeria. Caulescens, floribus paniculatis, ad spatham pluribus. 
Tubus nullus. Stigmata ligulata petaloidea 2-cristata, Bulbus tuni- 

19. Ferrari A. Caulescens, floribus paniculatis, ad spatham pluribus. 
Stigmata petaloidea bifida penieillata. Limbus basi cupularis. Cormus 



AmericancBy styli ramis subulatis 

20. Gelasine, Styli rami 3. 

21. Chlamydostylus. Styli rami fi. 

Tribus 3. Ahiste^e. HerbsD vel fruticea baud bulbosae, stamiuibus 


* HerbcB, floribus spicatis ad spatham solitariis, 

22. ScHizosTYLis. Stylus ex tubo baud protrusus, stigmatibus maguis 
subulatis. C B. Spei. 

** Frutices, spathis l-2'floris, ramis ancipitibus distiche folia tis, 


23. Witsenia. Perianthium viridulura infundibulare, lobis brevibus 
conniventibus, exterioribus dorso flavo-tomentosis. Antherse magnac 
lanceolata;, filaraentis brevibus complanatis. 

24. NivENiA. Perianthium cseruleum hypocrateriforme, lobis patulis 
\ glabris, tubo cylindrico aequilongis. Anthera; minutae oblongse, fila- 

mentis brevissimis subulatis. 

25. Klattia. Perianthium caeruleum, lobis glabris longissimis erectis 
anguste lingulatis longe unguiculatis. Antherse magnae lanceolatae, 
fllamentis longissimis subulatis. 

*** Herba, spathis multifloris. 

26. Aristea. Caulis foliosus. Inflorescentia corymbosa, raro capitata. 
Perianthium caruleum, tubo brevissimo. Stylus productus apice 
obscure tricuspidatus. C. B. Spei, Madag., Abyssinia, Angola. 


76 MTt. J. G. baker's ststkma iutdaceabum. 

27- Orthrosanthus. Caulisparce foliosus. Inflorescentia capitata i 

corymbosa. Pevianthium cserulcura, tvibo brevissimo. Stylus brevissi- 
mus, ramis productis subulatis. Australia, Amer. tropicalis, 

28. Belemcanda. Caulis parce foliosus. Inflorescentia corymbosa. 
Perianthium rubrum punctatum, tubo nuUo, China, 


29. Bobartia. Caulis nudus. Inflorescentia capitata, Perianthium 
luteuni, tubo nuUo. C. B, Spei, 

Tribus 4. SiSYRiNCHiEiE. Herb?e baud bulbosse, staminibus 


Series II. Irideje. Perianthium regulare, segmentis interioribus 

ezterioribus dissimilibus, staminibus sequilateralibus. 


Tribus 5. Xiphionide^. Herbse bulbosae, staminibus 


* Segmenta inieriora plana. 

33. XiPHiON. Stigmata magna petaloidea quadrata, cristis 2 petaloideis 
instructa. Folia plana. Regio Mediterranea, Oriens. 

34. Sphenostigma. Stigmata parva Integra cuneata denticulata. 
Folia plicata. Brasilia. 

35. Cipura. Sti2:mata parva oblonga Integra petaloidea. Folia pli- 
cata vel raro teretia. Amer, trop. 


Segmenta interiora convoluta. 

3f). Alophia. Stigmata bifida, ramis subulatis rccurvatis. Folia 
plicata. Texas, 

37. Lansbergia. Stigmata clavata apice emarginata. Folia teretia 
vel plana. Amer. trop. 

38. Hesperoxiphion. Stigmata magna petaloidea quadrata, cristis 
tribus petaloideis, intermedia minuta. Folia plicata. Amer. trop. 

39. Phalocallis. Stylus apice cyathiformis, stigmatibus cristis 2 
deltoideis transversalibus prseditis. Folia plicata. Brasilia merid. 



30. Tapeinia. Spathic muitiflorse, valvis 2. Tubus nuUus. Chili, j 


31. SiSYRiNCHiUM. SpathuE multiflorai, valvis pluribus. Tubus nullus. 
America tota, Hibernia. 

32. Solenomelus. Spatha? muitiflorse, valvis pluribus. Tubus pro- 
ductus infundibularis vel filiformis. AndeSy Chili, Patagonia. 




MR, J. a. B.VKER's SYSTEiM V r aiDACEAUUV. 77 

40. Cypella. Stylus apice cyathiformis, ramis stigtnatosis bifidis, 
ramulis cristis tribus subulatis inrequulibus prseditis. Folia plicata. 

Tribus 6. TraniDiEiE. Herbse bulboajB, staminibua coalitia, 

* Styli rami pet aloideiy opice 2-cristaii. 


41. MoR^A. Filamenta sursum libera, deorsum coalita. Periauthii 
segmenta interiora exterioribus oequilonga. C. B. S., Africa tropi- 
calls, Regio mediterranean 

42. ViEUSSEuxiA. Filamenta prorsus coalita. Perianthii segmenta 
interiora minuta ungiiiculata. C B, Spei, 


Styli rami suhulati vel angaste applanati. 

43. Herbertia. Styli rami apice emarginati vel integri. Segmenta 
interiora parva plana. America trop, et suhtrop. 

44. Rigidella, Styli rami profunde furcati. Segmenta interiora 
rainutissima occulta. Mexico et Guai^emala, 

45. Hydrot^nia. Styli rami profunde furcati. Segmenta interiora 
magna plana rhomboidea. Mexico, 

4fi. TiGRiDiA. Styli rami profunda furcati. Segmenta interiora ex- 


terioribus multo minora convoluta. Amer. trop. 

Tribus 7. EtriRiDE^. Herbse rhizomatosse, staminibus liberia. 

* Segmenta interiora haud convoluta, 

47. Iris. Stamina 3 perfecta. Ovarium 3-loculare. Stigmata qua- 
drata petaloidea apice cristis 2 magnis petaloideis instructa. Rhizoma 
repens, saepissime crassum. Regio temp.prcesertim zonce borealis, 

48. Hermodactylus. Stamina et stigmata Iridis, Ovarium 1-locu- 
lare, placentis 3 parietalibus. Rhizoma digitatum. Regio mediterranean 

49. Diplarrhena. Stamina insequalia arcuata, 1 castratum. Seg- 
raentum supremum interius leviter fornicatura. Ovarium et stigmata 

Iridis. Australia, 

• » 

Segmenta interiora convoluta. 

50, Marica. Scapus late applanatus. Stigmata multifida. Amer, 

Tribus 8. Patkrsonieje. Herbse baud bulbosse, staminibua 

ssepissime coalitis. 

51. Patersonia. Perianthii tubus productus ; segmenta interiora 
minuta. Stigmata parva, petaloidea. Australia, 



52. LiBERTiA. Perianthii tubus nuUus; segmenta interiora magna. 
Stigmata subulata. Australia, Nov. ZeaL, Amer. austral, temp. 

Series III. Gladtole.^. Perianthium irregulare, staminibus 
unilateralibas arcaatis. Omnia bulbosa, filameutis liberis. 

Subtribus 1. Homoglossa, Limbi segmenta subaequalia. 

Styli apice bifidi, ramis divaricatis. 

53. Anomatheca. Inflorescentia spicata. Tubus gracilis, cylindricus. 
Spathse valvae lanceolatse integrae acutae. Folia aggregata. C B. 
Spei, Africa tropicalis, 

54. Lapeyrousia. Inflorescentia ssepisime corymbosa. Tubus gra- 
cilis cylindricus. Folia ssepissime segregata. C B. Spei, Africa 

55. Watsonia. Inflorescentia spicata. Tubus curvatus infundibu- 
laris medio cito ampliatus. C. B. Spei, Madagascaria. 


Styli rami integri, stigmatibus parvis petaloideis. 

56. AciDANTHERA. Tubus elongatus cylindricus subrectus. Spathse 
valvae magnse Integra; virides lanceolatai. Folia plana glabra segre- 
grata. C. B. Spei, Africa tropicalis. 

51 . HoMOGLOSsuM. Tubus curvatus infundibularis medio cito ampli- 
atus. Spathse valvae lanceolatai integrae. Folia angustissima glabra 
segregata. C B. Spei. 

58. Tritonia. Tubus brevis late infundibularis. Spathse valvae breves 
brunneae apice dentatae. Folia plana glabra aggregata. C. B. Spei. 

60. Babiana et Acaste. Tubus brevis late infundibularis. Spathae 

valvae lanceolatae pilosae. Folia aggregata pilosa plicata oblique 
petiolata. C. B. Spei. 

• Ubtribus 2. HeTEROGLOSSA. Limhl aAfyTnPTif« iral/l« ;r^^n^ 


Styli rami bifidi, ramulis divaricatis. 

59. Freesia. Spathae valvae parvae apice dentate. Folia glabra gra- 
minoidea. C. jB. Spei. 

** Styli rami integri. 
a. Humiles, seminibus turgidis. 

60. Babiana et Eubabiana. Tubus productus apice infundibularis. 
Spathic valvae lanceolatae subcoriaceae pilosae. Folia pilosa pUcata 
oblique petiolata. C. B. Spei. 

61. Melasph^erula. Tubus brevissimus. Limbi segmenta cuspl- 
data. Spathae valvae parvae integrae glabrae. Folia glabra plana mem- 
branacea. C. JB. Spei, 




MR. J. G. baker's systema iridaceabum. 79 

62. Month RET! A. Tubus productus apice infundibularis. Spathae 
valvge srepissime breves apice sphacelatse dentatae. Folia plana glabra. 
C. B. Spei. 

63. Synnottia. Tubus productus infundibularis. Spathse valvse 

breves merabranaceae brunneo punctatae apice laceratae. Folia plana 
glabra. C. -B. Spei. 

b, Elat(jB, seminibus scepissime discoideis alatis, 

64. Gladiolus. Tubus curvatus infundibularis sensim ampliatus. 
Segraenta tubo aequilonga vel longiora. C. B. Spei^ Africa irop,, 
Mauritania^ Oriens^ Europa cent, et austr, 


65. Antholyza. Tubus curvatus, medio cito ampliatus. Segmenta 
tubo breviora. C. B. Spei, Africa trop. 

1. Crocus, Tournef. 

Tournef, Instit. 350, t. 183-181 ; Linn. Gen. No. 55 ; Ker, Gen. 
Irid. 72 'y Herbert in Journ. Boy. Sort. Soc. ii. 249; Klatt in 
lAnncea^ xxiv. 675 ; BaTcer in Gard. Chron. anno 1873. — Cro- 
ciris, Schur, Serf. 1853, 73. 

Perianthium regulare infundibulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium 

longe producto cylindrico recto, segraentis oblongo-spathulatis 
conformibus diu erectisimbricaiis. Stamina 3, ad faucein tubi 
sequilateraliter inserta, segraentis breviora, filamentis liberis 
applanatis, antheris erectis linearibus sagittatis. Ovarium tri- 
loculare, ovulis in loculo plurimis horizontalibus ; stylus filifor- 
mis, longissimus, ex tubo periantliii exsertus, ramis stigmatosis 
tribus subintegris, apice fimbriatis vel multifidis ramis capilla- 
ribus patulis. Capsula chartacea, oblongo-trigoua, ab apice 
loculicide trivalvis, seminibus multis globosis, testa membra- 
nacea brunnea, albumine corneo, embryone minuto recto axili. 
Serbce acaules, cormo annuo prolifero tunicis memhranaceis 
fibrosis vel reticulatiSj foliis angtiste linearibus, siccis persisten- 
■ tibuSySynanthiis vel Tiysterantliiis scepe albo vittatisj spatha basali 
membranacea vel nulla, tubo sjpatlia propria elongata memhranacea 
l~2-valvi bracteato.floribus magnis speciosis vernalibus vel autum- 
nalibus albis lHacinis vel luteis scBpe vittatis. 

u 2 

80 MR. J. Gt, bakeb's systema ihidaceakum:. 

Sect. !• HoLOSTiGMA. Stigmata tria siibintegra^ vix Jimhriata. 

* Vernales, 

1. C. chrysanthus. Herb. inJourn. Hort, Soc. ii. 285, non Bot. Reg. 
C. annulatus, var. chrysanthus, Herb, in Bot, Mag. sub t, 3861. 

C. croceus, K. Koch in hinncBa, xix, 7. — C. sulphureus, Griseb. FL 

RumeL ii. 373, non Ker. Asia Minor^ Roumelia. 
Var. Fusco-TINCTUS, Baker, Asia Minor, 
Var. fusco-lineatus. Baker. Asia Minor. 

2. C. m^siacus, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 652. — C. luteus, Lam. 
EncijcVu 385; Red. LiL t. 196; Reich. Ic. Crit. tab. 926. fig. 124/. 

C. vermis, Curt. Bot. Mag. t, 45, nou AIL — C. floribundus, Haworth 

in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 133. — C. lagenpeflorus, var. luteus. Herb, in 

Journ. Hort. Soc, ii. 282. Asia Minor, Gn^cia, 
Var. C. AUREUS, Sibtk. 8f Sm,, Flor. Grmc. t. 35; Bot, Mag. t. 2986; 

Eng, Bot. Suppl t. 2646 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. tab. 925, fig. 1246 ; Reich. 

Ic, Germ, fig. 792. — C. lagenseflorus, var, 3, Salisb. Parad. Lond. 

t. 106. — C. lagenaeflorus, Sabine in Trans. Hort. Soc. vii. 444, t. 11. 

fig. 2, Asia Minor, Grcecia, Banatus. 
Var. C, STELLARis, Haworth in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 136, cum icone. 

Hybrida hortensis inter mcEsiacum et susianum ? 
Var. C. SULPHUREUS, Ker, Bot, Mag. t, 938 & 1384; Sabine in Trans. 

Hort. Soc. vii. t. 11. fig. 1 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 927. fig. 1248.— C 


flavus, Haworth in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 135. Grcecia. 

Var. C. LACTEus, Sabine in T'^ans. Hort. Soc, vii. 447, tab. 11. fig. 3. 
Forma bortensis. 

3. C. GARGARicus, Herb, in Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 281 ; Bot. Reg. 1847, 
tab. 116. fig. 1. — C. Thirkeanus, K, Koch in Linneea, xxi. 633, Asia 


4. C. susiANus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 652; Red. Lil. t. 293; Hayne, 
Arzneik. G. vi. t. 28 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 928. fig. 1249 ; Reich. Ic. Germ. 
t. 358. fig. 794.— C. revolutus, Haworth in Hort. Trans, i. 136. 
C. reticulatus, M. B. Plant. Ross. t. 1, ea? parte,— C. Roegnerianus, 
K. Koch in Linncea, xxi. 634. Caucasus, Crimea^ Podolia. 

Var. IMMACULATUS, Herb, in Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 279. Constanti- 

Var, ANCYRENSis, Herb. loc. cit. Asia minor. 

Mag. t. 6168. Insula Syra. 


Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 362 ; Red. Lil. t. 294 ; Reich. Ic. Exot. t. 34 ; 
Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 935-936. fig. 1256-59 ; Ic.Germ. t. 386. fig. 788-89. 

C. circumscissus, Haworth in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 137- — C. annu- 

us. Herb, in Journ, Hort. Soc. ii. 285. Italia. 




Var. C. ARGENTEUS, Sabine in Trans. Hort. Soc. vii. t. 11. fig. 5. 

C, minimus, Boi, Mag. t. 2991, non DC, — C. praecox, Haw. E. B. S. 

t. 2645. — C. liaeatus, Jaw, Elench. 1; Reich. Ic. Crit, fig. 1259; 

Reich. Ic. Germ, fig. 788-9. Italia, 
Var. C. PUsiLLus, Tenore, Mem. S, t. 2; Sweet, Brit. Flow.Gard. t. 106 ; 

Ten. FL Nap. t. 206 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t, 1454 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1987- 

Var. C. Weldeni, Hoppe in Bot. Zeit. 1840, 208; Bot. Mag. t.6211. 

Var. C. Adami, Gay in Bull. Feruss. xv. 219. — C. biflorus, M. B. Flor. 

Taur. Cauc.y Suppl 3/. — C. annulatus, var. adamicus, HerbAnJourn. 

Hort. Soc. ii. 285 j Bot. Mag. t. 3868. Crimea Sf Caucasus, 
Var. C. NUBIGENUS, Herb. Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 81. Asia Minor, 

7. C. VERSICOLOR, -Ker, Bot. Mag. t. 1110. — C. fragrans, Haw. in Trans. 
Hort. Soc. i. 136. — C. Reinwardtii, Reich. Ic. Crit. tab. 938. fig. 1261. 
Gallia orientalis meridionalis. 

Var. C. CRESTENSis, Eugene in Bull. Bot. Soc. France, xv. 190. 

8. C. SUAVEOLENS, Ber^oZ. F/./^aZ.i. 208 J Bot. Mag,' t. 3864; Sweet, 
Brit. Flow, Gard. ser. ii. t. 262. Italia. 

9. C. MINIMUS, DC. FL France, iii. 243 j Red, Lil. t, 81 ; Reich. Ic, 
Crit. t. 491. fig. 1267; Ic. Germ. tab. 359. fig. 795.— C. insularis, 
Gay in Bull, Feruss, xv. 221 ; Bot. Reg. 1843, t. 21.— C. corsicus, 
Vanucci,—C, nanus, DC, Syn. Gall, 168^ Sardinia, Corsica. 

10. C, BANATicus, Heuffel in Flora, 1835,255; Reich. Germ. t. 361, 
fig. 800-1, non Gay.—C. Heuff'ellii, Kornicke in Flora, 1856, 476. 
C. Heuff^ellianus, Herbert in Journ, Hort. Soc. ii. 273. Hungaria, 
Transylvania, Croatia. 

11. C. VERNUS, All. Fed. i. 84; Eng. Bot. t. 344; edit. 3, t. 1499; 
Jacq, Austr, v. t. 36; Red. Lil. t 266 ; Reich. Exot. t. 22; Reich. 
Ic. Crit. t. 929-934 ; Ic. Germ, t. 355; Fl. Dan, t. 2042.— C. offici- 
nalis sylvestris, Huds. Angl. i. 13. Europa centralis et meridionalis, 

Var. C. ALBiFLORiJS, Kit. in Schult. (Ester, Fl. i. 101 ; Reich, Ic. Crit. 

fig. 125.5 ; Ic. Germ, tab. 355. fig. 787- — C. montanus, Hoppe. — C. 

siculus, Tineo in Guss. Prodr, Fl. Sic. Suppl. 7. 
Var. C. OBOVATUS, Haworth^in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 133. — C. vernus, 

var. neapolitanus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 860, 2240. 
Var. C. NiviGENUS, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 82. Odessa. 
Var. C. ToMMASiNiANus, Herb, in Journ. Hort, Soc. ii. 273. Dalmatia- 
? Var. C. NERviFOLius, Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 942-3. fig. 1268-9. 

12. C. SiEBERi, Gay in Bull. Ferus. 1831, 220; Bot. Mag. t. 6036, 
C. nivalis, Bory ^ Chaul. Exp. Mor^e, 21, t. 2. fig. 1 ; Bot. Reg. 
xxxiii. t. 4. fig. 2.— C. Sieberianus, Herb, in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3866 
C. sublimis, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1845, Mi^c. 8,— C. Sibthorpianua, 
Herb, in Bot. Reg, 1845, Misc. 28. Gracia, Crete, Asia Minor. 

82 MR. J. G. bakeVs ststema ikidaceabum. 

Var. C. ATTicus, Orphanides^ MS. GrcBcia, 

Yar, C.VELUCHENSis, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1847, tab. 4. fig. 3 j Bot. Mag. 
t. 6197. — C. uniflorus, Schur in Verh, Sieb. Ver. 1852, 90. — C. bal- 
canensis, JankUy PL Nov. Turc. Brev, 8. — C, thessalus, Boiss, 8f 
Sprun. Diag. xiv. 17. Grcecia, Transylvania. 

Var. C. EXIGUUS, Schur, FL TransyL 652. Transylvania. 

13. C. PARViFLORUS, Baker in Trimen*s Journ. 1876, 266. Taurus 

Alatau cisiliensis. 


10, t. 4. Hispania. 

16. C. RETicuLATUS, M. B. Flor. Taur. Cauc. i. 28, et Cent. PI Ross. 

t. 1, ew parte; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 939-940; Ic. Germ. t. 356. — C. 

variegatus, Hoppe Sf Hornsch. Tagebuch, t. 1; Sturm, Deutsch. Flora, 

xiii. t. 54. — C. micranthus, Boiss. Diag, ser- 2, iv. 95, Caucasus, Asia 

Minor, Austria. 
Var. ALBICANS, Herb. Bot. Reg. xxxiii, t. 16. fig. 2. 
Var. C. DALMATicus, Visiani, FL Dalm. SuppL t. 2, Dalmatia. 

1/. C. ETRUScus, Parlat. FL ItaL Hi. 22S. Italia. 

** Autumnales. 

18. C, SATivus, Linn. Sp. Plant. 60; Lam. Ency. t. 30; Red. LiL 
t. 173; Reich. Ic. Germ.t. 360; Eng. Bot. t. 343; Royle, Him. IlL 
t. 91. fig. 1.— C. Orsinii, ParL FL ItaL iii. 238.— C. Haussknechtii, 
Boiss. in Haussi, Exsic.—l C. intromissus. Herb, in Journ, Hort, 
Soc. ii. 268. Patria incerta. 

19. C. Cartwrightianus, Herb, in Bot. Reg. xxx. t. 3. fig. 6, xxxi. 
t. 37. fig. 6, 7 ; Moore in Floral Mag. 1850, ii. 273, cum icone.—C. 
graecus, ChapelUer in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xx. 192. Grcecia. 

20. C. Pallasii, M. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. iii. 35.— C. autumnalis, M. 
Bieb. Flor. Taur. Cauc. i. 27.— C. Pallasianus. Herb, in Bot. Rea. 

xxx. t. 3. fig. 2. Crimea. 


205; Reich. Ic. Crit. t.9b\.—C Thomasianus, HerJ. iw Bot. Reg. 
xxx. t. 3. fig. 6. Italia meridionalis. 

22. C. visiANicus, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1845, Misc. 8.— C; Pallasii, r»>. 


C. versi- 

color, var. dalmaticus. Herb, in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3871 — ?C. hyber- 
nus, Friv. in Griseh. FL Rumel. ii. 374. Dalmatia. 

14. C. ALATAVicus, Regel et Semenow, Enum, PL Semenow, 111. | 


MR. J. G. baker's ststema iridacearum. 83 

23. G, HADKiATicus, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc, "i ; Bot. Reg, 
1847, t, 16. fig. 7-9. AlbaniUy Insula lonicce. 

24. C. Cambessedesii, Gay in Bull Feruss, vv. 220. — C. Cambesse- 
desianus. Herb, in Bot. Reg. xxxi. t. 37- fig. 4. Majorca, 

25. C. LAZicus, Boiss. in Balan. PL Orient. 1866, Exsic. No. 1533. 

26. C. PELOPONNESiACus, Orphan, in Boiss. Diag. ser. 2, iv. 94. 


27. C. KoTscHYANUs, K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. BeroL 1853. C. 
zonatus. Cay in Balansa, PL Orient. Exsic. 1855, No. 823. — ? C- 
VsLYilxxchornmy Koischy, PL Cilic. Exsic, 1859, no. 4G9. Asia Minor* 

28. C. ScHAROJANi, Ruprecht in Regelii Gartenjlora, xyii. 134, t. 578. 
fig. 2. Caucasus Occident alis. 

Sect. II. Odontostigma. Stigmata tria distincie hreviter 


* Vernales. 

29. C. Olivieri, Gay in BulL Feruss. 1831, 219; Bot. Mag. t. 6031. 
C. lagenseflorus, var. Olivierianus, Herb, in Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 

282. — C. Aucheri, Boiss. Diag. xiii. 16. Grcecia, Asia Minor. 

30. C. suterianus. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1845, Misc. 5. — C. chrysan- 
thus, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1847, t. 7. fijc. 1. Asia Minor. 

31. C. ALEPPicus, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1873, 609. Asia Minor. 

32. C. AERius, Herb, in Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 288, — C. Sibtborpianus, 
var. stauricus. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1845, Misc. 5. Armenia. 

Var. ? C. PULCHRicoLOR, Herb. loc. cit. — ? C. Pestallozzse, Boiss. Diag. 
xiii. 17. Bithynia. 



33. C. Imperati, Ten, Fl. Neap. iii. 411 ; Mem. t. 3 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. 
fig. 1260} Bot. Beg. t. 1993. — C. Imperatonius, Herb, in Journ. Hort. 

Soc. ii. 260. Calabria. 

** Autumnales. 

34. C. LONGiFLORLS, Rofin. Caratt. 84, t. 19. fig. 2; Bot. Reg. xxx. 

t. 3. fig. 4 ; Reich Ic. Crit. fig. 1272-3.— C. odorus, Biv. Siirp, Sic. 

iii. 8, t. 2. Calabria, Sicilia, 
Var. MELiTEXsis, Herb, in Bot, Reg. 1844, t. 3. fig. 5. Melita. 

. 36. C. SEROTINUS, Salisb. Parad. Loud, t 30; Bot. Mag. t. 1267; 
Reich. Ic. Crit. fig. 1271- Pairia inceria. 

84 MK. J. G. baker's SrSTEMA IKIDACEAUUM. 

Var. C. Salzmanni, Gay in Bull Feruss. xv.220; Hook.Jil.BoL Mag. 
t, 6000.— C. Salzmannianus, Herh. in Bot. Reg, 1847, t. 4. fig 4. 


C. tmgitanus, Herh, in Bot, Mag, sub t. 3808. Marocco, 
36. C. CASPius, Fisch. Sr Mey, in Hohen. Enum, Talusch, 22. Caucasus. 

37« C. OCHROLEUCUS, Boiss. ^' GailL in Boiss. Diag. ser. 2, iv. 93. 
Hook,JiL Bot, Mag, t. 52!>7. Syria, Palcestina, 

38. C. VALLicoLA, Herb, in Bot, Reg, xxxiii. t. 16. fig. 3.— C. Smvar- 
rowianus, K. KocJi in Unncea, xxi. 633. Armenia, 

39. C. DAMASCENUS, Her6. in Bot, Reg, 1845, t. 37- fig. 1.— C. edulis, 
Boiss. 4' Blanche, Exsic. Syria, 

Sect. III. ScHizosTiGMA. Stigmata tria multijida^rumis capilJari' 

bus patidis. 

Vernal es, 

40. C. viTELLiNUS, JFwA/. in Isis, xvi. 106. — C. syriucusj Boiss, Sf GailL 
in Bois, Diag. ser. 2, iv. 94. Syria,' 


41. C. SYRiACUS, Herb, in Journ, Hort. Soc, ii. 282. Asia Minor. 

42. C. Fleischeri, Gay in Bull. Feruss. 1831, 219.— C Fleischerianus, 
Herb, in Journ, Hort, Soc, ii, 278. — C. smyrueusis, Poech, Enum, Pt, 
Ins. Cyp. 11.— C. candidus, '^ Clarke,'' Travels, iii. 185; Boiss, Diag. 
xiii. 16. — C. minimus^ var. inajor, P?T5Z, Bemerk, 116. Asia Minor. 

43. C HYEMALis, Boiss. ^' Blanche, Diag. 2, iv. 93. Syria. 
V*ir. Gaillardotii, Boiss. i^- Blanche in Ret. Mail. No, 1718. Syria. 



44. C. Clusii, Gay in Bull F&uss, xv. 220,— C. clusianus, Herb, in 
Journ, Hort. Soc, ii. 269.— C. autumnalis, Brotero, Fl. Lusit. i. 49. 

■ w 

45. C. BoRYi, Gay in Bull F6uss. xv. 220.— C. Eoryanus, Herb, in Bot. 
Reg, 1847, t. 16. fig. 10.— C. ionicus. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1845, Misc. 
3.— 0. marathonisius. Held, Exsic. No. 2806.— C. Veneris, Tapp. in 
Poech, PL Cyp. 10. Grcecia, Cyprus, Insulee Ionics. 

Var. C. oRPHANiDis, Hook.JiL BoL Mag. t. 57/6. Grcecia. 
Var. C. CRETENSis, Kornicke in Flora, 1856, 409,' Creta. 

46. C. ScHiMPERj, Gay in Schimp. PL CephaL Exsic^C, uudiflorus, 
Sibth, Sf Sm. Prod, Grccc. 23,^ excl, syn.— C. cancellatus. Herb, 
in Bot, Mag. sub t. 3864.— C. Spruneri, Boiss. & Held, Diag. vii, 
103 — C. mazziaricus. Herb, in Bot. Reg, 1845, Misc. 3, 1847, tab. 16. 
fig. 5,6.— C. dianthus, A'. Koch in Lijineea, xxi. 634. — C. pylarum, 
Gay in Balansa, PL Orient. Exsic, no. 316. — C. cilicius, Kotschy, 
PL Cilic. Exsic. no. 316. Grwcia, Asia Mino*-. 









47. C. MKDius, Balhis, Add. Pedem. 83; Bot, Rep. xxi. t. 37. fig. 5? 
Mo(/ff, Cont. Ment. t, 20. Gallia meridioiialls^ Italia. 

48. C. NUDIFLORUS, Smith in Eng. Bot. t. 491; edit. 3, t. 1500; 
Baxter, Brit. Bot. t. 137. — C. multifidus, Ramond in Bull, Soc. Phil. 
ii. 129. t. 8. — C. speciosus, Wils. in Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2752, non 

M, B. 

Gallia, Hispania, 
Var. C. ASTURicus, Herb, in Bot. Mag. t. 3998. fig. 2. Asturia. 

49. C. SPKCJosus, M. B. Flor. Taur. Cauc. i. 27 ; Cent. Ross. t. 71 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 38G1 ; Bot. Reg. xxV. t. 40.— C. multifidus, Reich. Ic. 
Crit. fig. 1275, non Ramond. Austria, Crimea, Caucasus, Persia 


50. C. PULCHKLLUS, Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc.2S\ Bot. Reg. 
XXX. t. 3; Moore, Floral Mag. ItioO, cum icone. Turcia, Grcecia, 
Asia Minor. 

51. C.BYZANTiNUS {Parki7is.), Ker in Bot. Mag.t. 1111 ; Herb, in Bot. 
Reg. 1847, t. 4. fig. 5 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6141. — C. banaticus. Gay in Bull. 
Fernss. xv. 220, non HeuffeL — C. speciosus, Reich. PI. Crit. figs. 
1267-8, non M. jB.— C. iridiflorus, Heaff. in (Ester. Bot. Wochen. 

.1857, 222 J Reich. Ic. Germ. fig. 802-3.— C. Ilerbertianus, Kornicke 
in fValp. Ann. vi. 51. — Crociris iridiflora, Sckur, Sert. 1853, 73. 


2. SritiXGODEAj HooJc.fil. 

Rooh.fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 6072 ; Baker in Tnmen's Journ. 1876, 66. 

Perianthim)i hypocrateriforiinie vel infuudibulare, tubo cylindrico 
eloiagato sursum vix anipliato, segmentis 6 conformibus obova- 
tis iiitegris vel emargiuatis. Stamina 3, adfaucem tubi inserta, 
segmentis breviora, filamentis brevibus liberis filiformibus, an- 
theris basifixis lineari-sagittatis, Ovarium triloculare, ovulis 
in loculo pluribus borizontalibus ; stylus ex tubo breviter 
exsertus, stigmatibus tribus parvis patulis cuneatis. Capsula 
oblonga membranacea, loculicide trivalvis, seminibus minutis 
turgidis, testa brunnea. Herb<e acaules Jiabitu Croci, bulbi tuni- 
CIS memhranaceis hrunneis secus collum pj^oductis, spathts 7nem- 
Iranaceis unijloris^ valvis 2 linearibus tubo hrevioribus, Jloribus 
erectis lilacinis faiice luteis magnitudine mediocribus. 


* Segmenta patula emarginata. 
1. S. ruLCHELLA, H\)ok.Jil. in Bot. Mag. i. fi072. Caoe. 

86 MB. J. G. ba.b:ee's stste^a ibidaceabum 


Segmenta ascendentia Integra, 

2. S. BicoLOR, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 67. — Trichonema lungi- 
tubuiDj Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 665. Cape. 

3. S. FiLiFOLiA, Baker, loc. cit. Cape. 


3. EoMULEA, Maratti. 

Maratti Diss. 13 (anno 1772); Tenorein Mem. Accad. Neap. iii. 117, 
t. 7. — Trichonema, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 575 (anno 1801); 
Gen.Irid.79. — Bulbocodium, 2bwr;?^. ; Mill. Id. 240. — Txiae 
sp., Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2. — Croci sp., Linn. Sp. Plant. 
edit. 1. 

PeriantJiium regulare erectum, tubo brevi infundibulari, segmen- 
tis oblongis subeonformibus diu erectis imbricatis. Stamina 3, 
in tubo aequilateraliter inserta, segmentis breviora, filamentis 
liberis subulatis, antberis erectis linearibus sagittatis. Ovarium 
triloculare, ovulis in loculo plurimis horizontalibus ; stylus fili- 
formis ex tubo longe exsertus, ramis stigmatosis tribus falcatis 
brevibus emarginatis. Capsula oblonga cbartacea loeulicide tri- 
valvis, seminibus globosis, testa membranacea nigro-castanea, 
albumine corneo, embrjone recto axili. Herlce Jinmiles hul- 
hosce^ tunicis radicalihus crustaceis hrunneis^foliis panels tereti- 
hus persistentihus, pedunculis simplicihus vel parce corymlosis^ 
spathce unijlorcd valvis duabus lanceolatis integrisjiore breviorihus^ 
exteriore duro viridulo^ interiore minore membranacea, Jloribus 
solitariis vel paucis magnitudine mediocribus lilacinis, luteis vel 
alhidis segmentis dorso -purpureo-brunneo striatis. 

I. Species mediterranese et montium Africae tropicalis. 

* Grandiflorce. 
1. R. BuLBOCODiuM, Seb. Sf Maur. Fl. Rom. 17 ; Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. 


tab. 356. fig. 782-3; Mogg. Cont, Ment. t. 93 A. — Ixia Bulbocodimu, 
Linn. Sp. Plant. 51, ex parte majore; Jacq. Ic. t. 271; Bot. Mag. 
t. 265. — Trichonema Bulbocodium, Ker in Konig # Sims, Ann. i. 
223. — T. collinum, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Sac. i. 317- — Romulea 
uhginosa, Kunzem. Flora, 1846j 690. Regio mediterranea. 
Var. R. PULCHELLA, Jord. i^ Four. Brev. ii. 106; Ic. tab. 107. fig. 163. 


Gallia meridionalis . 


. Var. R. GRANDiFLORA, Todavo', lord. ^ Four. Brev. i. 49; Ic. tab. 108. 
fig. 154. Sicilia. 

MB. J. G. baker's ststema ihidacearum. 87 

Var. R. FLAVEOLA, Jorrf. 8f Four, Brev. ii. 106. — Gallia australis, 
Var. suBPALUSTRE. — Trichonemasubpalustre, Bot, Reg, xxx. 
t. 40. fig. 1. Turcia et insulce lonicee. 

Var. PYLiuM. — Trichonema pylium. Herb, in Bot. Reg. xxx. t. 40. 
fig. 2. Grcecia, 

Var. UMBELLATUM, — Trichoncma umbellatum, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 
670. Marocco. 


Var. R. CROCEA, Bois. Sf Held, Diagn, xiii. 18. Syria, 

Var. NiVALE. — Trichonema nivale,iJo«55. ^^ KotscTiy, Diagn. ser. ii. 492. 
T. croceum, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. GG9, Syria, 


2. R. Clusiana, Baker, — Trichonema Clusianum, Lange, Pugill. 75; 
Ic, Plant. Nov. Hisp. t. 34. Hispania australis. 

3. R. crocifolia, Visiani, Fl. Dalm, Suppl. 30, t.2. Dalmatia. 

4. R. ELONGATA, BaTcer, — Ixia elongata, Vahl, Enum, ii. 51. — Tricho- 
nema elongatum, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1225. Sardinia. 

5. R. GRANDiscAPA, J. Gay in Bourg. PI. Canar. Exsic. 1855, No. 
1473. — Trichonema grandiscapa, Webb, Phyt. Can. iii. 312, t. 222. 
? R. Hartungii. Pari, in Walp. Ann, vi. 49. Insulce Canarienses, 




6. R. LiGUSTiCA, Pari. Fl, Ital, iii. 249; Mogg. Cont. Mentone, t. 93, 
B, C. Liguria. 

7. R. RoLLii, Pari. FL ItaL iii. 251. Roma. 

8. R. RAMiFLORA, Ten. Mem. 113; Mogg. Cont. Ment. t. 92. — Ixia 
ramiflora. Ten, Syll. 25; Fl. Neap. tab. 203. fig. 3. — Trichoncma ra- 
miflora. Sweet, Brit, Flow, Gard. 596, Regio mediterranea. 

9. R. CORSICA, Jord. et Four. Brev, ii, 107. Corsica. 

10. R. NEGLECTA, Jord, ^ Four. Brev. ii. 107- Sicilial 

11. R. PURPURASCENS, Te?iore, Mem. 117; Jord. 8f\0&. 
fig. 161. — Ixia purpurascens. Ten. Fl. Neap. i. 13. t. 3. — Trichonema 
purpurascens. Sweety Hort. Brit. 503. Regio mediterranea. 

Var. ? EDULis. 

Kew. Socotra et 


12. R. NUMIDICA, Jorrf. et Four. Brev.i. 49. Algeria. 

13. R. LiNAREsn, ParZ. Fl. Panorm. 1. 38; Jord. Sf Four,Ic. t. IC 
fig. 162.— Ixia Bulbocodium, Sibth. # Sm. FL Grac. i. 26, t. 36. 
T. maritima, Sibth. in herb, BanA:^.— Trichonema Linaresii, Klatt in 
Linn, xxxiv. 660. Italia, Gnrcia^Asia Minor, Abyssinia! 

88 MR. J. G. baker's SrSTJfiMA IRIDACEARUM. 

14. R. Reuuiknii, ParL FL Ital. iii. 248 ; Jord. ^' Four. Ic, t. 109. 
fig. 166. — Trichonema Linai-esii, Gren, 8f Godr. FL France, iii. 238, 

excl. syn. Corsica. 





filifolium, Klatt in Linn, xxxiv. 671, C, B. Spei. 

21. R. Macowani, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 236. C B. 


22. R. TORTUOSA, Baker. — Trichonema tortuosa, Lichten. Reise^ iv 
51. — Ixia tortuosa, Licht. in Roem, ^ Schnlt. Sr/st. u 375. C. B. 





Ixia rosea, Murr. Syst, Veg, xiv 



15. R. CoLUMNiE, Seb. ^' Maur. FL Rom. 18; i?eicA. Ic. Germ. tab. ^ 
356. fig. 784-5; Moi7^. Cont. Ment. t. 91.— Trichonema Columnse, 

Reich. FL Excurs. i. 83; jEJw^', Bot. edit. iii. t. 1492. — Ixia parvi- 
&ora, Salisb. Prod. 14.— T. minima, Ti^w. %//. 24.-— T. Bulbocodium, 
Smithy Eng. Bot. t. 2549. — T. Bulbocodium, var. parviflora, VahU 
Enum. ii. 50, — T. Bulbocodium, var, minima. Ten. FL Nap. Prodr. 7. 
Regio mediterranean Anglian Gallia, Insulce Azoricm* 

Var. R, MODESTA, Jord. 8f Four. Ic. t. 110. fig. 168. Corsica. \ 

Var. R. SUBALBIDA, Jord. ^' Four. Ic. t. 110. fig. 169. Corsica. ' , t 

16. R. RfiVELiERi, Jord. l^ Four. Ic. t. 109. fig. 167. Corsica. { 

17. R. CAMEROONiANA, Buker in Trimen's Journ. 1876, 236. Monies 



II. Species capenses. 

* LutecE, 

18. R. BULBocoDioiDEs, Eckl. Verz. Top. 19. — Ixia bulbocodioidea, 
Delaroche, Diss. 19. — I. recurva. Red. Lil. t. 251. fig. 1.— Tricho- 
nema recurvum, Spreng. Syst. Veg. i. 149. — T. recurvifolium, Poiret, 
Ency. Suppl. iii. 201. — Romulea recurva, Eckl. Verz. Top. 20.— R. 
chloroleuca, EckL Verz. Top. 20, excl. syn. — Trichonema caulescens, 
Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1392.— T. hypoxidiflorum, Salisb. in Trans. Hart. 
Soc. I 316. — Ixia flava. Lam. III. i. 109. — I, crocea et reflexa, Thunb. 
FL Cap. edit. 2, 55. C. B. Spei. 

19. R. SUBLUTEA, Baker. — Ixia sublutea, Lam.Encyc. iv. 335.— Geis- 

sorhiza sublutea, Ker in K. Sf S. Ann. I 223.— Ixia filifolia. Red. Lil. 

t. 251. fig. 2.— Trichonema filifolia, Poir. Ency. SuppL iii. 201. C.B. 






MH. J. G. baker's SYSTEMA. TRTDACEA.RUM. 89 

75, — Trichonema roseum, Ker in Boi, Mag. sub t. 575; Bot. Mag. 
t. 1225. — Crocus capensis, Burm. Prodr. 2, ex parte. — R. vulgaris, 
Eckl, Verz. Top. IS. — Ixia radians, Thunb. FL Cap. edit. 2, 54, ex 
parte. — I, fugax, Horn. Hort. Ilafn. i. 50; MUL Ic. 160, tab. 140. 
C. B. Spet, 

Var, Uelsii, Planch, in Flore des Serves, t, 799. C. B. Spei. 

24. R. LONGiFOLiA, Baker. — Trichonema longifolium, Salisb, in Trans. 
Hort. Soc. i. 31G, — T. cruciatum, Ker in B, M. t. 575, excl. syn, 
Jacq. C. B. Spei. 


25. R. CRuciATA, Baker. — Ixia cruciata, Jacq. Jc. t. 290. — Tricho- 
nema cruciatum, Ker in B. M. t. 575, ex parte. C. B. Spei. 

26. R. PUDICA, Baker. — Ixia pudica, Soland. in hb. Banks. ; Roem, 4* 
Schultes, Syst. i, 377- — Trichonema pudica, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub 
t. 575. C. B. Spei. 


27. R. cupREA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 236. — Trichonema cu- 
preum, Herb. Icon, inedit. C. B. Spei. 

28. R. SPECIOSA, Baker. — Ixia Bulbocodium, var. speciosa, Andr.Bot. 
Rep. t. 170. — Trichonema speciosum, Ker in Kon. <5' Sims, Ann. i. 
223; BoL Mag. t. 1476.— R. tabularis, Echl. Verz. Top. 19, teste 

Klatt. — Ixia neglecta, Roem. ^' Schult. Syst. Veg. \. Suppl. 279. C. 

B. Spei. 

29. R. HiRSUTA, Eckl. Verz. Top. 19. — Trichonema hirsuta, Klatt in 
Linntea, xxxiv. 665. — Ixia campanulata, Lam. III. i. 109, teste Klatt. 

C. B. Spei. 

30. R. BARBATA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 236. — Trichonema 
barbatum. Herb. icon, inedit. C. B. Spei. 

31. R. ARENARIA, Eckl. Vcrz. Top. 18. — Trichonema arenarium, Klatt 
in Linncea, xxxlv. 667. — R- ramosa, Eckl. loc. cit.y teste Klatt. C, B. 

32. R. DiCHOTOMA,Ba>ter.— Trichonema dichotomum, Klatt in Linn €Pa^ 
xxxiv. 666, C. B. Spei. 

♦** Chloroleucce. 

33. R. CHLOROLEUCA, Baiter, non EcR— Ixia chloroleuca, Jacg, Jc, 
t. 272.— I. ochroleuca, Vahl, Enum. i\. 50.— Trichonema ochroleu- 
cum, Ker, Ann. i. 223.— T. chloroleuca, Ker, Oen. Irid. 82. C. B. 


34. R, siMiLis, Eckl. Top. Verz. 19. C. B. Spei. 

35. R. LATIFOLIA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 237.— Trichonema 
Ifttifolium, Herb, icon, inedit. C. B. f!p^i. 


90 MR. J. (3t. BA^KEr's SYSTEMA lEIDACEi^RUM. 

36. R. SPIRALIS, BaA:er.— Trichonema spirale, Burch. Trav. i. 260. 

C. B. Spei. 

4. IxiA, Linn. 

excl. sp. ; 

! Konig 
Klatt i 

Subgenus I. Euixia. Filamenta supra basin libera, 

* Parvijlora, 

1. I. polystachya, Linn. Sp. Plant. 51 ; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 155.— L 
erecta. Berg. Cap. 5 ; Bot. Mag. t. 623,-1. serotina, Salisb. Prodr. 
35; Miller, Ic. 104, tab. 155. fig. 2. C. B. Spei. 

Var. I. FLAVESCENS, Eckl. Verz. Top. 26. C. B. Spei. 

2. I. FLEXUOSA, Linn. Sp. Plant. 51 ; Bot. Mag. t. €24.-1. polysta- 
chya. Red. Lil. t. 136.— I. capitata, var. stellata, Andr. Bot. Rep. 
t. 232.— I. erecta, var. violacea, Thunb. Diss. No. 18.— I. thyrsiflora, 
Delaroche, Diss. 20.— I. pallide-rosea, Eckl. Verz. Top. 24; Miller, 
Ic. tab. 156. fig. 2. C. B. Spei. 

3. I. HYBRiDA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 227.— I. flexuosa, Ker in 
Bot. Mag. t. 127, non Linn. C. B. Spei. 

4. I. MiCRANDRA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 237. C. B. Spei. 



excl. sp. — Wuertbea, Begel. Gartenjl. ii. t. 46. 

Perianthium regulare subrotatum, tubo supra ovarium cyllndrico ■ 

coUo baud ampliato, limbo e basi late campanulato, segmentis 
flore expanso subpatulis oblongis obtusis imbricatis. Stamina ^ 

3, ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter inserta, segmentis distincte 
breviora, filamentis erectis filiformibus liberis vel raro coalitis, 
antheris ligulatis luteis basifixis. Ovarium oblongnm trilocu- 
lare, ovulis in loculo plurimis borizontalibus ; stylus filiformis, 
ex tubo protrusus, stigmatibus tribus brevibus falcatis subula- 
tis. Capsula parva cblonga 6-sulcata ab apice loculicide trival- 
vis, seminibus confertis triquetris, testa membranacea atro- 
castanea, albumine corneo. Herbm bidboscd caulescentes capen- 
seSy lulbi iuniczs subtiliter JibrosiSy Jbliis 3~(i basalibus grami- 
noideis flabellatis caule brevioribus^ caulinis 2-3 similibus reditc- 
tisyjloribus copiose spicafis scepe paniculatis speciosis albis vel 
versicoloribus fundo scepe nigra sufficsisy spatlice valvis diiabus sea- % 

riosis parvis imbricatis^ exteriore oblongo tunicato apice leviter 
frictispidatOf interiore angustiore bidentato. Species plurimcs 
formis intermediis arete connexce^ 


• « 

Grandifiorte immaculatce. 

5. I. ANEMONiEFLORA, Jacq, Jc. t. 2/3, non Red. LiL t. 65. — Sparaxis 
anemonaeflora, Ker in Konig 8f SimSy Ann, i. 225. — Geissorhiza ane- 
monacflora, Klatt in Linn, xxxiv. 656^ ex parte. C. B, Spei, 

6. L LEUCANTHA, Jdcq, Ic t. 278. — I, patens, var. leucantha, Ker, 
Gen. Irid. 98.— I. Candida, DC. in Red. Lil. t. 426. C. B. Spei. 

7. I. FUCATA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1379. C. B. Spei. 

S. I. ARISTATA, Thunb. Diss. No. 15 ; Ker in Bot. Mag.t. 589. C. JB. 

9. I. LUTEA, Baker. 


Jacq. Hort. Schoen. t. 18. C. B. Spei. 

10. I. FRAGRANS, Jacq. Ic. t. 274. — Sparaxis fragrans, Ker in Konig df 
Sims, Ann. i. 274. C B. Spei. 

ILL CAMPANULATA, Houit. Hundl. xii. 42, t. 78. fig. 4. C B. 




t. 522; Red. LiL t. 140.— L filiformis. Vent. Hort. Cels. t. 48; Red. 
Lil. t. 30. — L aristata, Schneer, Id. 37. — I. flaccida, Salisb. Prodr. 
37. — L coccinea, Thunb. FL Cap. i. 241, ex parte. C. B. Spei. 

13. I. SPECIOSA, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 126. — L crateroides, Ker in Bot, 
Mag. t. 594. — L coccinea, Thunb. Fl, Cap.i. 241, ex parte. — L pa- 

Verz. Top. 24. C, B. Spei. 


♦ #♦ 

Grandiflorcd maculatcB, 

14. L MACULATA, Liun. Sp. Plant. 1664; Jacq. Hort. Schoen. t. 21 
(formse permultac). — I. Milleri, Berg, Fl. Cap. 8. — L abbreviata, 
Houtt, Handl. xii. t. 78. fig. 3. — L conica, Salisb. Prodr. 36; Red. 
Lil. 1. 138 ; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 539.— I. dubia. Vent. Choix, t. 10 ; 
Red. Lil. t. 64. — I. capitata, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 50; Miller, Ic. tab. 

^ 156. fig. L C. B.Spei. 

Var. L FUsco-ciTRiNA, Red. Lil. t. 86. C. B. Spei. 

Var. ocHROLEUCA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1285.— Ixia ocbroleuca, Sweet, 
Hort. Brit. edit. ii.502.— L capitata, var., Andr. Bot, Rep. t. 169. 
I. albo-flavens, EcJcl. Verz. Top. 27. C. B. Spei. 

15. I. coLUMELLARis, ^er in Bot. Mag.t. 630. — L maculata, var., 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 256; Jacq. Hort. Schoen. t. 19, 20, 22 (formae 

permultse). — Wuerthia elegans, Regel, Gartt 

Var. RHODOLARYNX, Baker, — L columnaris 
Bot. Rep. t.392. C. B. Spei. 

C. B. Spei. 


Var. RUBRO-CiERULEA, Baker, C. B. Spei. 
Var< RUBRO-LiLACiNA, JSato'. C B. Spei, 

16. T, VIRIDIFLORA, Lata, Ency. iii, 340; Red. Lit, t. 4(56; Lodd, 
Bot, Cab. t. 1548.— I. viiidis, Thiinb. FL Cap. 62.— I. maculata, 
Thunb, Diss. No. 19, ex parte. — I. maculata, var. viridis, Jacg. Hort. 
Schcen. t. 23; Tfer in Bot. Mag. t. 549. — I. splcata, var. viridi-nigra, 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 29.~I. spectabilis, Salisb. Prodr. 35.— I. pulchra, 
Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 320. — I. prasina, Soland. in Herb. 
Banks. C. B. Spei. 

Var. I. CANA, Eckl. Verz. Top. 26. — I. maculata, var. amethystina, lifer 
in Bot. Mag, t. 789. C. B. Spei. 

Var, c^siA. — I. maculata, var. cassia, Bot. Rep. t. 530. C B. Spei. 

Subgenus II. Eurydice, Fers. Syn. \. 48. Filamenta prorsus 


1/. I. MOXADELPHA, Delur. Diss. 22; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 607. — I. 
columnaris, Salisb. Prodr. 36; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 203, 213, 260 


(formse variae, posterior J. grandijlora, Pers. Syn. i. 48). — Galaxia 

ixiaeflora. Red. Lit. t. 41 (G. romosa, in textn), C. B. Spei. 

18. I. cuKTA, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 564. — I. monadelpha, var- eurta, Ker 
in Bot. Mag. t. 13/8. — I columnaris, var. versicolor, Andr. Bot. Rep. 
t. 211. — I. vitelHna, lutea, et pallide-flavens, Eckl. Topog. Verz. 24, 
25, teste Klatt. C. B. Spei. 

5. Streptanthera, Sweet. 

Sweety Brit. FIoiv. Gard. t. 209. 

Perianthium regulare, tube brevi cylindrico apice dilatato, limbo 
late campanulato segmentis conformibus obovato-cuneatis flore 
expanse patulis. Stamina 3, ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter in- 
serta, limbo duple breviera, filamentis brevibus applanatis erec- 
tis, antheris oblengis basi profunde sagittatis. Ovarium trilo- ^ 

culare, evulis in lebulo plurirais; stylus filifermis ex tube pro- 
truBUS, stigmatibus parvis obovatis emarginatis. Capstila parva 
membranacea loculicide trivalvis, semiuibus Isevibus globosis. 
Herhce Cajpenses hulbosc^y hulhi tunicisfibrosis,foliis brevibus line- 
aribiis Jlabellato-disticliiSy spicis paucijloris^ sjpatJicB valvis duabus 
latis membranaceis brunneo punctatis et lineolatis apice dentatis 
tnbo longioribus. 

1. S. ELEGANS, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 209; Lodd. Bot. Cab.^ 
t. 1359. C. B. Spei. 



MR. J. G. baker's SYSTEMA IRlDACEAttU\r. 93 


2. S. CUPREA, Swret, Hort. Brit, edit. 2, 501 ; Brit, Flow. Gard, ser. 

n. t. 122; Paxt. Mar;, i. 8, cum icone, — Sparaxis cuprea, Klatt in 
Linnoia, xxxv. 378. C, B Spei. 

G. GE*TysoRiiizA, Kcr. 


xxxiv, 650. 


Weilica, Ecklon, Top. Verz. 22 (nomen).— Ixiae; sp., Thunb, 

Pcrianthium rcgulare infundibulare, tubo brevi cylindrico sursuai 
vix ampliato spatha plerumque vix breviorc, segmentis G oblon- 
gis conformibus diu ascendentibus. Stamina 3, ad faucem tubi 
secjLiilateraliter iuserta, fllamcntis brevibus subulatis, antbcris 
oblongia basifixis. Ovarium sessile triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
pluribus horizoiitalibiis; stj/his filiformis erectiis ex tubo pro- 
trusus, ramis stigmatosis parvis falcatis clavatis integris. Cap- 
sula parva, oblonga, chartacea, loculicide trivalvis, seminibus 
globosis, testa membranacea brunnea, albumine carneo. Herhce 
huJhosce^ hulbiparvi tunicis hruniieis duris scepe e bast in segmenta 
linearia multiscrialitcr inibricata sectis^foliis scrpe tribus angus- 
tis siiperpositis, superiore hasi dilatata caulem amplectente^floribus 
paucis in spicas seeundas dispositis, spathco valvis oblongis inte- 
gris viridibus vel ajpice scariosis fubum periantliii jprorsus invol- 


Sect. I. EocnEA. Tubus periantMi ex spatlia hand exsertus. 

Triphylla parvijlorce. 

1. G. nuMiLTS, Kerin Konig Sf Sims, Ann, i. 223. — Ixia humilis, Thunb. 
Diss, No. 4. — G. setacea /3, Ker in Bot, Mag. t, 1255.— G. Brehmii, 
Eckl, Top, Verz. 21; Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv, 653. — G. aurea, Eckl, 
Top. Verz, 21, teste Klatt, Cap. B, Spei, 

2. G. JUNCEA, hinky Unio, Itin, No. 314. — Ixia juncea. Link, Enum, 
50. C, B, Spei, 

3. G. PURPUREO-LUTEA, Baker in Trimen, Joum. 18/6, 238. C, B. 


4. G. ERECTA, Baker in Trimen^ Joum, 1876, 238. C B. Spei, 

5. G. SECUNDA, Ker in Konig ^' Sims, Ann, i. 223. — Ixia secunda, 
Delaroche, Descr. 1/; Bot, Mag, t. 597, non Houttuyn. — 1. pusilla, 
Andr, Bot, Rep. t. 245. — I. scillaris, Thunb. Dm. No. 14. — G. im- 
bricata, E, Meyer in Herb, Drege, C. B. Spei. 


91 MR. J. a. baker's ststema irtdacearum. 

Var. G. ramosa, Klatt in Linn, xxxiv. 657- — Ixia ramosa, iier in Bot, 
Mag. sub t. 549. C. B, Spei. 

Var. G. SETiFOLiA, EckL Topog. Ferz. 22, C B. Spei, 

6. G. hirta, Ker in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. i. 223. — Ixia hirta, Thunb, 
Diss. No. 6. C, B. Spei. 

7. G. FiLiroLiA, Bafcer in Trimen,Journ. 1876, 238. C. B. Spei. 

8. G. Wrightii, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 238. C. B. Spei. 


Triphyllce grandijlorce. 



16. G. ornithogaloides, iiL?a^/ iw Linn, xxxiv. 656. — G. romule- 
oides, Eckl. Top. Verz. 21. C.B. Spei. 

17. G. BojERi, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 18/6, 239. Madagascaria. 

18. G. alpina, Hook.fiL in Journ. Linn. Soc, vii. 223. Monies Ca 





9. G. FURVA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 224. — Ixia furva, Soland. 
in Herb. Banks. C. B. Spei. 

10. G. RocHENSis, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 223. — Ixia Rocliensis, 
Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 598.— I. radians, Thunb. FL Cap. i. 217, 
ex parte. — I. monanthos, Thimb. FL Cap. edit. 2, 57- — Geissorhiza 
Rocheana et monantha. Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. 2, 503. — G. setacea a, 
Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1255. — G. secunda, Houtt. Handl. xii. t, 
78. fig. 1, non Delaroche. — Rochea venusta, Salisb. in Trans, Hort. 
Soc. i. 322. C. B. Spei. 

11. G. ciLiARis, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 321. — G. quinquangula- 
nSjEcklon in Unio, Itin. No. 312; Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 654. — G^ 
rosea, EckL Top. Verz. 20. — Hesperantha quinquangularis, EckL Top. 
Verz. 23. C. B. Spei. 

12. G. IMBRICATA, Ker in Konig Sf- Sims, Ann.u 224. — Ixia imbricatfi, 
Delaroche, Diss. 17.— G. arenaria, EckL Top. Verz. 21. C. B. Spei. 


13. G. INFLEXA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 223.— Ixia inflexa, Dela- 
roche, Diss. 15.— G. vaginata. Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 138. C. 
B. Spei. 

14. G. LATi FOLIA, BaA:er.— Ixia latifolia, Delaroche, Diss. No. 22. C. 
B. Spei. 

15. G. OBTUSATA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 672.— Ixia obtusata, Soland. in ^ ^ 
Herb. Banks. — I. geminata, Vahl, Enum. ii. 68. C. B. Spei. 



19. G. SKTACEA, Baker, non Ker, — Ixia setacea, Thunb. Diss, No. 13. 

— G. tabularis, EckL MS, — G. recurvifolia, Klatt ia Linn, \xxiv. 
655, ftxcl. syn. Red. C, B, Spei. 

20. G. GKMiNATA, E, Meyer in Herb, Drege. C, B, Spei, 

21. G. auADRANGULA, Ker, Gen, Irid, 88. — IxIa quadrangula, Dela- 
roche,Diss, 16. C, B. Spei, 

22. G. LUTE A, Eckl. Top. Verz. 21. C, B. Spei. 

23. G. FOLiosA, Klatt in Linn<da, xxxir. 658, C. B. Spei, 

24. G. GRANDis, IIook,Jil, in Bot, Mag. t. 5877. C. B, Spei, 

Sect, II. Wethea. Tuhus pevianthii ex spatTia distincte exsertiis. 

25. G. MINIMA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 239. C. B. Spei. 

26. G, EXCISA, Ker in Konig (§- Sims, Ann, i. 223. — Ixia excisa, Thunb, 

Diss. /So. 24, tab. 1. fif?. 4; Bot. Mag. t, 584.— Weihea 
Eckl. Top. Verz. 22. — Ixia ovata, Burm, Prodr. Cap. 1 (anno 1768). 
C. B, Spei. 


7. Hesperaxtha, Ker. 

Ker in Konig ei Sims, Ann. i. 224. — Ixise sp. Thunh., etc. 

Periantliium regiilare mfundibulare, tubo cylindrico recto vel cur- 
vato, limbi segmentis conformibus oblongisvel obovatis. Sta- 
mina 3, ad faucem tubi eequilatcralitcr inserta, filamentis brevibus 
Kubulatis, antberis magiiis ligulatis limbo brcvioribus. Ovarium 
triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stilus filiformis ex tubo vix 
vel baud exsertus, stigmatibus tribus integris subulatis. Cap- 
sula parva oblonga membranacea loculicide trivalvis, semmibus 
crebris triquetris, testa membranacea brunnea, albuminc corneo. 

Kerbce huWosce^ hiilhi hasi plants, ttmicis miiltis hrunneis hasi 
circumscissis^ scppe e dasi in segmenta laneeolafa imbricata sectis. 
foliis a7tgiistis planis graminoideis^Jlorihus spicatis srppe vesper- 
tints, spatJicG valvis duabus oblongis integris viridibus tubtwz 
involve?itibus. -4<7Geissorhizara arete accedit; prcBsertim divert 
antheris magnis, stylo incluso, stigmatibus magnis subulatis. 

* Perianthii tubus rectus. 


2. H. 

Sims, Ann. u 225 ; Bot. Mag, t 
)iiijt. No. 9. tab. 2. non Andrews 

1054. — Ixia cinnamomea, Thunb. Diss. No. 9, tab. 2, non 
C. B. Spei. 

3. H. PILOSA, Ker in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. i. 225; Bot. Mag. t. 1475. 
Ixia pilosa, Thunb. Diss, No. 5. C. B. Spei. 

4. H. GRAMiNiFOLiA, Sweet, Hort.Brit. edit. 2, 503.— II. pilosa, var, 

nuda, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1251. C. B. Spei. 



5. H. FALCATA, Ker in Kouig ^' SimSy Ann. i. 224.— Ixia falcata, Thunb. 
Diss, No. 23, tab. 1 ; Jacq. Ic. t, 2/6 ; Bot. Mag. t. 566. — 1. cinna- 
inoraea, Andr. Bot. Rep, t. 44, non Thunb. C. B, Spei. 

6. H, Petitiana, Baker. — Ixia Petitiana, A. Rich, Fl, Abyss, ii. 309 
Geissorhiza abyssimca, Klatt in Linncea^ xxxiv. 716, non R. Br, 

. Var. H. UNiFLORA, Hochsi, in Schimp, PL Abyss, no. 1239. — Ixia Hoch- 
stetteriana, A. Rich, FL Abyss, ii. 309. Abyssinia. 


7. H, LONGiTUBA, Baier.— Geissorhlza longituba, Klatt in Linncea^ 
XXXV. 383. — Txia acuta, Lichten, in Roem, ^' SchuU, Syst, Veg, i. 383? 

■Hesperantha acuta, Ker, Gen, Irid, 91 ? C, B. Spei. 

8. H. RUBELLA, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876, 239. C. B, Spei. 

9. H. Baurtt, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 182. Kaffraria. 


Perianthii tubus decurvatus. 

10. IL RADiATA, Ker in Ko'nig 8f SimSj Ann, i. 224. — Ixia radiata, 
Jacq. Ic, t, 280; Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 573; Red. Lil, t. 441.— L fis- 
tulosa, Aridr. Bot, Rep. t 59. — Gladiolus recurvatus, Thunb. Diss. 
No. 3. — Ixia recurva, Vahl, Enum, ii. 58. C, B. Spei, 

Var. cARiciNA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 573; Bot. Mag. t. 790- 
Hesperantha setacea, Eckl. Top, Verz. 22, C. B. Spei. 

11. n. ANGUSTA, Ker in Konig <§- Sims, Ann. i. 225. — Ixia angusta, f 
Willd. Sp, Plant, i. 202,-1. radiata, var. angusta, Ker in Bot. Mag. 

sub t. 573. — I. linearis, Jacq. Ic. t. 279, non Thunb. — Hesperantha 
virginea, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 224. — Ixia virginea, Soland. in 
Herb. Banks, C, B. Spei, 

12. H. BULBiFERA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 182. C. B, Spei. 

8, MoBPHixTA, Ker. 

■ w 

Ker, Gen, Irid. 105. — Hyalis, Salisb. in Trans. Sort. Soc, i. 317 

(n07nen), — Ixidd ^^.^ DelarocTie etc. '* 

Perianthium regulare, tube recto brevi rel elongato cylindrico, 
collo turbinate, segmentis aequalibus anguste oblongis obtusis 
flore expanse' subpatulis. Stamina. 3 in parte dilatata tubi 
seqnilateraliter inserta, filamentis brevibus rectis filiformibug, 
antlieris basifixis oblongis. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
plurimis borizontalibus ; stylus filiformis ex tubo saepe protrusus, t 

\ stigmatibus tribus brevibus falcatis clavatis integris. Capsula 
parva oblonga cbartacea 6-sulcata, semlnibus crebris triquetris, 
testa atro-castanea, albuminc corneo. Herlce hilhosce Capenses, 



buIM tunic is me7nl)ranaceis,foliispaucisgraminoideis caule hre- 
viorihus^jiorihusspicatis scnpe panicidatis^ spatlice. valvis duabus 

parvis memhranaceis, exteriore tricuspiduta, interiore angustiore 

* BrevicoUes. 

1. M. CAPiLLARis, Ker, Gen, Irid. 106. — Ixia capUlaris, Thanh, Diss. 
No. 12, t. 2. fig. 2; Ker in Bot, Mag, t. 617. — I. rapunculoides. Red. 
LiL t. 431. — I. striata, Vahl, Enum, ii. 65. — llyalis latifolia, Salisb. 
in Trans, Hort, Soc, i. 317. C, B. Spei, 

Var. INCARNATA. — Ixia incarnata, Jacq, Ic. t. 282. — Morphixia incar- 
nata, Ker, Gen, Irid, 107. — I. capillaris, var. inearnata, Ker in Bot. 
Mag. sub t. 570. C. B. Spei, 

Vai\ LANCEA. — Ixia lancea, Jacq. Ic. t. 281. — llyalis marginifolia, 
Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 318. C. B. Spei. 

2. M. LINEARIS, Ker, Gen. Irid. 106. — Ixia linearis, Thunb. Diss. 


No. 11. — I. capiilaris, var. gracillima, Ker, in Bot. Mag. t. 570. 
Hyalis gracilis, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 517. — !• teuuifolia, 
Vahl, Enum. ii. 62. C. B. Spei. 

3. M. AULiCA, Ker^ Gen. Irid. 107. — I- aulica, Soland. in Ait. Hort. 
Kew. i. 57. — I. capillaris, var. aulica, Ker, in Bot. Mag. t. 1013. 

Hyalis aulica, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 318. — I. phlogiflora. 
Red. LiL t. 432. C. B. Spei. 

4. M. ODORATA, Baker. — Ixia odorata, Ker, Gen. Irid. 101. — I. erecta, 
var. lutea odorata, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1173. — I. erecta, Jacq. Hort. 
Schocn. t. 18, fig. minor, C. B. Spei. 

5. M, TRiCHORHizA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 237. Natal. 



6. M. PANicuLATA, Baker, Ft. Maur. 365. — Ixiapaniculata,Z)e/arocAe, 
Dm. 26, t. 1.— I. longiflora. Berg. PI. Cap. 7 1 Bot. Mag. t. 256; 
Red. Lil.i. 256. — Gladiolus longiflorus, Thunb. Diss. No. 22; Jacq. 

Coll. V. 23, t. 7. 
228 : Bot. Mac 

T in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. i. 
Hyalis longiflora, Salisb. in 

Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 318.— Freesea longiflora, Eckl. Top. Verz. 30. 

Gladiolus ixioides, Thunb.-Fl. Cap. edit. 2, 52. C. B. Spei. 
Var. TENUIFLORA. — Tritonia tenuiflora, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub 1. 1275. 

Ixia tenuiflora, Vahl, Enum. ii. 266.— Gladiolus longiflorus, Jacq. Ic. 

t. 263.— Tritonia longiflora, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1502. fig. 

sinistra.— T. concolor. Sweet, Brit. Flow. Card. edit. ii. 502. C. B. 

Var. RocHENSis. — Tritonia rocliensis, Ker, Bot. Mag. t. 1503, excl. 

«yn. C. B. Spei. 


/. M. CooPERi, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876, 237. ^- S. Spei, 

8, M. NERVOSA, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876,237- C. B. Spei. 

9, M. juncifolia. Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 238. C. B. Spei. 

9. Sparaxis, Ker. 

Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 225, excl. sp. ; Gen. Irid. 91, excl, 
sp, ; Rlatt in Linncea^ xxxii. 747. — Ixise sp. Linn. etc. 

PeriantTiinm regulare, infundibulare, tulDO erecto brevi dimidio 
inferiore cjlindrico, dimidio superiore conico,segmentis oblongis 
obtusis sequalibus diu ascendentibus. Stamina 3 prope medium 
tubi sEquilateraliter inserta, filamentis brevibus filiformibua, 
aiitheris maf^nis lio:iilatis basifixis. Ovarium 3-loculare, ovulis 

O ^ * D 

in loculo crebris borizontalibus ; stylus filiformis, ex tubo pro- 
trusus, stigmatibus tribus magnis falcatis subulatis integris. 
Capsula parva, membrauacea, oblongo-globosa, localicide tri- 
valvis, seminibus crebris triquetris, testa membrauaeea atro- 
castanea, albumine corneo. Herlce hiilbosce capenses^ hulhi 
ttmicis permultis snhtiliter Jihroso-reticulatis, foliis plurimis ra- 
dicalibus linearilus flabellatO'distichis cauJe hreviorihus^ caule 
hrevijbliis 1-2 similibus reductis jprcedito, spicis jpaiicifloris raro 
panicuJatis,Jlorihus sp>eciosis versicoloribus, spathce valvis duabus 
membranaceis h'unneo lineatis ef punctatiSj ah apice prqfunde 
Jimbriatis, dentibus linear i- subulatis brunneis^ eoderiore latissima 
iubum amplectente^ interiore angustiore lanceolata. 

1. S. bulbifera, Ker in Konig 4~ Sims, Ann. i. 226. — Ixia bulbifera, 
Linn, Sp, Plant, ii. 51 ; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 645 ; Red. Lil. t. 128 ; 
Andr. Rep. t. 48. — I. bulbifera^ var. flava, Thunb. Diss. no. 16. 


C. B. Spei. 







t. 779; Bot. Reg. t. 258.— Txia grandiflora, Delar. Diss. 23; Houtt. 

Handl. xii. 37, tab. 77- fig. 3 ; Ker in Bot. Mag, t, 541 ; Red. Lil. 

tab. 1 79; 362. — I. hulhif evsiyTkunb, Diss, No. 16, ex parte. — T. aristata, 

Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew.i, 57; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 87, non Thunb. 

J. holosericea, Jacq. Hort, Schoen.i. 9, t. 17- — I. monanthos, Delar. 

Diss. 24, non Thunb. — I. uniflora, Linn. Mant. 27 ; Jacq. Ic. t. 283. 

S. fimbriata, Ker in Konig ^' Sims^ Ann. \. 226. — Ixia fimbriata, I 

Lam. Ency. iii. 339. — Belemcauda semiflexuosa, Moench. Meth. 

SuppL 214.— S. lacera, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 226. C, B , 



Var. S. LiLiAGO, Sweet, Hort. Brit, edit. 2, 501. — S. grandiflora, var. 

Liliago, Bo^ Reg,t, 258. — Ixia Liliago, Red. Lil. t. 109. C, B. Sp^i. 
Var. S. STELLARis, D. Don in Sweet, Brit, Flow. Gard, ser. ii. t. 383, 

C. B. Spei. 
Var. S. LiNEATA, Sweet, Brit, Flow. Gard, ser. ii. t. 131. C B, Spei, 

3, S. TRICOLOR, Ker in Kimig 8f Sims, Ann, i. 225 ; Ker in Bot, Mag, 

t. 1482.— Ixia tricolor. Curt. Bot, Mag. t. 381 ; Schneev. Ic. t. 39 ; 
Red. Lilt. 129. C. B. Spei. 

Var. S. VERSICOLOR, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t, 160. C B. Spei, 
Var. S. Griffini, Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 501, — S. tricolor, var. vio- 

laceo-purpurea, Ker in Bot, Mag, t. 1482. fig. inf. C. B. Spei. 
Var. S. BhAi^DA, Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 501. — S. tricolor, var. sub- 

roseo-albida, Ker in Bot, Mag, t. 1482. fig. med. 

10. DiEEAMA, K. Koch, 

K. Koch in Walp. Ann, vi. 42 ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 751 
(Dieraina). — Sparaxis sp., Ker. — Ixioe sp., Thunh, 

Perianthium regulare iufundibulare, tubo brevi e basi ad apicem 
. sensim ampliato, segnientis oblongis obtusis conformibus diu 
ascendentibus. Stamina 3, iu tubo a?quilateraliter inserta, 
limbo distincte breviora, filamentis filiformibuSj antherid ligu- 
latis basifixis. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo pluribus ; 
stylus filiforrais rectus, ex tubo protrusus, ramis stigmatosis 
tribus falcatis brevibus clavatis iutegris. Capsula parva glo- 
boso-turbinata, membranacea, seminibus in loculo circiter 
6 triquetris, testa bruuuea, albumiae corneo.. Herhce bulbos<^^ 
buibi magni tunicis permultis apice setiferis in Jibras parallelas 
solntis^foliis radicalibus multis longis duris anguste ensiformi- 
bus^ caule long issimo gracilis spicis laxe paniculatis ramis capiU 

laribus^ floribus concoloribus^ spathce valvis magnis ohlongo-lan- 
ceolatis memhranaceis pallidis eroso-Iaceris. 

1. D. PENDULA, Baker. — Ixia pendula, Thunb. Diss, no. 16. — Sparaxis 
pendula, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1482; Bot. Reg. t. 1360. — Dieraraa 
ensifolium, K. Koch <5' Bouchein JValp. Ann, vi. 43. — Watsouia palus- 
tris, Pers. Syn, \. 45. C. B. Spei et Natalia, 

2. D. PULCHERRiMA, Baker. — Sparaxis pulcherrima, Hook.fil, in Bot, 
Mag. t. 5655.— S. atropurpurea, Hort.— C. B. Spei et Transvaal 

11. Hexaglottis, Vent. 
Vent. Dec. No. 3. — Morajse et Ixise sp. auct. 
Perianthium regulare rolatum flavum, tubo supra ovarium brevi 


recto filiformi, segmentis 6 oblongo-ligulatis flore expanse pa- 
tulis post autlicsin spiraliter tortis. Stamina^, ad faucem tubi 
sequilateraliter Inserta, limbo multo breviora, filamentis subu- 
latis, antberis oblongis spiraliter tortis, connectivo angasto. 
Ovariinn cyliiidricum 6-sulcatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
crebris borizontalibus ;• stylus ex tubo hand exsertus, stigmati- 
bus 6 subulatis patulis antberis a^quilongis. Gapstila nigra 
Crustacea cylindrica operculata, apice loculicide trivalvis, semi- 
nibus niinutis angulatis, testa nigra. HerJjcB hulhosce Cajyenses, 
tunicis e hasi in segmenta linearia nigra sectis^ apice setosis. 



Jlorihus successivisfi 


tunicis mtilhs memhranaceis castaneis^foliis paucis petio- 

latis Jatis jyJicis wnJfis, caule eJongato apice fiorif era geniculatOj 

spatliis pancis oblongis pedtinculatis multijloris, valvis nndtis 

scariosis viridihtts arete tmhrtcatis, pedicellis spatlia hreviorihus^ 

Jlorihiis fugitivis successivis. 

1. E. PLicATA, Herb, he, cit, — Moraca plicata, Sxcartz, FL Ind. Occ,S2* 

1, H. LONGiFOLiA, Vent, Decad.6. — Ixia longifolia, Jacq. Hart. Vind. 
iii. 47, t. 90(1776)' — Moraia flexuosa, Linn.JiL SuppL 100; KerinBot, 
Mag, t. 695. — Sisyrincliium flexuosum, Spreng, Syst, Veg. i. 167- 
Ilexaglottis flexuosa. Sweet, Hort, Brit. edit. ii. 498. — Homeriaflexu- 
osa, Bol-er in Ref, Bot, t. 24. — Mora^a longifolia, Pers. Syn. I 49. 
C, B. Spei. 

2. II. viKGATA, Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. 2. 498.— Moraca virgata, Jflcg. 

Ic. t. 228.— Ixia virgata, Willd. Sp. Plant, i. 202. C. B. Spei. . .« 

12. Eleijtiieei^'E, Serlert, 

Herb, in Bot. Reg, xxix. sub t. 57. — Galatea, Salisb, in Trans. 
Hort, Soc, i. 310 (nomen). 

Periantliiiim regulare rotatum album, tubo supra ovarium. nullo, 
segmentis 6 obovatis flore expanso patulis, interioribus paulo 
minoribus. Stamina 3 vel G epigyna limbo breviora, filamentis 
erectis brevissimis subulatis, antberis ligulatis basifixis. Ova- 
rium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo plurimis crebris bori- 
zontalibus; stylus brevissimus triqueter, stigmatibus tribus 
erectis subulatis integris. Capmla cylindrica G-sulcata 
cartilaginea operculata ex apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus 
globosis, testa brunnea, albumine corneo. Herbee hulhosce ameri- 

*■' ^ 




ME. J. o. baker's ststema tridaceakum:. 110 

Marica plicata, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 655. — Galatea plicata, Salisb. 
loc, cit, — Cipura plicata, Griseb, Flor, Brit. West Ind, 589. — Sisy- 
rinchium palmifolium, Linn, herb, ex parte ; Cav, Diss. vi. 348, t. 19. 
fig. 1 ; Red. LiL t. 352. — Moraia palmifolia, Jacq. Ic. t. 227- — Ixia 
americana, Aitblet, Guian. i. 33. — Ferraria parviflora, Salisb. Prodr, 
43. — Sisyrinchiura latifolium, Swartz, Prodr. 17. — S. bulbosum, 
Miller^ Diet. No. 3. America tropicalis. 

2. E. ANOMALA, Herb. loc. cit. America tropicalis. 

13. Caltdorea, S^erierl. 

Herb, in Hot. Beg, 1813, Misc. 85.— Botherbe, " Steud.;' Klatt 
in Linncsa^ xxxi. 5*32. — Eoterbe, Klatt in Flor. Bras. iii. 513, 
tab. 71. fig. 4, 7ion Steud. — Sisyrincbii sp., HooTc. etc. 

Perianthimn regulare rotatum cajruleum vel flavum, tubo supra 
ovarium nullo, segmeutis obovatis subconformibus, flore expanse 
patulis. Stamina 3 cpigyna icquilateralia, filamcntis libcris 
subulatis basi cleltoideis, antlicris ligulatis, connectivo angusto, 
post anthesin spiralitcr tortis. Ovarium turbiuatum triloculare, 
ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus brevis filiformis, ramis tribus 
subulatis apice stigmatoso sa)pissime minute emarginatis. Cap- 
sula clavata membranacea apice operculata loculicide trivalvis, 
seminibus crebris triq^uetris, testa lucida nigra. Ilerbce buTbosce 
americancB tropicaleSy bulbi tunicis membranaceis brunneis^foliis 
linearibus vel teretibus, spathis paucis jyaxicijloris pedunculatis, 
valvis membranaceis viridibns acutis lanccolatis vel linearibus^ 
pedicellis scepissime demiimprotrusisjlorilmsfitgitivis successivis. 

* CcerulecBy styli ramis elongatis. 

1. C. SPEciosA, Herb, in Bot. Reg, 1843, Misc. 65. — Sisyrinchium 
. speciosum. Hook, in Bot, Mag. t. 3544. — S. xiphioides, Poppig,Fragm. 

Synops. 7. — Botherbe bulbosa, Klatt in Linneeay xxxi. 563 {non Ro- 
terbe bulbosa, Steudel). Chili. 

2. C. CAMPESTRis, BaJcer in Trimen^Journ. 1876, 187. — Botherbe cam- 
pestris, Klatt in Linncea, xxi. 563. 
Bras, iii, 543. Brasilia meridionalis et Monte Video. 

3. C. Gardneri, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 188. Brasilia in 
ditione Piauhy, 


4. C. TEXANA, Baker in Trimen, Journ AS7C), 188.— Gelasinc? tcxana, 
Herbert in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3779. Teacas. 


102 MB. J. a. baker's ststema iridacearum. 

** LutecByStyUramis elongatis, 

b. C. LUTEOLA, Baker in TrimeUy Journ, 1876, 188. — Botherbe luteola, 
Klatt in Linneea, xxxi. 563. — Roterbe luteola, Klatt in FL Bras, iii. 
544, tab. 71- fig. 4» Brasilia meridionalis . 

6. C. FURCATA, Baker in Trimen^ Journ. 1876, 188. — Nemostylls fur- 
cata, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 660; FL Bras. iii. 515, t. 65. Monte 

Video . 

*** CcerulecBy styli ramis brevissimis. 

15. Nemasttlus, Nuttall. 


Nuttall in Amer. Phil. Tra7is. ser. nov. v. 157. . 

^ A, Gh^ay, PL Lindh. 28.— Ixiae sp., Bariram etc. 

PenantJiium regulare rotatum cseruleuiu, tuho supra ovarium 
Bullo, segmentis obovato-cuneatis obtusis subconformibus flore 
expauso patulis. Stamina 3 epigyna sequilateralia, filamentis 
brevissimis liberis basi valvatis deltoideis, antberis magnis ligu- 
latia vel subpanduriformibus, conuectivo angusto vel lato. Ova- 
rium turbinatum, ovulis in loculo pluribus borizontalibus ; stylics 



- i 

7. C. NUDA, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 18/6, 188, — Gelaslne ? nuda, 

Herbert in Bot. Mag, sub t. 3779. — Botherbe gracilis, Klatt in ^ < 

Linncea, xxxi. 565. — Roterbe gracilis, Klatt in FL Bras, iii, 544. 
Monte Video, 

8. C. PUNCTATA, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 188. — Gelasine punc- 
tata, Herbert in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3/79. Mexico. 

14. CABBioSTiaMA, Baker. ': 

JPeriantkium. regulare caeruleum rotatum, tubo supra ovarium 
nullo, segmentis conformibus obovato-cuneatis obtusis flore ex- 
panso patulis. Stamina 3 sequilateralia epigyna, filamentis bre- 
vibus subulatis, antberis ligulatis luteis connectivo angusto. 
Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris; stylus ii 

filiformis stamina siiperans, stigmatibus tribusplanis obcordato- ' 

cuneatis margine fimbriatis. Capsula clavata apice operculata, 
Herha hulbosa Mexicana^ hulhi tunicis membranaceis hrunneis, 
folio unico hasali angusfe lineari plicato, spatliis soUtariis ter- 
minalibus bijloris^ valva epcteriore longissimajlores longe superante 
foliiformi^ floribus fugitivis success ivis. 

C. LONGispATHA,Ba*er.— Gelasine longispatha, Herbert in Benth, PL 
Hartweg. 53. — Botherbe longispatha, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 564. — 
Calydorea longispatha. Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876, 188, Mexico. 


MR. J. a. baker's SySTEMA IRIDACEARUM. 103 

brevissimus filamcntis sequilongus, ramis G subulatis patulis 
apice stigmatosis caeruleis. Capsula clavata apicc opcrculata, 
Bemiiiibus crebris angulatis, testa brunnea. Ilerhcc hulhosrs 



dunculatis, valvis lanceoJatis memhranaceis viridilus acutis^ 
pedicellis spatha cequilongis^Jloribusfugitivis successivis. 

Subgenus Euttemasttlus. Antherce lirfulatcej connectivo aiigusto, 

post anthesin spiraliter fortcv. 

1. N. CCELE8TINUS, Nuttull, loc, cit. — Ixia coelestina, Bar/r. Iter, 152, 
t. 3. — Marica coelesthia, Ker, Gen. Irid. 19. — Beatonia ccelestina, 
Klatt in Linnaa, xxxi. 567. Florida ad Carolinam, 


2. N. ACUTUS, Herbert in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3/79. — Ixia acuta, Bart. 
, Flor, X, Amer, i. 76. — N, getniniflora, Nuttally loc. cit, Arkansas et 


Subgenus Eustylus {EngeL^' A. Gray). AntJiercc suhpanduri- 

formes^ connectivo lato^ post anthesi7i rcctce. 

3. N. PURPUREUS, Herbert in Bot, Mag. sub t, 37/9, — Eustylus pur- 
pureas, EngeL ^' A. Gray, PL Lindh. 27. Texas et Louisiana. 

16. Galaxia, Thunh. 

Thunb. Nov. Gen. ii, 50, cum iconc) Ker, Gen. Irid. 72; Klatt in 
Linncea^ xxxii. 782. 

Perianthium regulare infundibulare, tubo cylludrico, limbo iafun- 
dibulari, segmentis obovatis obtuais conformibus diu imbricatis 
et ascendentibus. Sta7nina 3, ad faucem tubi fequilatcraliter 
inserta, filamentis sursum liberi*s deorsum in tubum cylindri- 
cum connatis, antheris ligulato-sagittatis basifixis. Ovarium 
oblongum, ovulis in loculo multis ; stylus filiformis ex tubo pro- 
trusus, stigmate petaloideo peltato trilobato fimbriato. Capsula 
parva membranacea oblonga, seminibus multis globosis. Herlce 

hulboscB Cavenses. buibi tunicis cancellatis amct 

cancellatis apice Jibrosis, caule 
I terram nullOyfoliis dense rosulatis angustis vel latis^Jto- 
fugitivis ccdruleis vel luteis in centra rosularum foliorum 

Ivijlrma viridula ovato-lanceo- 
lata pi^otruso. 

1. G. ovata, Thunb. loc. cit. — Ixia Galaxia, Linn.fil. Svppl. 93. C. 
B, Spei. 

Var. G. OBTU8A, Salisb. in Trajis. Hort. Soc. i. 315. — G. ovata, Andr. 

17. SpATALAi^xnus, Sweet. 
Sweet, Brit. Flotv. Gard. t, 300. 

Ferianthmm regulare infundibulare, tubo brevissimo infundibu- 
lari, segmentis obloBgis acutis conformibus diu asceudeutibus. 
Stamina 3 ad faucem tubo sequilateraliter inserta, filamentis in 
tubum brevem cylindricum prorsus coalitis, autlieris ligulatis 
erectis basilixis. Ovarium globosum triloculare verrucosum, ovu- 
lis in loculo pluribus; stylus filiformis ex tnbo protrusus, stig- 
matibus tribus ligulatis eraarginatis. Capsula ignota. Herha 
Capensis acaulis hulbosa^ Tiahitu omnino Eomulese, hulhi tiinicis 
Jihrosis^foliis pluribus teretihus duris ^ flo^nhus magnis solitariis 
speciosis pedunculatis ferminalihtis , spatlit^ valvis dtiahus lanceo- 
latisjirmis viridihus infegris, periaiithii segmentis more TulipsB 
hasi luteonigro maciclatis. 

1, S. sPECiosus, Sweety loc. cit. — Trichonema monadelphuin. Sweet, 
Hort. Brit, edit, ii. 399. C. B. Spei, 

18. HoMEBiA, Vent. 
Vent. Dec. Nov. Gen. No. 2 ; Klatt in Zinncea^ 625. — Morese sp., 

Thu7ih. etc. 

Periantliittm regulare late infundibulare luteum vel miniatum, 
segmentis oblongis snbeonformibus obtusis vel acutis diu as- 
cendentibus. Stamina 3 epigyna sequilateralia, filamentis in 
tnbnm eylindricum prorsus connatis, antheris lignlatis basifixis 
stigmatibus oppositis. Oz?ar mm eylindricum 6-sulcatuni, ovulis 
in loculo crcLris ; stylus ^Miovmi'^ columnse filamentorum sequi- 
longus, stigmatibus parvis ligulatis petaloideis apice eristis 2 


Bat. Rep. t. 94 ; Jacq. Ic. t. 291. fig. superior; Thunb. icon. loc. cit. 
C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. grandifloua, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Sac. i. 315; Andr. Bot. 

Rep. t. 164. — G. ovata, Ker inBot. Mag. t, 1208. C. B. Spei. \ 

Var. G. MUCRONULARis, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 315. — G. ovata, 

Jacq. Ic. t. 291. fig. iuf. ad sinistram. C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. versicolor, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 315. — G. ovata, I 

Jacq. Ic. t, 291. fig. inf, ad dextram. — G. violacea, Eckl. Top. Verz. 

17. C. B. Spei. 

2. G. graminea, Thunb. loc. cit,] Jacq. Coll. ii. t. 18. fig. 2; Cav. 
Diss. t. 189. fig. 3; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1292. — Ixia fugacissima, 
Linn.fil. SuppL 94. C. B. Spei. 







MR. J. a. baker's ststema trtdacearum. 105 

deltoicleis pro^ditis. CapsuJa chartacea clavata G-sulcata apice 
loculicide trivalvis, seminibus parvis crel>ris angulatis. Jlerlce 
hiclhosce Capenses^ hulbi tunicis e hasi in scgmenta dura linearia 
nigra mulfa irregxilariter imhricata sectis, foliis inferior ihiis 
elongafis august e Joratis duris nervatis huJhiUis scBpe in axilUs 
pr<jeditiSy superiorihus parvis hracteiformihus arete imhrieatis, 
spathis miiltis terminalihus muUifloris^ valvis duris angusfis 
acutis arete imlricatis, pedieellis elongaiis, florihus magniiudine 
mediocrihus successivis fugitivis, 

1. H. ELEGANiS, Sweety Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 498. — Morsca elegaus, Jaeq. 
Hort. Schoen, i. 6, t. 12. — Sisyrinchium clegans, Willd. Sp, Plant, i. 
67' — M. spicata, JTer in Bot. Mag. t. 1283. — Homerla splcata, S«;ee/, 
loc. cit, C. B. Spei. 

2. II. coLLiNA, Vent. Decad. 5. — Morsea collina, Thunb. 13; 
Jacq. Jc. t. 226; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1033. — Sisyrinchium collinum, 
Cav. Diss, vi. 346; Red. LiL t. 250. — S. elegans. Red. Lit. 1. 171, non 
Willd. — Moroea grandiflora, Eckl, Top. Verz. 14. C. B. Spei. 

A"ar. H. ochroleuca, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. u 308. — Moraia 
collina, var., Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 1103. C. B. Spei. 

Var. H. MiNiATA, Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 152, — Morsea miniata, 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 404, C. B. Spei. 

3. IL MACULATA, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 627. C. B. Spei. 

4. IL LiNEATA, Sweety Brit. Flow, Gard. 1. 178. C. B. Spei. 
Var. n. PORRTFOLIA, Stveet, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 498. C. B. Spei. 

5. H. AURAXTIACA, Sweef, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 498. — Sisyrinchium 
aurantiacum, Zuccag. in Roem. 4' Schult. Syst. Veg. i. 492. — Moriea 
coUina, var. miniata minor, Bot. Mag. t. 1612. C JB. Spei. 

19. Ferraria, Linn. 

Linn. Gen. no. 1818, ex parte ; Ker^ Gen. Irid. 27 ; Klatt in 

Linnea, xxxiv. 626- 
Perianthium regulare, tubo supra ovarium nuUo, segmentis ovato- 
lanceolatis distincte unguiculatis, unguibus in cupulam diu con- 
niventibus, supra nnguem margiue undulatis flora expanso 
patulis vel reflexis. Stamina 3 epigyna, filaraentis in tubum 
cyliudricum coalitis, apice liberis, antheris oblongo-sagittatis. 
Ovarium cylindricum rostratum triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
crebris ; stylus filiformis colurana> filamentorum subsequilongus ; 
stigmatihus patulis petaloidcis planis bifidis insigniter pcnicilla- 
tis. Capsula oblonga rostrata chartacea loculicide trivalvi^^ se- 


106 MR. J. a. bakee's systema iuidacearum. 

minibus magnis crebris subglobosis, testa rigra. Herhce CapeU' 
ses cormo magno tuberoso prceditcd^ foliis inferiorihus paucis an- 
guste loratis elongatis ditris^ caulibiis dlchotome ramosis foliis 
rediictis multis ovato-lanceolatis amplexicaulihus hracfeiformibus 
prceditiSj spatJiis magnis multijloris veiitricosis valvis duris stria- 
tis oblong O'lanceolatis ^ pedicellis spatlia brevioribies, Horihus mag- 
nis f tig itivis luride purpicreis vel viridibus. 

Macroscyph(£y antherarum loculis divaricatis, 

1. F. Ferrariola, Willd. Sp- Plant, iii. 581.— Moraea Ferrariola, 
Jacq, Hort, Schoen, t. 456. — F. viridiflora, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 285. 
F, antherosa^ Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 751. — F. minor^ Pers. Syn. i. 50. 
C B. Spei. 

Var. ? F. ANGUSTIFOLTA, Sweet, Hort. Brit, 499. C. B. Spei. 

2. F. DivARiCATA, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 192. C. B. Spei. 

** BrachyscT/phcey antherarum loculis parallelis. 

3. F. UNDULATA,L?n?i. Sp. Plant. 1353} Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 144; Red. 
LiL t. 28; Jacq. Hort.Vind. t. 63 ; Cav. Ic. t. 190. fig. 1.— Moraea 
undulata, Thunb. Diss. Mor. 14. — Ferraria punctata, Pers. Syn. i. 60; 
Miller y Ic. 187, t. 280. C. B. Spei. 

4. F, UNciNATA, Sweet. Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 161. C. B. Spei. 

5. F. OBTusiFOLiA, Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 148. C. B. Spei. 


6. F. ATRATA, Lodd.Bot. Cab.t 1356. C. B. Spei. 


20. GrELASiNE, Kerbert. 

Serb, in Bot. Mag. t, 3779. 

Perianthium regulare rotatum caeruleum, tubo supra ovarium 
nullo, segmentis oboyato-cuneatis conformibus vel interioribus 
paulo minoribus. Stamina 3 sequilateralia epigyna, filameutis 
in tubum brevem prorsus connatis, antheris erecto-patentibus 
ligulatis basifixis. Ovarium turbinatum, ovulls in loculo multis 
crebris ; stylus filiformis, ramis tribus erecto-patentibus subu- 
latis. Capsula clavata apice operculata loculicide trivalvis, se- 
minibus crebris angulatis, testa brunnea. Herbce bulbosce Ame- 






■' 7 






1. G. AZUREA, Herb, loc, cit. Banda orientalis. 

2. G. GRANDTFLORA, Herb, loc, cif, Andes, 

3. G. ? PURRUCHUCANA, Herb. loc. cit. Andes. 

21. Chlamtdosttltjs, Baker. 
Baker in Trimen^ Journ. 1S7G, 185. 

PeriantMum regulare rotatuin cseruleum vel luteum, tubo supra 
ovarium nullo, segmentis obovatis obtusis conformibus flore 
expanse patulls. Stamina 3 sequilateralia t'pigyna, filamentls 
in tubum cylindricum prorsus connatis, antheris basifixis ligu- 

latis connective angusto, vel panduriforoiibus connectivo lato. 

Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus 

brevis filiformis erectus, ramis 6 subulatis apice stigtnato'sis. 

Capsula clavata membranacea operculata apice loculicide tri- 

valvis, seminibus congestis angulatis, testa brunnea. Herhce 

hulhosce Americce tropicalis, bulbi tunicis hrmineis membranaceis, 
foliis 1-2 teretibus vel anguste linearibus plicatis, cauUbus sim- 

plicibus vel furcatis foliis 1-2 reductis prceditis, spatliis segre- 
qatis terminalibiis paucljioris pedunculatisj valvis lanceolatis 
viridulis arete imbricatis, pedicellis floriferis scepe protrusis^ 
jloribus fugitivis successivis. 

Subgenus ETJCHLAMTDOSTTLrs. Antherce ligulafcey connectivo 


1. C. BRACTEOLATUS, Baler. — Beatonia bracteolata, Klatt inLinncea, 
xxxiv. 733. Andes Bolivian. 

2. C. TENUIS, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 185.— Nemastylis coeles- 
tina, Klatt in Linnaa^ xxxi. 567^ ex parte. Mexico, 

3. C. MULTIFLORUS, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 186. — Morgea 
foliosa, H. B. K. Nov. Gen, i. 322? Mexico et Andes. 

Subgenus Platisterigma, AntTiera suhpanduriformes vel 

oblong (2^ connectivo lato. 

4. C. TRIFLORUS, Baker. — Nemastylis triflora, Herbert in Benth, PL 
Hartweg. 95.— C. cemua, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876^ 186. Mexico 
et Guatemala. 

5. C. Medusa, Baker ^ in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 186. Brasilia in ditione 

108 ME. J. a. baker's systema ikidaceatjum. 

22. ScnizosTiTLis, BacTch. et Ilarv. 

BacM. et Marv. in Bof. Mag. t. 5422. 

PerianfJiium veguiave rotatum, tubo supra ovarium cylindrico, seg- 
raentis rotatis oblongis conformibus flore expanse patulis. Sia- 
mina 3 ad faucem tubi inserta sequilateralia limbo breviora, fila- 
mentis subulatis, antberis magnis linearibus. Ovarium oblongum 
triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis ex tubo baud 
protrusus, stigmatibus tribus magnis erccto-patentibus subulatis 

■ integris. Capsula parva oblonga loculicide trivalvis, seminibus 
crebris triquetris. Herhcd Capen^es Tiaud hulbifercOy radicihus 
dense ccespitosis fibroso-carnosis^ foliis radicalihus Jictbellato- 

disticMs graminoideis\ Jloribus dense <sqidlateraliter spicatis, 
spatliis unijloris^ valvis duahus integris viridulis lanceoJatis vel 
oblongis, AJb Hesperantba vix recedit nisi defectu hulhi. 

L S. cocciNBA, Bach. 8f Harv. loc, cit. Natal, Transvaal, Kaffraria. 

2. S. pauciflora, Klatt in Linncea, xxxv. 380. — S. ixioides, Harv. 
MS. Natal, Transvaal, ^c. 

23. WiTsENiA, Thunb. 

Thunb. JVbv. Gen. ii. 343cum icone; ^er^ Gen. 7, ex parte; Klatt 
in Linncea, 34, 545, ex parte. — Antbolyzse sp., Linn. 

Perianthium infundibulare regulare viridulum persistens, tubo 
supra ovarium elongato cylindrico e basi ad faucem sensim am- 
pliato, segmentis 6 lingulatis diu ascendentibus, exterioribus 
supra medium dorso fulvo-tomentosis, interioribus apice solum 
fulvo-tomentosis. Stamina 3, ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter 
inserta, filamentis applanatis, antberis magnis lanceolatis sequi- 
longis. Ovarium oblongum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; 
stylus filiformis periantbio sequilongus apice stigmatoso obscure 
tricuspidatus, Capsula parva turbinata glabra castanea in 
spatba occulta, seminibus paucis imbricatis discoideis, testa 
brunnea. 'Fruiex ramosus, caulibus lignosis acute ancipitibus, 
foliis caulinis multis disticJiis duris linearibus nervosis ampTexi- 
caulibus rectis^ spatMs 1-2-Jloris multis spicatis congestis, valvis 
pluribus magnis duris lanceolatis acutis coriaceis viridulis, exte- 
rioribus sensim brevioribus. 

1. "W. MAURA, Thunb. lac. cit.; Lam, III. t. 30; Red. Lil. t. 245 & 
403; Bat. Reg. t. 5; Maund, Bot. t. 125; Flore des Serves, t. 72; 
Paxt, Mag. viii. 221, cum icqne; Reich. Exot.t, 23, — W. tomentosa, 















MR. J. Q. baker's systema iridacearum. 109 

Salisb. in Trans. Hort, Soc. i. 312.— Ixia disticha. Lam. Ency. iii. 
333.— Antholyza maura, Linn. Mant. 175. C. B. Spei. 

21. Nivenia, Ventenat. 

'enat, Becad. Nov, Gen, no. 1 (1808), non R, Br. (1809). 
Genlisea, Beich. Conspect. 60. — Witsenia, Ker^ Gen. 7, ei 
parte. — Ixi^e sp., Thunh. 

Perianthium hypocrateriforme regulare glabrum cseruleum, tubo 
supra ovarium cylindrico, segmentis 6 oblongis obtusis a^quali- 
bus flore expanso patulis. Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi ^equilate. 
raliter inserta, filameutis brevibus subulatis, antheris minutis 
oblongis. Ovarium triloculare, ovulia in* loculo pluribus ; 
stylus filiforniis cagruleus perianthio iequilongus, apice obscure 
tricuspidatus. Capsula parva oblongo-turbinata coriacea glabra 
brunnea, ex apice ad basin loculicide trivalvis, seminibus in 

loculo paucis oblongis turgidis. Frutices Capenses parvi 
ramosi^ ramis acute ancipitibus^ foliis Tnultis caulinis distichis 
confertis duris linearihus acutis amplexicaulihus, spatliis 1-2- 
Jloris parvis corymbosis vel capitatis, valvis exteriorihus obtusis 
hrunneis coriaceis, interioribus majoribus membranaceis, jloribtis 
cceruleis fiigitivis. 

1. N. coRYMBOSA, Balcev. — Witsenia corymbosa, Gawl. in Bot.Mag. 
t. 895; Smith, Eccot. Bot.t. 18; Red. Lil t. 453; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 254; Reich. Exot. t. 24; Paxt. Mag. iii. 269, cum icone ; Maund. 
Bot. V. 202. — N. stylosa, Salisb. in Trans. Hart. Soc. i. 311. C. B. 

2. N. fbuticosa. Baker. — Ixia fruticosa, Thunb. Diss. Ixia, No. 1, 
t. 1. fig. 3 ; Lam. III. i. 108, t. 31, fig. 4. — Witsenia fruticosa, Kerin 
Konig ^- Sims, Ann, i. 237. — W. capitata, Klatt in Linnaa, xxxiv. 

546. — W. ramosa, 
i. 41. a B. Spei. 

Aristea fruticosa, Pers. Syn. 

25. Klattia, Baker. 

Witseniae sp., ICer. 

Perianthium cylindricum persistens cseruleum glabrum, tubo supra 
ovarium brevi cylindrico, segmentis 6 sequalibus longissimis diu 
ascondentibus apice anguste ligulatis, deorsum ungue elongato 
subulato praeditis. Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter 
inserta limbo paulo breviora, filamentis elongatis subulatis, 
antheris magnis ligulatis basifixis. Ovarium oblongum trilo- 



culare, ovulis in loculo pluribus crebris ; stylus filiformis limbo 
sequilongus, apice stigmatoso minute tricuspidatus, Capsula 
parva oblonga glabra brumiea coriacea loculicide trivalvis, semi- 
nibus pluribus turgidis. Frutex ramosus Capensis, liahifu 
NiveniEe, ramislignosis acute ancipitihits^foJils cmilinis confcrtis 
distichis linearihus dun's amplexicauJihus.Jlorihus dense capita- 
tis, glomeriilis foliis rcdiictis lineari-naviciilarihtis magnis brac- 
teatis, spatliis singulis ontdto minor ihus occult is l~2-JloriSy valvis 
parvis scariosis incequalihus lanceolatis, 

1. K. PARTITA, Baker. — Witsenia partita^ Ker in Konig i^ Sims, Ann, 
i. 237. C.B. Spei. 









26. Aristea, Soland. 

Soland. in Ait. Jlort. Keio. i. 67; Ker^ Gen. Irid. 10; Klatt in 
Linncea^ xxxiv. 548. — Morsese sp., Tliunh. — Ixise sp., I^inn> 
Sisyrinchium et Wredo\\'ia, FcM, Topog. Yerz, 16 — Cleanthe, 

- Salisl. in Trans. Hart. Soc. i. 312. 

Ferianiliium regulare rotatum csoruleum, tubo supra ovarium 
subnullo, segmentis conformibus vel in Cleanthe iuterioribus 
majoribus obovatis vel oblongis flore expanse patulis. Stamina 
3 ad faucem aequilateraliter inserta, limbo multo breviora, fila- 
mentis subulutis, antheris ligulatis basifixis. Ovarium clava- 
tum, triloculare, ovulis in loculo pluribus crebris ; stylus fili- 
formis, ex tubo longe protrusus rectus vel leviter declinatus, 
summo apice obscure tricuspidatus. Capsula oblonga vel cylin- 
drica, dura, coriacea, ssepissime acute triquetra, seminibus dis- 
coideis vel globosis, testa castanea vel atrata. Herlce perennes 
Capenses et Africance tropicales^ rhizomate hrevi lignoso.Jibris ra- 
dicalihus copiosis duris gracilihus^foUis hasalibus multis elonga- 
its distichis duris linearibus vel subteretibns, caulinis pluribus 
reductis, injlorescentia corymhoso-paniculata vel interdum sptcata 
vel capitata, spathis oblongis multifloris ventricosis, valvis per- 
multis imbricatis omnibus scariosis vel €Xte7'ioribus viridulis^ 
Jloribus fugitivis cceruleis post anthesin spiraliter tortiSy capsulis 
in spatha sessilibus vel pedicellatis protrusis. 



Series I. Euabistea. PeriantMi segmenta conformia, 

Capsvla parva sessilis ohovoidea, lateribus rotundaiiSy seminibus 


1. A. ANCEPS, Ecklon; Klatt in LintKBa, xxxiv. 550. C. B. Spei et 

m _ 

2. A. MADAGASCARiENsis, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 267. Ma- 

3. A. SCHIZOL^NA, Harv. MS,; Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876,267. 
C. B. Spei. 

4. A. ANGOLENSis, Baker. Angola, 

* Capsula oblonga acute triqueira breviter pedicellata, seminibus 


5. A. JUNCIFOLTA, Baker in Trimen y Journ, 1876, 267. C. B. Spei, 

6. A. RACEMOSA, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876,267. — Witsenia'spicata, 
E, Meyer in Herb. Drege. C. B. Spei. 

7. A. DTCHOTOMAj Ker, Gen, Irid, 13, non Klatt, — Moraea dichotoma, 
Thunb, FL Cap, i, 266, — A. intermedia, Ecklon, Top. Verz. 16. C. B, 

8. A. CYANEA, Soland. in Ait. ITort, Kew. i. 6^ ; Andr. Bot. Rep, t, 10 ; 
Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 458 ; Red. LiL t. 462. — Ixia africana, Linn. Sp. 
Plant. 51. — Moraea africana, Thunb. Diss. Mar. No. 3. — M. Aristea, 
Lam. III. 114.— Aristea eriophora, Pers. Syn. I. 41. C. B. Spei. 

9. A. COM PRESS A, Bucking, in Krauss, PL Natal. Exsic. No. 353. 

10. A. CAPiTATA, Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 605 (excl. syn.), — Gladiolus ca- 
pitatus, Linn. Sp. Plant, 53. — Aristea major, Andr. Bot, Rep, i, 160. 
Morgeacaerulea, Thunb, Diss, Mor. 15, tab. 2. fig. 2. — A. caerulea,FaA/, 
Enum. ii. 124, — A. spioata et bracteata, Pers. Syn. i. 41. C, B. 

*** Capsula cylindrico-triquetra, seminibus minutis turgidis. 

11. A. SPIRALIS, Ker in Konig 8f Sims, Ann. i. 236. — Mora;a spiralis, 
Linn, SuppL 99; Bot. Mag. t. 520.— Sisyrinchiura spirale, Eckl, 
Top. Verz. 16. C. B. Spei. 

12. A. pusiLLA, Ker in Konig 4' Sims, Ann, i. 236; Bot. Mag. t. 123. 
Moraea pusilla, Thunb, Diss. No. 4. — Sisyrinchium pusillum, Eckl, 

C, B. Spei. 

K 2 

112 Ml«. J. G. baker's SrSTEMA IRIDACEARU.U. 

13. A. EcKLONi, Baker. — A. dichotoma, Eckl, ; Klatt in Linnaa^ xxxiv 
551, non Ker. C* B. Speu 


Series II. Cleajstthe. PeriantJni segmenta interior a major a. \ 

14. A. MELALEUCA, Ker in Konig Sf Sims^ Ann. u 236; Bat. Mag. 
t. 1277- — Moraea melaleuca, Thunb. Diss, Morcea, No. 1, t. 1. fig. 3. 

M. lugens, Linn,fiL Suppl. 99. — Cleanthe melaleuca, Salisb. Trans. 
Hort. Soc. i. 312. — Sisyrincliuim nielaleucum et inundatum, EckL 
Top. Verz. 16. C. B. Spei. 

ludescripta, mihi iguota. 

15. A. Wredowia, Steud. NomencL edit. ii. 130. — W. pulchra, EckL 
Topog. Verz. 16. C. B. Spei, 



27. Ortiirosa^thus, Sweet. 

Sweet, FL Austral, t. 12; Benth, Fl. Austral, vi. 410. — Sisyrin- 
chii sp., Lindl. &c. — Morseae sp., II. _S. K. 

JPeynantTiium regulare infundibulare cseruleum, tubo supra ovarium 
brevi vel brevissimo, segmeutis 6 oblongis coufortnibus imbri- 
catis. Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter inserta, fila- 
mentis brevibus linearibus, antlieris ligulatis. Ovarium oblon- ^ 

gum trijoculare, ovulis in loculo multis crebris ; stylus brevia f 

filifbrrais, e tubo baud protrusus, stigmatibus tribus erecto- j 

patentibus subulatis integris, antheris alternis. Capsula char- j 

tacea oblongo-triquetra loculicide trivalvis, seminibus minutis ! 

angulatis, testa brunnea. Herhce perennes, rhizomate hrevi 
liqnoso^Jihris radicalihus duris,foliis radicalihics multis distickis 
linearihus duris persist entihus^ caulinis paucis similibus redtictis^ 
spatlds oblongis multijloris spicatis vel paniculatis, valvis per- 
' plu7nmis, imbricatis, exterioribus viridibus, interioribus membrana- j 

ceisy capsulis intra spathas inclusis subsessilihus vel breviter pedi- 
cellatis,Jlo7'ibus parvis fugitivis. 

* Australienses. 

1. O. MULTiFLOKrs, Sweet. he, cii.; Lodd. Boi. t. 1474. — Sisyrin- 

chium cyaneum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1090. — Libertia stricta, Endl. in ] 

PLPreiss. ii. 32? Australia australis et Occident alis. 

2. O. MuELLERi, Benth. FL Austral, vi. 411. Australia occidentalis. 

3. O. LAXus, Benth. Fl. Austral, vi. 41 L— Libertia laxa, Endl. in PL 

Preiss. ii. 32. Australia occidentalism 



MR. J. G. baker's ststema ietdacearum. 113 

4. O. GRAMiXEUS, Benth. FL AtistraL vi, 411, — Libertia graminea, 
Endl. in PL Preiss. ii. 32. Australia occidentalis. 

5. O. POLYSTACHYUS,Ben^A. FL Austral, vi. 411, Australia occiden- 


• # 


6. O. SPICATUS, BaJcer. — Sisyrinclium spicatum, Seubert, MS.; Klatt 
in Linncea, xxxi. 377- Brasilia meridionalis , 

7- O. cHiMBORACENSis, Baker in Gard, Chron. 1876, ii. 67. — Morsea 
ehimboracensis et acorifolia, H. B. K. Nov. Gen, i. 322.— Sisyrin- 
chium Moritzianum, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 378. — Orthrosanthus 
Moritzianus, Klotzch in Moritz, Exsie. No. 1204. Andes, ab Mexico 
ad Peruviam, 

Var. GLADioLOiDES, Baker. — Moriea gladioloiJes, H. B. K. Nov. Gen, 
i. 322. — Sisyrinchium occisapungum, Ruiz, MS. ; Klatt in Linncea, 
xxxi. 379. Andes. 

28. Belemcanda {Bheede). 

Adans. Fam. ii. GO. — Pardanthus, Ker in Konig et Sims, Ann. i. 
246. — Ixise sp., Linn. 

Perianthium rotatum, subregulare, tubo supra ovarium nullo, 
segmentis oblongo-oblanceolatis unguiculatis flore expanso 
patuliSj interioribus paulo ininoribus, post antbesin spiraliter 
tortis. Stamina 3 epigyna limbo breviora sequilateraliter in- 
serta, filamentls subulatis, antberis ligulutis basifixis. Ovarium 
triloculare clavatura, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis, 
stigmatibus 3 erecto-pateiitibua applauatis apioe reniforn\ibus. 
Capsula magna coriacea oblongo-turbiuata loculicide trivaV. is, 
seminibus crebris globosis magnitudlue pisi, testa cnissa nigra, 
albumine corneo. Ilerha asiatica orieiitalis^ liahitu Iridis, rlii- 
zoviate crasso,foUis mult is magnis distichis ensiformihus ^ cauli- 



Jlorihus speciosis fug 

tivis punctatis. 

1. B. cHiNENSis, Leman in Red. Lit. t. 121. — B. punctata, Moench 
Meth. 52y.-~Ixia chinensis, Linn. Sp. Plant. 52; Trew, Ehret. 23, 
t. 62; Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 171. —Pardanthus chinensis, Ker in 
Konig i^* Sims, Ann. i. 246 ; Flore des Sevres, t. 1632. — P. nepaleusis. 
Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard. edit. ii. 4!)8. Asia oricntalis. 

114 MB. J. G. bakeb's systema ibibaceabum. 

29. BoBAETiA, Linn. 

lAnn, Gen. no. 71 j Ker^ Ann. Irid. 29 ; Klatt in Linnea^ xkxiv. 
554. — Moraeae sp., Thunb. Diss. Morcea. 

Perianthium regulare rotatum flavurn, tuho supra ovarium 
nulloj segmentis oblongis conformibus flore expanse patulis. 
Stamina 3 sequilateralia epigyna, filamentis brevissimis ap- 
planatis, antheris ligulatis. Ovarium turbinatum, ovuHs 
in' loculo pluribus ; stylus brevissimuSj stigmatibus tribus 
falcatis subulatis integris antheris alternis. Gapsula dura 
turbinata 6-sulcata operculata, apice loculicide trivalvis, 
seminibus crebris magnis angulatis obscure alatia, testa nitida 
castanea, albumine corneo. Herbm Capenses altcE perennes rhi- 
zomatosce^foliis diiris persistentibus teretihus plants inierdum 
rudiment ariiSyScapis aphyllis teretihus vel planis^ spathis multis 
cylindricis in rosulam unicam densam congestis^ valvis cartilagi- 
neis linearihus aciiminatis viridihus arete imhricatis, Jloribus 
aggregatis fugitivis successivis^pedicellis ac spatha cequilongis. 

1. B. APHYLLA, Ker, Gen. Irid. 30. — Marica aphylla, Ker in Bot. Reg. 
sub t. 229. — Moraea aphylla, Linn. jiL Suppl. 99; Thunb. Diss. 
Moraa, No. 9, tab. 2. fig. 1. — Sisyriuchium apliyllum. Sprang. Syst. 
Veg. i. 166. C. B. Spei. 

2. B. FiLXFORMis, Ker, Gen. Irid. 30. — Marica filiformis, Ker in Bot. 
Reg. ^uht. 229.— Moma filiformis, Linn. JiL Suppl. 100; Thunb. 
Diss. Moreeoy No. 10, tab. 2. fig. 2. — Sisyrinchum filiforme, Spreng. 
Syst. Veg. i. 1(J6. C. B. Spei. 

3. B, GLADiATA, Ker, Gen. Irid. 30. — Ixia gladiata, Linn. JiL Supp. 
93.— Marica gladiata, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 229.— Moraea gladiata, 
Thunb. Diss. Morcea, No. 8. — Sisyrincbium gladiatum, Spreng. Syst. 
Veg. i. 166. C. B. Spei. 

4. B. SPATHACEA, Ker, Gen. Irid. 30.— Morsta spatbacea, Thunb. 
Diss. Morcea, No. 11, tab. l.fig. 1.— Marica spathacea,-K?r, Bo^ Reg. 
sub t. 229.— Bobartia indica, Linn. Sp. Plant. 78 (patria falsa).— Si- 
syrincbium spathaceum, Pers. Syn. i. 50. — Aristea spathacea, Spreng. 
Syst. Veg. i. 158.— Xyris altissima, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1900 (patria 
falsa).— Bobartia juncea, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc.i. 313. C B. 


Juss. Gen. 59. 

30. Tapeinia, Juss. 

Perianthium regulare infundibulare, tubo supra ovarium nuUo, 









ME. J. G. baker's SYSTEAIA IBID ACE AEUM. 115 

segmentis subconformibus oblongo-lanceolatis flore expanse fal- 
catis. Stamina 3 ad basin segmentorum a^quilateraliter inserta, 
fi]amentis basi connatis, supra medium liberis subulatis, an- 
theris lanceolatis profunde sagittatis. Ovarium oblongum tri- 
loculare, ovulisin loculoplurimis j ^(yZw^ filiformis, ramis tribus 
subulatis fulcatis integris. Capsula globosa coriacea loculicide 
trivalvis, seminibus plurimis turgidis. Ilerha perennis perpu^ 
silla glabra dense ccespitosa, foliis disfichis linearlhus, scapis 
hrevissimis,Jlo7nhus solitainis terminalibus, spathce vahis oppositis 
dtiabus lanccoJato-navicularibus Jirmis. 

1. T. magellanica, Ker, Gen, Irid, 9,— Ixia magellaaica, Lam, III. 
i. 109.— Morrca mao;ellanica, fVilld. Sp. Plant, i. 241.— Witsenia 

magellanica, Fers, Syn, i. 42. —Ixia pumila, Forst. Comm. Gott. ix. 
20, t. 8. — Witsenia puuiila, Vahl, Enum, ii. 48. — Sisyrinchium pumi- 
lum, Hohk. fil, FL Ant. t, 129, — Echthronema pumilum, Herb, in 
Bot, Reg, 1843, Misc. 85. — Galaxia obscura, Cav* Diss, t. 189. fig. 4. 
Sisjrinchi um frigidum, Popp. Fragm, L Chili et Patagonia, 

31. SisrRiKCHTtTiT, Linn, 

\, Gen. No. 1017; Klatt in Linncea^ xxxi. 63, 371, excl. sp. 

Bermudiana (Tourn.), Adans, Fam. 60.— Souza, Vellozo^ FL 
Flmn. vii. t. 1-3. — Marica, Ker^ Gen, Irid. 16, ex parte. ~Syo- 
rhyachium, Hoffmann, Nach, ii. 216. — Hydastylus, Salisb. in 
Trans, Ilort. Soc, i. 310. — Echthronema, Eriphlema, et Glu- 
mosia, Herbert in Bot, Reg. 1843, Misc> 85. 

iPerianthium regulare infundibulare vel hypocrateriforme, tubo 
Bupra ovarium nullo, segmeutis conformibus oblongis vel lau- 
ceolatis acutis vel obtusis mucrouatis e basi patulis vel basi 
diu in cupulam conniveutibus. Stamina 3 ad basiu segmen- 
torum sequilateraliter inserta, niameutis basi vel prorsus coali- 
tis, antheris oblongis basifixis. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in 
loculo crebris ; stglus filiformis, ramis stigmatosis tribus subu- 
latis falcatis integris, antheris alternis. Capsula parva obloHga 
vel subijlobosa membranacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus ere- 
bris minutis triquetris, testa brunnea, albumine corneo. Herb<s 
annuce vel perennes haud balbifercBy radicibus fibrosis, foliis siccis 
angusfe linearibus vel teretibus, caulibus nudis vel puree fi)liatis 
ancipitibm vel 'teretibus^ spathis multifloris scepe solitariis vel 
paucis pedunculaiis, valvis lanceolato-navicularibus, exterioribus 

116 MB. J. G. baker's ststema ibidacearum:. 

viridibuSj interioribus memhranaceis^Jioribusfitgitivis successivis 
lufeis vel ccdrtdeis vel ruhellis, pedicellis demum cum spatha sub- 

Sectio I. Androsolen, Klatt (j)ioc Lemaire^). Caulesnuditeretes, 
Spathce solita^nce vel plures terminales segregates pedunculatce, 

1. S. NuNO, Bertero; Colla in Mem. Taur, xxxix. 17? t. 54, Chili, 

Var. S. LEUCANTHXJM, Colla, loc\ cit. — S. depauperatum, Philippi 
in Linnaa, xxix. 61.^ — S. Berteroanum, Phil, in Linm^a, xxix. 68. 

2. S. SKTACKVMf Klatt in Linneea^ xxxi. 85; FL Bras, iii. 540, tab. 
71. fig. 1. Monte Video. 

3. S. GRANDiFLOKUM, Douglas in Bot. Reg. t, 1364 ; Bot. Mag, t. 
3599; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii, t. 388, nan Cap. — S. Doug- 
lasii, Dietr. Synops. i. 150; Lemaire in Flore des Serres, t. 146, 
Eriphlema grandiflorum. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 85. Montes 
Scopulosi, Columbia britannica, California. 

4. S. trinerve. Baker in Trhnen, Journ. 1876, 267. Andes Bolivice. 

5. S. JUNCEUM, E.Meyer in Rel. Haenk. i. 118. — S. roseum, Philippi, 
in Linncea, xxix, 59. Chili, Peru, Bolivia, 

Var. S. GRACILE, Philippi in hinnma, xxix. 58. Chili. 

Var. S, sciRPiFORME, Poppig, Frag. 22. — S. roseum, Herb, in Bot* 
Reg. 1843, Misc. 84, — S. scirpeum, Philippi in Linnceo, xxix. 59. — S. 
floribundum, Philippi in Linnceaj xxix. 59. — S. junceum, Knowles ^ 
Westcotty Floral Cab. iii. 17, t. 95. Chili. 

Var. S. COLCHAGUENSE, Philippi in Linw^a, xxxiii. 253. Chili. 

Var. S. ASPERULUM, Philippi in Linncea, xxxiii. 252. Chili. 

6. S. PiULiPPii, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 89. — S. scabrum, Philippi in 
Linnaa, xxix. 58, non Cham, i^- Schlecht. Andes Chilenses. 

7. S. FiT.iFOLiUM, Gaudich. Voy. Freyc. 133; Hook. jiL Fl, Ant. ii* 
352, tab. 126.— S. Gaudichaudii, Dietr. Sp. Plant, ii. 505. Insulm 
Falkland, Fuegia. 










Sectio II. SiSYRiNGiTJM, Klatt. Caules ancipites nudi velfoliati. \ 

Spathce solitaricB vel plures terminales segregates pedunculafcB. 

* Perianthium cceruleum. 
8. S. SECUNDIFLORUM, Klatt in Linnma, xxxi. 91 ; Fl. Bras. iii. 541. 
t, 71- fig. 2. Brasilia, 

* Androsolen, Jjemhire =Sisyri7ichiumf Herbert, stirps filamentis prorsus 
connatis. Sisyringium^ Lemaire, Hydastylus, Salisb., Echfhronemn, Eriphlema 
fit Glumo^ta^ Herb., sunt stirpes filamentis basi soluin connatis. 


9. S. AVENACEUM, Klatt in Linn<pa, xxxi. 373. Brasilia. 

10. S. 8CABRUM, Cham. ^ Schlecht, in Linncea^ vi. 57. — S. raulticaule, 
Schauer in Linncea, xix. 704. — S. Berteroi, Steud. in Lechler^ PL Chil, 
No. 290.— S. Lechleri, Steud. in Lechler, PL ChiL No. 288. America 

U.S. CHiLENSE, Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 2786. Chili, Monte Video, 

Brasilia meridionalis. 

12. S. Bermudianum, Linn, Sp. Plant. 1353; Cav. Diss. t. 192. fig. 1 ; 
Red. Lit. t. 149.— Marica Bermudiana, Ker, Gen. Irid. 21. — S. Nut- 
talii. Sweet, Brit. Flow. Card. edit. 2, 498. — S. excisum, Godr. FL 
Juv. 3*J ? America borealis, Bermuda, Hibernia, Mauritius, et Aus- 
tralia {inquilinum). 

A^ar. 1. S. iRiDioiDES, Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 94 ; DHL Elth. 48, t. 41. 
fig. 48. Bermuda. 

Var. 2. S. gramixeum. Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 464; Red. LiL t. 282. 
America borealis. 

Var. 3. S, geniculatuMj Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 84,— S. 
luinus, Eagel^' A. Gray, PL Lhidh. 55. Texas. 

Var. 4. S. anceps, Cav. Diss. vi. 345, t. 190. fig. 2; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 1220; Eng. Bot. edit. 3, t. 1491.— Marica anceps, Ker, Gen. Irid. 
22; DHL Elth. 49, t. 41. fig. 49. America borealis, Hibernia. 

Ykt. 5. S. MUCRONATUM, Mich. FL Amer. Bor. ii. 33. — ilarica mucro- 
nata, Ker, Gen. Irid. 22. America borealis. 

** Perianthium rubrum. 

13. S. MiNUTiFLORUM, Klatt in Linnrra, xxxi. 7l. Monte Video. 

*** Perianthium jiavum. 

t AcauJes. 

14. S. PusjLLUM, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 323. — Marica pusilla, Ker, 
Gen. Irid. 24. Andes Columbia. 

15. S. bogotense, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 323. — Marica bogotensis, 
Ker, Gen. Irid. 23. Andes, Brasilia, 

16. S. Jamesoni, Baker in Trimen, Joum. 18/6, 269. Andes Colum- 
bim et Bolivice. 

17. S. UNisPATHACEUM, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 737- Andes Bo- 

18. S. PATAGONicvM, Philippi, MS. Patagonia. 


118 MB. J. G. baker's sxstema ibidacearum. 

19. S. CALiFORNicuM, DryandAu Hort. Xez/?. edit. 2, iv. 135. — Marica 
califorxiica, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 983. — Hydastylus californicus, Salish. 
in Trans. Hort, Soc. i.310. — Echthronemacalifornica, Herierf in Bof. 
Eeg, 1843, Misc. 84. — Sisyrinchium lineatum, Torrey in Bot, Whipple, 
143. — S. flavidum, Kellogg in Proc. Calif. Acad, ii, 50, t. 3. Cali- 

20. S. ACRE, H. Mann in Proc, Amer, Acad, vii. 206. Insula Sandi- 

21. S. TiNCTORiUM, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 324. — Marica tinctoria, Ker, 
Gen. Irid. 23. — S. tingens, S^ewc?, Nomen. Bot. edit, \\.b9&. — S. rigi- 
dum, Lehn. in Otto, Neue deiitsche Gartenzeit, vi, 415. Andes. 


tt Caulescentes, 

22. S. MiCRAXTHUM, Cav. Diss. vi. 144, t. 191. fig. 2 ; Ker in Bot, 
Mag. t. 2116. — Marica micrantha, Ker, Gen. Irid. 22. — S. micrauthe- 
mum, Pers. Syn. i. 50. America tropicalis, Australia orientalis {in- 

23. S. GRACihKyKlotzsck, MS, Brasilia. 

24. S. coNvoLUTUMjiVocra, PI. Select, i. t. 1 ; Red. Lil. t. 47 ; fVilld. 
Hort, Berol. t. 91. — Echthronema convoluta. Herb, in Bot. Reg, 
1843, Misc. 84. — Marica acorifolia, Ker, Gen, Irid, 24, excl. syn. 
America iropicalis, , 

25. S. PiSARCEi, Philippi in Linncea, xxxiii. 251. Chili* 

26. S. iRiDiFOLiuM, /J. B. K Nov, Gen. i. 324 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 1979.— Marica iridifolia, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 646.— S. laxum. 


# A « 


Mag. t. 2117 et 2313.— Marica tenuifolia, Ker, Gen. Irid. 23.— Ech- 
thronema tenuifolia. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc, 84. Mexico, 

29. S. GRAMiNiFOLiUM, Lindl, in Bot. Reg. t. 1067.— Echthronema 
graminifoliura. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 8^. — S. majale. Link, 
Klotzsch, <5' Otto. Ic. t. 10, Chili. 

Var. 1. S. MACULATUM, HooJc. in Bot, Mag. t. 3197.— Echthronema 
maculata. Herb, in Bot. Reg, 1843, Misc. 85. Chili. 

Var, 2. S. ascexdens, Poppig, Fragm, 4, — S. graminifoliura, var. pu- 
inilum, LindL in Bot. Reg. t. 1915.— S. dasycarpum, Philippi, MS. 




28. S. Mandoni, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 269. Andes Bolivia <| 

et Columbian. 


ME. J. G. bakee's systems ieidaceaeum, 119 

30. S. Hartwegii, BaArer. Mexico, 

31. S. PACHYRHizuM, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 18/6, 269. — S. Sel- 


Brasilia meri- 


32. S. RESTioiDEs, Spreng. Syst, i. 167. Brasilia meridionalis, Monte 

33. S.XAGiyxTVM, Spreng. Syst. i. 166. — S. sulcatum, Gillies in Hook. 
Ic, t. 218- Brasilia meridionalis, Monte Video, 

34. S. INCURVATUM, Gard. in Hook. Ic. t. 513.— S. brevifolium, 
KlotzscTi, MS. Brasilia. 

35. S. Glaziovii, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 278.— Souza Comes, 
VelloZy FL Flum. vii. 2? — Sis} rlnchium Comes, Stead. Nomenc. edit. ii. 
595 ? Brasilia meridionalis. 

36. S. ALATUM, Hook. Ic. t. 219. — Souza Marchio, Velloz, Fl. Flum. 
vii. t. 1 , — Sisyrinchium Marchio, Steud. Nomenc. edit. ii. 596. 
America tropicalis, 

Var. PAUCiFOLiUM, Baker. America tropicalis. 

37. S. Weirii, Baker in Trim.en, Journ. 1876, 268. Brasilia meri- 

Sectio III. Cephala>^thum, Baker. Caules nudi. Sjpathce plures 

sessiles in caput unicum congested. 

* Caul is teres. 

38. S. LuzuLA, Klotzsch; Klatt in Linnaa, xxxi. 89, 376. Brasilia 

39. S. LATERALS, Bater in Trimen^ Journ. 1876, 269. Andes Bolivice . 

40. S. FAScicuLATUM, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 97. Monte Video, 


Caulis anceps. 


• ■ ■ 

359, tab. 70. fig. 2. Monte 

42. S. MARGINATUM, Klatt in Linn(ea, xxxi. 83. Brasilia meri- 



folia, Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 85.— Marica palmifolia, Ker, 
Gen. Irid, 20. — Morsca nalmifoila. Thunb. Diss. No. 6. — S. raceme- 




sum, Pers. Syn. i. 49, — Moraea alata, Vahly EnumA, 154. — S. inacro- 
cephalum, Grah. in Edinb. New PhiL Journ. 1833, 1/6. — S. altissi- 
mum, Tenore, Atti della terz. riun. 504. — S. elatum, Seubert, MS, 
Brasilia meridionalisy Monte Video. 

Var. S. coNGESTUM, Klait in Linnaa, xxxi. 98. Brasilia meri- 

32. SoLENOMELUS, Mievs. 

Miers in Trans. Linn. ^oc. xix, 95, t. 8. — Syraphyostemon, Miers 
in Trans. Linn. /Soc. xix. 97. — Cruckshanki.i, Miers, Travels^ ii. 

, Psithyrisma, Herb, in Hot. Reg. 184.3, Mi^c 

84,— Leclilera, Griseh. in LecJiL Fl. Chil J£x$ic. no. 2966. 
fciusariuuj, Fhili^pi in Linncea, xxxiii. 24!S. — Ci\dm^\\xm^Fhilippi 
in Linncea, xxxiii. 250. 

Ferianthium regulare infundibulare, tubo supra ovarium distincte 
producto fi]ifoi*mi vel infundibulari recto vel curvato, segmentis 
conformibus oblongis vel lanceolatis flora expanso falcatis. 
Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter inserta, filamentia in 
tubum prorsus connatis, antberls parvis oblongis basifixis. 
Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo pluribus ; stylus filiformis, 
ramis tribus brevibus subulatis falcatis integris. Gapsuta ob- 


Seetio IV. Spathijiachis, Klatt, ex parte. Caules foliati . 
SpatJicd plures segregatae spicata', laterales sessiles, 

44. S. MONOSTACHYUM, Baker in Trimen^ Journ, 1876, 268. Monte 

45. S. SESSiLiFLORUM, Poppiff, Fragm. 2. — S. HuismO; Dombey, MS. 

46. S, cuspiDATUM, Poppiff, Fragm. 3. — S. adenostemon, PhiUppi in 
Linncea, xxix. 63, — S. flexuosum, LindL Bat. Reg. sub t. 1067^ ^on 

Spreng. — S. arenarium, Poppig, Fragm. 3. Andes Bolivice, Mendozce, \ 


et Chilenses. 

47. S. STRIATUM, Smith, Icon. Pict, t. 9; Red. Lit. t, 66; KerneVy 

Hort. t. 23.— Marica striata, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 701. — S. spicatum, ^ 

Cav. Diss, t, 104. — Moraea sertata, Jacq. Hort. Schoen.t. 11. — S. lu- 
tescens, Lodd. Pot. Cab. t. 1870. — S. uigricans, C. Gay, Fl. Chil. vi. 
20. Chili, Mendoza. 

48. S. NERVOSUM; Philippi in Linn(sa, xxxiii. 251. Chili. 






longa membrauacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus in loculo co- 
piosis nnnutis triquetris, testa metnbranacea brunuea. Herbcc 
perennes Magellaniccd et Andince hahitu Sisyrinchii, radicihus 
Jihrosis a^spitosis, foUis angitste linearibus vel teretihus^ spathis 
multifloris scepissimw solitariis tfirminalibus, valvis exteriorihus 
lanceolato-navicularibus viridibus, interioribus membranaceis, 
Jloribus fugitivis successivis cceruleis luteis vel albidis^ pedicellis 
demum ac spatha cequilongis. 

Subgenus I. Eusolenomklus. Tubus perianthii gracilis 



1. S. CHiLENSis, Miers, loc. cit.— Cruckshaukia graminea, Miers, 
Travels, ii, 529. — Sisyrinchiuni pedunculatum. Gillies in Bot, Mag. 
t. 2965. — S, longistylum, Lemaire in Flore des Serres, t. 255. — Or- 

throsantbus chilensis, Klotzsch, MS. Chili, 
ir. S. PUNCTATUS. Miers in Trans. Linn. Sot 


Subgenus II. Lechlera (Grisel,). Tubus perianthii rectus gra- 

cilis, — Chama)lum et Susarium, ex parte ^ PhiUppi. 


2. S. ACAULis, Baker, — Sisyrinehium acaule, Klatt in Linmea, xxxiv. 
736. Andes Bolivim. 

3. S. Chamjelum, Baker. — Chsemaelum luteum, Philippi in Linncea, 
xxxiii. 250.^ Andes Chilenses. 

4. S. NIGRICANS, BaArer. —Susarium nigricans, Philippi in Linn^sa, 
xxxiii. 249. Chili. 

5. S. liKCHLKRi, Baker. — Lechlera Sisyrincluum, GrisebAn Lechl. PL 
Chil. Exsic. no. 2966. — Sisyrinehium Segethi, Philippi in Linncea, 
xxxiii. 249. Andes Chilenses, 

Subgenus III. Symphtostemon (iW*?^^). Tubus perianthii rectus 
infundibular is dimidio inferiore cy/m(/r/cM5.--Psithy'risma, Her- 

6. S. ANDINUS, Baker. — Sisyrinehium andiuum, Phil, in Linnma, 
xxix. 62.— Susarium andinum, Phil, in Linnaa, xxviii. 250. Andes 


7. S. BIFLORUS, Baiter.— Gladiolus biflorus, Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 5. 
Sisyrnchium narcissoides, Cat. Diss. vi. t. 191. %• 3.~Galaxla 

narcissoides, fViild. Sp. P/aaf.iii. 583.— Sisyrinehium odoratissimum, 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1283.— Symphyostemon narcissoides, Miers in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xix. 97.— Psithyrisma narcissoides et flexuosum, 


Chili et Patagonia. 

122 MB. J. G. baker's ststema ieidaceartjm^. 

33. XiPHioK, Tournef. 



phion § Euxipluon, ParL FL Ital. iii. 304i. — Chamoletta, Adans. 
FamiL 60. — Iris, Linn, ex f arte, — Diaphane (ex parte) et Tbe- 
lysia, SaJisi. in Trans, Hort. Soc. i. 303.— Juuo, Trait. Ausw. 
I 135.— Thelysia, ParL FL ItaL iii. 31G,— Costia, JVillk. in 
Bot. Zeit. 18G0, 131.— Coresanthe, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 


Perianthium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium suLnullo vel 
elougato, limbi segmentis tribus exterioribus obovato-spatbula- 
tis flore expanse falcatis ungue imberbi raro parce barbato, 
tribus interioribus oblanceolatis erectis vel parvis inter ungues 
exteriorum patulis vel in § Micropogon prorsus obsoletis. 
Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter inserta, sty lis oppo- 
sita, filamentis liberls erectis, antheris ligulatis basifixis filamen- 
tis subaequilongis. Ovarium cylindricum triloculare, ovulis in 
loculo crebrls horizontalibus ; stylus cum tubo concretus, ramis 
tribus magnis quadratis petaloideis apice cristis duabus magnis 
deltoideis pra)ditis. Capsula magna oblonga chartacea loculi- 
cide trivalvis, seminibus globosis magnitudine pisi, testa crassa 
brunnea, albumine cornco. Herhce hulboscs regionum Mediter- ^. 

ranecd et Orientis, hulbi tunicis hrimneis memhranaceis vel 
Jibroso-reticulatisj foliis ensiformihus linearlhus vel siibulatis^ 
caulihus productis vel nullis, spathce scepissime uniflorce valvis 
magnis lanceolatis^ Jlorihus speciosis lilacino-purpureis luteis vel 

Subgenus I. Euxiphion. PeriantJiii segmenta extertora imherhia, 

interiora magna ohlanceolata ascendentia. 

1. X, VULGARE, Miller, Gard, Diet. edit. 6.— X. ano-ustifoliuTn, Tour- 



nef, Instit. 364. — Iris Xipbium, Linn. Sp, Plant. 58, ex parte; Bot^ 

Mag. t. 686; Tied. LiL t. 337.— Iris variabilis, Jacq. 231. 

Hispania, Gallia australis. 
Var. X. LUSiTANicuM, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297-— Iris lusitanica, | 

Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 679. — I, juncea, BroterOy FL Lusit. i. 51, non , 

Desf. Lusitania. 
Var. X. soRDXDUM, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc, i. 303. Lusitania. 
Var. Iris serotina, IVillk. Prodr. FL Hisp. i. 141. Hispania. 
Var. Iris spectabilis, Spach, Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. iii. vol. v. 93, est ^ 

verisimiliter hybridum hortense inter vulgarem et angustifolium. 

2. X. LATiroLiuM, MiWer, Gard. Diet. edit. vi. — Iris xiphioides, Ehrh. 


MR. J, G. baker's STSTEMA IRIDACEARrM. 123 

Beitr. vii. 140; Bot. Mag. t. 687; Red. Lil t. 212.— I. Xiphium, 
Linn, ex parte, — I. Xiphium, Jacq,Coll. ii. 326, — I. pyrenaica, Bubani, 
Sched, Crit, 3, Gallia australis, Hispania borealis, 

3. X. IIisTRio, Hook.fiL Bot. Mag. t. 6033.— Iris Histrio, Reich, fil. 
in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 488.— I. Libani, Renter, MS. Faleesiina. 

4. X. FoNTANESii, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876, 559. — I. Fontanesii, 
Godr. FL France, iii. 245.— I. Xiphium, Desf. Fl. Atlant. i. 37, non 
Linn, Algeria. 

5. X. FiLiFOLiUM, Klatt in Linnaa, xxxiv, 671 ; Hook.fiL Bot. Mag. 
C t. 6928.— Iris filifolia, Boiss. Vog. Esp. 602, t. 170. Hispania aus- 

r . 

Var. LATiFOLiUM, Baker, 
non Baker. Mauritania. 


6. X. JUNCEUM, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 570. — Iris juncea, Desf. Fl. 
Atlant. \. 3D, t. 4; Bot. Mag. t. 5890. non Brotero. — I. imberbis, 
Poir. Voy. Barb. ii. 85. — L mauritanica (Clusius, Cur- Post. 24), 
Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 986. — Diaphane stylosa, Salisb. in Trans. 
Hort. Soc. i. 305, Algeria, Mauritania, Sicilia, Italia. 

7. X. TiNGiTANUM, BflAer zn Seem. Journ. 1871, 13. — Iris tingitana, 
Boiss. Sf Rent. Pugill. 118. Mauritania. 

8. X. RETicuLATUM, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 572. — Iris reticulata, M» 

Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. 34, t. 1 ; Cent. PI. Ross. t. 11; Sweet, Brit. 
Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 189 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1829 ; Regel, Garten/. 
t. 452; Bot. Mag. t. 5577. — Neubeckia reticulata. Ale/eld in Bot. 
Zeit. 1863, 297. Oriens, Caucasus. 
Var. Krelagei, Regel, Animad. 15. Caucasus. 

Subgenus IT. JcKO. Periantliii segmenta exteriora imberbia ; 

interiora minuta inter ungues exteriorum patula. 

9. X. PLANiFOLiUM, Miller, Gard. Diet. edit. 6. — X. alatum, Baker 
in Seem. Journ. 1871, 108. — Iris alata, Poir. Voy. Barb. ii. 86; Bot. 
Reg. t. 1876. — Thelysia alata, Parlat. Fl. Ital. iii. 317- — Coresanthe 
alata, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 575, ex parte. — Iris scorpioides, Desf. 
FL Atlant. i. 40, t. 6"; Red. Lil. t. 211.— Juno scorpioides, Tratt. 
Ausw. i. 145.— Costia scorpioides, IVillk. in Bot. Zeit. 1860, 131. 
Neubeckia scorpioides, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297-— Iris trausta- 
gana, Brotero, Fl. Lusit. i. 52.— I. trialata, Brotero, PTiyt. Lus. ii. 
44, t. 95,-1. micropiera, Vahl, Enum. ii. 142.— Thelysia grandiflora, 
Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 303. Europa australis, Algeria. {De 
synonymis cf. Aschersm in Bot. Zeit. 1864, 112.) 

10. X. PERSicuM, Miller, Gard. Diet, vi.— Iris persica, Linn. Sp. 
Plant. 52; Bot. Mag. t. 1 ; Red. Lil. t. 189.— Juno periica^ Tratt. 


Ausw, i. 135. — Costia persica, Willk. in Bot. Zeit. I860, 132. — Co- 
resantlie persica. Ale/eld in Bot, Zeit, 1863, 296, Asia Minor, Persia. 

11. X. PALJESTiNUM, Baker in Seem, Journ, 1871, 108. — Juno palses- 
tina, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 498. Palcestina, 

12. X. CAucASicuM, Baker in Seem, Journ, 18/1, 109. — Iris caucasica, 
Hoffm. Comm, Soc Phys, Med. Mosc.i, 40 ; Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard, 
t. 255. — Juno caucasica, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 498. — Thelysia 
caucasica. Pari. Fl, Ital. iii. 31/. — Costia caucasica, Willk, in Bot, 
Zeit. 1860, 132. — Neubeckia caucasica, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit, 1863, 
297. — Coresanthe caucasica, Klatt in Linncea, xxiv. 575. Caucasus, 
Persia borealis. 

13. X. AiTCHisoxi, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1875, 108. Punjaub. 
Var. CHRYSANTHUM, Baker. Punjaub. 

14. X. Stocksii, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876, 723, Afghanistan, 

15. X. AucHERi, B«^er in Seem. Journ. 1878, 110. — Juno Aucheri, 
Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 498. — Iris fuinosa, Boiss, 8f Hauss. Exsic, 

Sy ria , 

Subgenus III. Miceopogon, Baker in Triinen, Journ, 1876, 265. 

Perianthii segmejita exteriora unguihiis parceharhatis; interiora 
prorsus ohsoleta. 

16. X. DANFORDiiE, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 265. Taurus 


34. Sphenostigma, Baker. 





Alophiae sp., Klatt. 

Perianthium regulare erectum, tube supra ovarium nullo, seg- 

mentis paulo difFormibus obovato-spatbulatis cuspidatis, inte- 

rioribus distincte minoribus baud convolutis. Stamina 3 epi- 

gyna sequilateralia erecta, filamentis brevissimis liberis, antherls 

• ligulatis erectis. Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis inloculo ^ 

crebris ; stylus filiformis antheras superans, stigmatibus tribus 

parvis integris cuneatis. Capsula merabranacea operculata 

clavata. Semina matura uon vidi. Herha hulbosa hrasiliensis, 

Jhliis paucis linearihus subpetiolatis plicatiSy caulibus terefihus 

foliiSy spafJiis singulis terminalibus cylindricis paucifloris^ valvis 

lanceolatis striatis viridibtis acutis^Jloribus violaceis successivis 
fugitivis, pedicellis ac spatTia cequilongis, 

1. S. Sellowianum, Baker, — Alophia Sellowiana, Klatt in Linnaa, 
xxxi. 557 ; Flor. Bras. iii. 516, tab. 65. fig, 2. Brasilia meridionalis. 








MR. J. Q. baker's SrSTEMA IRIDACEARUM. 125 

35, CiPUUA, Aublet. 

Auhletj Guian. 38, t. 13 ; Klatt in Linnceaj xxxi. 551. — Marica, 
Schreb* Gen, no. 81 ; ICer, Gen.Irid. 19, ex parte ^ non Herbert* 

Perianthium regulare campauulatum, tubo supra ovarium brevis- 
simo, segmentis dissimilibus, exterioribus majoribus obovato- 
spathulatis Acre expanso patulis, interioribus minoribus obovatis 
erectis basi cuneatis diu conniventibus dorso concavis baud 
convolutis. Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi sequilateraliter inserta, 
antberis ligulatis erectis, filamento libero subulato aequilongis. 
Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus 
erectus filiformis, rarais tribus oblongis integris petaloideis. 
Capsula clavata, membranacea, ex apice loculicide trivalvis, 
seminibus crebris obovoideis vel triquetris, testa atra mem- 
branacea, albumine corneo. Herbcebulbosce paludoscs americancB 
tropicales, hulhi tunicis brunneis memb'^anaceis^foliis linearibus 
plicafis siihpetiolatis vel teretibus^ caule gracili tereti, spathis 
pluribus cylindricis mnltijloris in umbellnm unicam terminalem 
folio tinico bracteatam congestis, valvis inc^qualibus lanceolatis^ 
pedicellis spatTice aquilongis, Jforibus albidis vel pallide cceruleis 
successivis fiigitivis. 

1. C. TALUDOSA, Aublet^ loc. cit.] Klatt in FL Bras, iii. 514, t. 64. fig.l. 
— Marica paludosa, Willd. Sp. Plant, i. 246; Ker in Bot. Mag, 

t. 646. — M. Cipura, Gmel. Syst. Veg. 118. — Cipura humilis ef gra- 
minea, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 320. America tropicalis tota. 

2. C. cuBENSis, Sauv. FL Cuba, 166. Cuba, 

36. Alophia, Herbert. 

Herbert in Bot. Mag, stib t, 3779 ; Klatt in Linncea^ xxxi. 55G, 
excl. sp. — Cypellse sp., Graham, 

/ JPerianthium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium subnullo, 

segmentis dissimilibus, exterioribus obovatis, interioribus mino- 
ribus navicularibus convolutis. Stamina 3 aequaliteralia, fila- 
mentis brevissimis, antberis panduriformibus connectivo lato. 
Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus 
triqueter, superne incrassatus, stigmatibus bifidis ramis subu- 
latis recurvatis. Capsula oblonga membranacea operculata. 
HerbcB bulbosce texanody caulihus teretibusparcefoUatiSyfoliis line- 
ribns plicatis^ spathis bifloris valvis indsg^ualibus acutis viridibus, 
fiorihus successivis fugitivis violaceis unguibus luteis maculatis. 
Lixx. JorRN. — botany, tol. xti, i* 



1. A. DRVMMoyiDiXNAj Herbert, loc.cit. — Cypella Drummondii, Grah, 
in Edinb, New Phil, Journ, xx. 190. Texas, 


37. LansbergiAj De Vriese, 

Be Vriese^ Ind, Sem. Tlort. Lug. Bat. 184G, 2 ; Rlatt in LintKea^ 

• 547. — Trimezia, Salish. in Trans. Hort, Soc. i, 308. — Xan- 
thocTomyon, Karsten in Bot. Zeit. 1847, 694. — Poarchon, Mart. 
Syst. Mat. Med. Bras. 77. — Eemaclea, Moin^en in Belg. Hort. 

4 4* 



lihus^ fior'ibus fugitivis snccessivis fiavis^ violaceis vel miniatisy 
pedicellis spathcB siibcequilongis. 

1. L. JUxciFOLiA, Klatt in Jjinncea^ xxxi. 549. Brasilia centralis. 

t. L. violacea, Klatt in Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. 526. Brasilia centralis. 

3. L. CATHARTIC A, Klatt in Linncea^ xxxi. 549. — Ferraria cathartica. 
Mart. Beise, ii. 547. Brasilia centralis. 

4. L. MONTicoLA, Klatt in Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. 526. Brasilia centralis. 

5. L. PURGANs, Klatt in Mart. FL Bras. iii. 52/. — Ferrraria purgans. 
Mart. Reise, ii. 547. Brasilia centralis. 

Species mihi imperfecte cognitce. 


2. A. LINEARIS, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 558. — Moraea linearis, H. B, K, 
Nov. Gen. i, 321. Columbia, Guiana^ etjide Klatty Brasilia. 

3. A. GENicuLATA, Klatt in Mart. FL Bras. iii. 517. Brasilia cen- 


111. 3, t. 1. — Iridis, Cipurse, Perrariae sp. auct. vet. 

Perianthiiimregv^dire erectum, tubo supra ovarium nuUo, segmea- 
tis valde difformibus, exterioribus obovatis ascendeutibLis, inte- 
rioribus multo minoribus panduriformibus basi cuneatis con- 
volutis diu conniventibus. Stamina 3 epigyna sequilateralia, ; 

filamentis liberis subulatis antberis sequilongis, antheris ligulatis , j 
ad styli ramos adglutinatis. Ovarium clavatum triloculare 
apice liberum, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus cylindricus, apice 
incrassatus, ramis tribus cylindricis erecto-patentibus apice 
brevissime cristatis. Capsula oblonga membranacea vel coriacea 
operculata, ex apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus in loculo 
crebris triquetris vel globosis, testa nigra obscura membranacea, 
albumine corneo. Herhce a7nericancB ti^ovicales cormis duris 












MB. J. a. baker's systema ibidacearum:. 127 




6. L. MARTiNiCENSis, Bafcer,— Iris martinicensis, Linn. Sp, 5S; Bot, 
Mag, t. 416; Red. LiL t. 172; Descourt Ant. t. 252; Jacq. Hist. 
Siirp. Am. t 10.— Cipura martinicensis. H. B, K. Nov. Gen. i. 320; 
Ref. Bot. 310. — Marica martinicensis, Ker in Konig % SimSy Ann. i. 

Vieusseuxia martinicensis, DC. in Ann. Mus. ii. 138. — Trimezia 

lurida, Salisb. in Trans. lIorL Soc. i. 280. — Lansbergia caracasana, 

De Vriese, Ind. Sent. Lug. Bat. 1846, 2; Klatt in FL Bras. iii. 527, 

tab. 57. fig. 2. — Xanthocromyon Herbert!, Karsten in Bot. Zeit. 1847* 

694. — Sisyrinchium galaxioides. Gomes in Act. Acad. TJliss. iii,; 

Mem. Corr. 99,— Poarchon fluminensis, Allem. in Trans. Soc. Vellos. 

No. 24, cutn icone. — Sisyrinchium fluminense, Vellos. FL Flam. ix. 

t. 68. — Remacleafunebris, Morren in Belg. llort. iii. 3, t. 1 ; Klatt in 
Mart. FL Bras. iii. 528, t. 68, fig. 1. America tropicalis. 

7. L. spathata, Klatt in Mart. FL Bras. iii. 628. Brasilia centralis* 

38. HESPEROXipnoy, Baker. 

iypellse, Ferrarias ei Poliae sp. auct. 
Perianthium regulare erectum, tuLo supra ovarium nullo, segmen- 
tis valde difformibus, exterioribus obovato-spathulatis flore ex- 
panse patulis, interioribus multo ininoribus panduriformibus 
convolutis diu connireutibus. Stamina 3 epigyna gequilateralia, 
filamcntis brcvibus ercctis deltoideis, antlieris ligulatis basifixis 


styli ramis oppositis. Ovarium clavatum triloculare apice 
liberum, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis, stigmatibus 
magnis quadratis petaloideis, apice cristis tribus deltoideis in- 
structis, intermedia multo minore. Capsula clavata mcmbra- 
nacea. Semina non vidi. Jlerhce liilbosce americance^foUis pe- 
tiolatis plicatis, caulibus ferelibus simpUcibus vel parce ramosis, 
spathis paiccijloris j^edunculatis valvis lanceoJatis acutis^floribus 
speciosis fugitivis luteisy segmentorum unguibus pallidis macu- 

1. H. PUsiLLUM,BaAer. — Ferraria pusilla, Link ^' Otto, Ic. t. 59. — Polia 
pusilla^ Kiatt in Linncea^ xxxi. 545, — Ilerbertia pusilla. Sweet, Brit. 
Flow, Gard. edit. 2, 497. Brasilia meridionalis. 

2, H. PERUViANUM, Baker, 
t. 6213. Andes neruviance 


39. Phalocallis, Herbert. 

Herbert in Bot. Mag. t. 3710 ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 536.— Cy- 

pellse sp., Lindl. 
Perianthium erectum, tube supra ovarium nullo, limbi campanu- 


128 Mil. J. a baker's ststema. iridaceabum:. 

lati segmentis difformibus, exterioribus majoribus obovato-spa- 
tbulatis flore expanso falcatis, interioribus minoribus obovato- 
tinguiculatis convolutis. Stamina 3 epigyna erecta, filamentis 
brevissimis deltoideis liberis, antheris medio constrictis con- 
nectivo lato, superne ad styli ramos adglutiaatis. Ovarium cla- 
vatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus erectus deor- 
sum filiformis, superne cyatbiformis trigonus, stigmatibus crisfcis ^ 

2 deltoideis petaloideis transversalibus prseditis, basi obscure 

appendiculatis. Cajpsula clavata membranacea obscure opercu- 
lata indehiscens, seminibus discoideis anguste alatis. Serba 
hulhosa hrasiliensis^ hulhi tunicis hrunneis memhranaceis^ foliis 
linearihus plicatis petiolatis^ caulihus parce ramosis teretibus 
foliatis, spatTiis terminaliljus pedunculatis multijioris valvis Ian- 
ceotaiis Jirmis striatis, pedicdlis spathcB wquilongis, Jlorihus 
magnis successivis fugitivis Ulacinis segmentortim unguibus luteo 
et rubro maculafis. 

1. P. PLUMBEA, Herbert, loc, cit, ; Flore des Serres, t. 395 & 14G6; 
Klatt in Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. 518, tab. 66. fig. 1. — Cypella plumbea, 
Lindl. in Bot, Reg. t. 24.— Tigridia coelestis. Otto MS. Brasilia 

meridionalis . 

40. Cypella, H-erhert. 

Herbert in Bot> Mag 




Tenore^ Bev. Bat. ii. 126 ; Klatt in Linncea^ xxxi., 543. — Marica, 
Ker^ Gen. Irid. 19, ex parte. — Morese sp., Lindl. 

JPerianthium regulare erectuni,tubo supra ovarium nuUo, segmen- 
tis valde difFoi'mibus, exterioribus obovato-cuaeatis flore ex- 
panso patulis, interioribus multo minoribus panduriformibus 
convolutis diu conniyentibus. Stamina 3 epigyna, filamentis 
planis brevibus liberis, antheris erectis ligulatisbasifixis. Ova- 
rium clavatum triloculare apice liberum, ovnlis in loculo crebris ; 
stglus filiformis, ramis tribus apice turbmatis bifidis, ramulis *a 

tricuspidatis, cuspide centrali producta, lateralibus multo mi- 
noribus, exteriore patula. Capsula clavata membranacea oper- 
culata trivalvis, seminibus parvis triquetris, testa brunnea, al- 
bumine corneo, SerbiS bulbosce hrasilienses et bonarienses, 
hulbi tunicis brunneis membranaceis^ foliis paucis supeipositis 
Unearibus plicatis, caiilibus teretibus fragilibus scepissime ramo- 
siSj spathis paucifloris pedunculatis cylindricis valvis viridibus 
lanceolatis acutis^Jloribus successivis fugitivis luteisvel cceruleis. 

1. C. Herbeuti, Herb, in Bat. Mag. sub t. 2637 ; Sweet, Brit. Flaw. 

mh. j. g. bakeb's systema ibidaceauum, 129 

Gard. ser. ii. t. 33. 


2599.— Moraea Herberti, Lindl in Bot. Reg. t. 949.— MaricaHerber- 
tiana, Ker, Gen. Irid. 19.— Polia bonariensls. Ten. Rev. Bot. ii. 127. 


silia meridionalis . 

2. C. gracxlis. Baker, — Polia gracilis, Klatt in Linn(Ba^ xxxi. 545 


41. MoR.^A, Miller. 

Miller^ Icon. t. 23S ; Diet. edit. vi. ex j^arte ; Linn. Oen. JN^o. QO^ 
ex parte; Ker, Oen. Irid. 31, ea: parte; Klatt in Linnceay xxxiv. 
557. — Iris, Thunl). Diss, ex parte. — Helixyra, Salish. in Trans. 
Hart. Sac. i. 305. — Grynandriris, Pari Nuov. Gen. 49; Klatt 
in Linncea^ xxxiv. 576. — Hymenostigma, -&bc7/5^. in Flora, 184i4i, 
24. — rreuchcnia, EcJcl. Top. Verz. 14 — Vieusseuxia, ^cW. Top. 

Verz. 11, ex par^te^ non DelarocJie. 

Perianthium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium nullo vel pro- 
ducto, segmentis difFormibus, exterioribus oblongo- vel obovato- 
unguiculatis supra medium flore expaaso patulis unguibus 
nudis vel obscure barbatis, iuterioribus subsequilongisangustio- 
ribus. Stamina 3 epigyna vel perigyna seq^uilateralia stigmati- 
bas opposita, filamentis ssepissimeinferue coalitis superueliberis, 
antlieris ligulatis erectis basifixis. Ovarium clavatum 3-loculare, 
ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis, stigmatibus tribus 
planis petaloideis apice cristis 2 petaloideis pra^ditis. Gapsula 
oblongo-trigona membranacea vel coriacea loeulicide trivalvis, 
seminibus triquetris, testa brunnea, albumiue corneo. Herhce 
hulboscv vel tuberosas^ tunicis fibrosis vel cancellatis,foliispaucis 
superpositis planis vel teretibus inter du7n pilosis^ cauUbus tere- 
tibus simplicibus vel ramosis, spathis paucifloris pedunculatis^ 
valvis exterioribus firmis lanceolatis acutis, Jloribus s<Bpissime 
fugitivis lilacinisvel luteis. 

Subgenus I. Etjmob^a. Perianthii tubus obsoletus. Stamina 


* Nance. 

\. M. PAPiLON ACEA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 750.— Iris papilionacea, Linn. 

JiL Suppl. 98; Thunb. Diss. No. 37, tab. 2. fig. 1 ; Jacq. Coll. Suppl. 

159, tab. 3. fig. 2,— Moraea ciliata. Herb. Dre^^.— Vieusseuxia ciliuta 

et nervosa, Eckl. Top.Verz. 11-12.— Moraea hirsuta, Ker,Gen. Irid. 43. 

Iris hirsuta, Licht. in Roem. ^ Schult. Syst. Veg. i. 478. C. B. Spei. 

130 ME. J. G. baker's systema iridacearum. 

2, M. fimbriata, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 561. C B. Spei. 

3, M. ciLTATA, Ker in Konig (§• Sims^ Ann, i. 241 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1061. 
Iiis ciliata, Linn.fiL SuppL 98. C. B. Spei, 


4, M. BARBIGERA, Salisb. ill Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 306. — M. ciliata, var., 
Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 1012.—? M. pilosa, Wendl. Obs. Bot. 45. C B. 

6. M. TRICOLOR, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 83. C, B. Spei. 

6. M. MiNUTA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 219. — Irisminuta, Linn. 
jiL SuppL 98. C. B, Spei. 

7- M. POLYPHYLLA, BaJcer. C.B. Spei. 

8. M. GALAXioiDESj -CaArer. Transvaal. 

** SimpUcicaules, 

9. M. LURIDA, Ker in Bot. Reg. t, 312. C. B. Spei. 

10. M. ANGUSTA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 12/6. — Iris angusta, Thunb. 
Diss. No. 28. C. B. Spei. 

11. M, ZAMBESIACA, Baker. Terra fiuminis Zambesi. 

12. M. TEXTiLis, Baker. Angola. 

13. M. Welwitschii, Bater. Angola. 

14. M. GRACILIS, BaArer. Angola. 

15. M. DiVERsiFOLiA^-BflAer, — Xipliion diversifolium, Klatt in Linnaa, 
xxxiv. 572. — Vieusseuxia Schimperi et tridentata, Hochst. in Schimp. 
PL Abyss. No. 1296. — Hymenostigma Schimperi et tridentatum, 
Hochst. in Flora^ 1844, 24-25.— Iris diversifolia, Steud. in Schimp. 
PL Abyss, ^o. 1173. Abyssinia. 












16. M. SETACEA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 240.— Iris setifolia, 
Linn. JiL SuppL 99.— Iris setacea, Thunb. Diss. No. 29, tab. 1. fig. 2. 
Vieusseuxia setacea, EciL Top. Verz. 13, C. B. Spei. -* 

] 7. M. JUNCEA, Linn. Sp. edit. 2, 59 (Linn. herb. ! an Miller ?). C. B. 

18. M. PLUMARIA, Ker in Konig 4' Sims, Ann. i. 240. — Iris plumaria, 
Thunb. Diss. No. 16, — Vieusseuxia plumaria, Eckl. Top. Verz. 14, 
Mora^a iriopetala, Linn. SuppL 100. — M. vegeta, Linn. herb. ! non 
Miller. C. B. Spei. 

19. M. poLYANTHOS, Thunb.Diss. No. 14. — Vieusseuxia graminifolia, 
Eckl. Top. Verz. 11, C. B. Spei. 

20. M. EDULis, Ker in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. i, 241 ; Bot. Mag. t. 613. 





Iris edulis, Linn. SuppL 98. — I. cajiensls, jBwrm. Prodr,2, — Morica 
vegeta, Jacq. Ic. t. 224, non Miller. — M. fugiix, Jacg. Hort. Vind. iii. 
14, t. 20. — Iris Sisyrincliium, Red. LiL t. 458, non Linn, — Vicusseuxia 
edulis, EckL Top, Verz. 14. C. B. Spei, 
Var, M, ODORA, Salisb, Parad, Lond. t. 10. C. B, Spei 
Var. M. LONGi FOLIA, Sweet, Hort. Brit, edit. 2, 497.— Iris longifolia, 
Schneev, Ic. t. 20; Andr. Bot. Rep, t. 45. — Morsea edulis, var.,Ker in 
Bot. Maff, t. 1238. — Vicusseuxia longifolia, _EcA:/. Top. Verz, 14. C 
B, Spei. 

21. M. SPITHAM.^A, Baker. Angola. 

22. M. ANDONGENSis, Ba^er. Angola. 

23. M. TRiSTis, Ker in Konig 4' Sims, Ann. i, 241, — Iris tristis, Linn^ 
fil. Sttppl. 97; Ker in Bot, Mag, t, 577. — Vieusseuxia tristis, ^cA:^. 

Top. Verz. 11. — M. sordescens, Jacq. Ic. t. 225; Red. LiL t. 71- 
M. iriopetaja, var., Willd. Sp. Plant, i. 244 ; Miller^ Icones, tab. 238- 
a B. Spei. 

24. M. GLUTiNOSA, Baker, Angola. 

25. M. POLYSTACiiA, Ker in Konig Sf Siins, Ann. i. 240, — Iris poly- 
stachya, Thunb. Diss. iS'o. 41. — Vieusseuxia polystachya, jBcA/. Exsic. 

Iris lacera. Lam. Encgc. iii. 304. C.B. Spei. 

26. M. SPATHACEA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1103. — Iris spathacea, 
Thtinb. Diss. No. 23. — I. spathulata, Linn. SuppL 99. — Moraca Ion- 
gispatha, Klait in Linncea, xxxiv. 3C0. — Dietes Iluttoni, Bot, Mag. 
t. 6174. C.B.SpeL 

27. M. GiGANTEA, Klutt lu Linncpa, xxxv. 381. C B. Spei. 


**** Candelabra. 

28. M. Candelabrum, Baker. Angola. 

29. M. CRISPA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 759 & 1284. — Iriserispa, Linn JiL 
SuppL 98. — Vieusseuxia crispa, Eckl. Top. Verz, 12. C. B, Spei, 

Var. M. UN0ULATA, Ker, Gen. hid. 43.— M. crispa, Thnnb. Diss. No, 

17. C. B. SpeL 

30. M. BiTUMiNOSA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 240; Bot. Mag. t. 
1045.— Iris bituminosa, Linn. JiL SuppL 98,— Vieusseuxia biturainosa, 
EckL Top. Verz. 14. C. B, SpeL 

31. M. viscARiA, Ker in Konig 4* Sims, Ann. i. 240.-^Iris viscaria, 
Linn. fil. SuppL 98.— Vieusseuxia viscaria, EckL Top. Verz, 12. C. 
B. Spei. 

32. M. RAMOSA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 771.— Iris rarnosft, Thunb. Diss. 
No. 24.— Iris ramosissima, Ltnn, //. SuppL 99.— Moraa racemosa. 
Herb. Drege.—M. bulbifera, Jacq. HorL Schoen. t. 197; Bot, Mag, 
t. 57P5.— Frcuchcnia bulbifera, EckL Top. Verz, 14. C. B. Spei. 

132 MR. J. G. bakeb's ststema ieidaceartjm 

Subgenus II. Helixtba. FeriantJiii tubus jproductus. Stamma 
perigyna. Sisyrinchium, Adans., non Linn. — Gynandriris, 

Pari, ^ 

33. M. SiSYRiNCHiUM, Ker in Konig ^^ Sims, Ann. i. 241 ; £ot. Mag, 
t. 140/. — Iris Sisyrinchium, Linn, Sp. Plant, edit, ii, 59; Cav. Ic. t. 
193; Sihth. ^ Smith, Fl. Grcec. t. 42 1 Red, LiL t. 29.— Gynandriris 
Sisyrinchium, ParL Nuov, Gen. 49. — Xiphion Sisyriuchiura, Baker in 
Seem. Journ, 1871, 42 ; Bot. Mag, t. 6096. — Diaphane edulis, Salisb. 
in Trans. Hort, Soc. i, 304. Regie Mediterranean Oriens, Afghan- 

Var, MINOR, Camhes. Enum, Balear. 142. — Iris monophylla, Boiss, Sf 
Held, Exsic. — I. Sisyrinchium, var. monophylla. Held, in Atti Cong, 
Intern. Firenz. 234. — Gynandriris monophylla, Klatt in Linncea^ xxxiv. 
6/8, ex parte, 

. Var. I. Samaritanii, Held, in Atti Inter. Cong, Firenz. 234. jEgyptus. 

Var. ^gyptia. — Iris segyptia, Delile, Fl, Arab. 6. 

Var. M. FUGAX, Tenore, Syll. 46. — Iris fugax, Tenore, Fl. Neap. I 15, 
' t. 14.— M. Tenoreana, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t, 110. 

34. M. BuRCHELLii, Baker. C, B. Spei. 

35. M. LONGi FLORA, iiTer in Bat, Mag. t, 712. — Helixyra flava, Salisb, 
in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 305. C. JB. Spei, 

42. ViEFSSEUXiA, Delaroclie. 
xxi. t. 5 : DC. in Mem, Mus. \ 



Echl. Top. Verz. 11, ea: parte 
parte. — Iris3 Linn. ill. et Thu 


^bros^is, fi 



^ • 




Pma??;^/iiw^ regulare erecttim, tubo supra ovarium nullo, segmen- 
tis valde difFormibus, exterioribus obovati^ unguiculatis Acre ex- 
panse patulis, interioribus multo minoribus longe unguiculatis ^ 
lamina parva saepisslme rhomboidea tricuspidata instructis. 
Stamina 3 sequilateralia epigyna stigmatibus opposita, filamentis 
in tubum cylindricum prorsusconnatls, autherisligulatis erectis 

basifixis. Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; 
stylus filiformis, ramis stigniatosis planis petaloideis apice cristis 
2 lanceolatis petaloideis prseditis. Capsula clavata membrana- 
cea ab apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus parvis triquetris, 
testa brunnea, albumine corneo. Ilerbce hulbos<B capenses, bulhi 





terminalihus pedunculatis valvisjirmis viridihus lanceolatis acutis, 

Jlorihus sicccessivis fugitivis^ 

1. V. TRiPETALOiDES, DC. in Ann, Mus. ii. 138, — Moraea tripetala, 
Ker in Bat. Mag, t. 702. — Iris tripetala, Linn. SuppL 92; Jacq. Ic. 
t.221. C.B.Spei. 

2. V, MVTihAj Klatt in Linmea, xxxiv. 621. — Iris mutila, 
Roem. Sf Schult, Syst. Veg. i. 477- O. J5. Spei. 

3. V. UNGuicuLARis, Roem. ^ Schult. Syst. Veg. I. 491 
guiculata, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 593. C. B, Spei. 

•Moraea uii- 

4. V. TRicuspis, Spreng. Syst. Veg, i. 165. — V. aristata, Houtt. HandL 
xii. 105, t. 80, non Delaroche. — Iris tricuspidata, Linn,JiL SuppL 98. 
•Morgea tricuspis, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 696, — Iris tricuspis, Jacq. Ic. 
t. 222. fig. sinistr. C. B. Spei. 


des Serres, t. 423. — Iris pavonia. Curt. Bot, Mag 

I. tricuspisj Jacq. Coll, iv. t. 9. fig. 1. — Moraea tricuspis, var., Ker 
in Bot, Mag. sub t. 696. C, B. Spei. 

6. V. TENUIS, Roem, t^* Schult. Syst, Veg, i, 491, — Iris tricuspis, var.. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 222. fig. dextr. 





7. V. SPIRALIS, Delaroche, Diss. xxxl. t. 5.— Moraea tricuspis, var. lutea, 
Ker in Bot Mag, t. 772. — ^V. Bellendeni, Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 
498. C. B. Spei. 

8. V. PAVONIA, DC. in Ann. Mus. ii, 139. — Iris pavonia, Linn, SuppL 
98; Thunb. Diss. No. 35, tab. 1. fig. 3; Jacq, Hort. Schoen. t. 10; 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 61. — Moraea pavonia, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 1247. 
C. B. Spei. 

9. V. viLLosA, Spreng, Syst. Veg, i. 165. — Iris villosa, Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 571, — Moraea pavonia, Ker in Konig <5* Sims, Ann. i. 240. 
Iris tricuspis, var., Thunb. Diss. No. 15. C.B, Spei. 

Species mihi mcognitce. 

10. V. FUGAX, Delaroche, Diss. 33. C. B. Spei. 

11. V. ARISTATA, Delaroche, Diss. 33. C. B. Spei. 

43. Hebbertia, Sweet. 

Sxveet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 222 ; Klatt in Ztnn^ea, xxxi. 563. 

Trifurcia, Herbert in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3779.— Eoterbe, Steud. 

in Leichler, JPL Peruv. No. 398, non Klatt. 
Perianthium regulare erectum, tubo eupra ovarium nullo, BCg- 

13:1 MR. J. a. BAKEll's SYSTEMA IRIDACEARrif. 



mentis valde difformibus, exterloribus obovato-cuneatis obtusis 

cuspidatis, interioribus niulto niinoribus planis saepisslme oblan- 

ceolatis acutis. Stamina 3 epigyna, filamentis in tubum cylin- 

dricuin prorsus connatis, anthcris sessilibus ligulatis ascenden- 

tibus. Ovarium clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; 

stylus filiformis, ramis stigmatosis subulatis vel applanatis inte- 

gris vel 2-3-cuspidatis. Capsula coriacea clavata operculata i 

apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus crebris minutis turgidis 

testa atro-brunnea, albumiue corneo. HerhcB American(jd hul- 

hosoi hiimiles^ hulhi tunicis memhranaceis hrimneis^foUis lineayn^ 

bus plicatis^ caulihics teretihus sce])issime simplicilus^ s^atJiis 

paucijloris cylindricis terminalibus pedunciilatis valvis lanceola- 

tis acutis^ pedicellis spathcB sulceqiulonyis^jlorihusparvis succes- 

sivis fugitivis cceruleis, 


1. H. Drummoxdiaxa, Herbert in Bot, Reg. xxviii. Misc. 65. Texas. 

2. H. c^RULEA, Herbert in Bot. Mag, 3862, fig. d, e, /.— Trifurcia 
ca^rulca. Herb, in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3779. Texas. 


3. H. PULCHELLA, Sweet, Brit. Flow, Gard.t.222; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 1547 ; Herb, in Bot. Mag. t. 3862, figs. 1 & 2.— Roterbe bulbosa, 
Steud. in Lech. Pi. Chil. No. 298. — H. caerulea, Klatt^ Linncea,xKxv 
654, non Herbert. Chilis Brasilia meridionalisy Bonaria. 

4. H. UMBELLATA, Klatt tu LinncEa^ xxxl 555; Fl. Bras. iii. 350, tab. 
69. fig. 1, Brasilia meridionalis. 

5. H. BRASiLiExsis, Baker.— 11. Drummondiana, Klatt in Linnaa, 
xxxi. 555, non Herbert. Brasilia meridionalis. 

6. H. UNGUicuLATA, Baker. Brasilia meridionalis. * 


44. ElGTDELLA, Lindl. 

Lindl. in Bot. Beg. 1840, t. 16, Misc. No. 64. 

Perianthium rcgulare cernuum vel erectum, tubo supra ovarium 
nullo, segmentis valde difformibus, exterloribus oblougo-ungui- 
culatis Acre expanse ad medium reflexis vel patulis, interio- 
ribus minutis occultis cordato-ovatis cuspidatis unguiculatis. 
Stamina 3 epigyna sequilateralia stigmatibus opposita, fila- 
mentis in tubum cylindricum prorsus connatis, antheris ligu- 
latis erectis. Ovaritnn clavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo 


MR. J. G. baker's SrSTEMA lEIDACEARUAf. 135 

crcbris ; sti/Ius filiformis, stigmatibus tribus tripartitis raniu- 
lis subulatis exterioribus productis centrali brevissimo cor- 
nuto. Capsiila clavata operculata, aplce loculicide trivalvis, 
semiuibus globosis^ testa brunJiea, rapbe et chalaza conspi- 
cuis, albumine corneo. Ilerhce lulhosce Mexicancs et Gualema- 
lenseSj hulhi tunicis hrunneis memhranaceisy foliis loratis pli- 
caiis, caulihiis tcrelihus ramosis^ spathis mult ifloris valvis ex- 
teriorihus viridilus lanceolatis, florihics splendtde coccincis suc- 
cessivis fugitivis. 

1. R. FLAMMEA, LiudL loc. cif, Mexico, 

2. R. IMMACULATA, Herbert in Bot, Reg. 1841, t. 68. Guatemala. 

3. R. ORTHANTHA, TaxtouyMag. xiv. 121, cum icone. Mexico. 

45. IIXDROTiENIA, Liudl, 

Lindl. in Bot. Beg. 1838, Misc. 128. 

Periantliium regulare cernuum campanulatum, tubo supra ova- 
rium nullo, segmentis paullo difformibus, exterioribus oblon- 
gis acutis diu ascendentibus, interioribus scquilongls oblongo- 
quadratis obtusis cuspidatis basi cordatis breviter unguicula- 
tis supra iiuguem luaculatum zona transversali deltoidea cry- 
stallina instructis. Stamina 3 sequilateralia epigyna, filamentis 
in tubuin cylindricum prorsus connatis, antheris stigmatibus 
oppositis ligulatis suberectis conncctivo lato breviter producto 
apiculatis. Ovarium elavatum triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
crebris ; stylus filiformis, ramis stigniatosis trifurcatis ramulis 
applanatis exterioribus elongatis, centrali brevi. Capsula cla- 
vata membranacea operculata. Semina non vidi. Ilerla bul- 
losa JiTexicana, bulbi tunicis Irunneis membranaceis^ foliis super- 
positis plicatisy caulilus te^^etihus ramosis^ spathis paucijloris, 
valvis lanceolatis viridibus,Jloribus successivis fugitivis. 

1. H. Meleagris, Lindh loc. cit,; Bot. Reg. xxxviii. t. 39. Mexico. 

4G. TiGRlDIA, Juss. 


Mag. sub t. 3779 ; Klatt 

xxxi. 565. — Ferrarise e/Moreae sp. auct. vet, 

Periantliium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium nullo, seg- 
mentis valdc difformibus, exterioribus oblongis, interioribus 

136 MB. J. G. bakeb's ststema ieidaoearum. 

panduriformibus convolutis multo minoribus. Stamina 3 epi- 
gyna, filamentis in tubum cylindricum prorsus connatis, antbe- 
ris sessilibus ligulatis suberectis. Ovarium clavatum trilocu- 
lare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylibs filiformis, ramis stigmatosis 
eubulatis profunde bifidis, Capsula membranacea clavata 
operculata triloculicide trivalvis, seminibus parvis angulatis, 
testa brunnea, albumine corneo. Herhce hulbosce Americance 
tropicaJeSyJbliis paucis superpositis linearihus plicafis^ caulibus 
teretibus simplicihus vel parce rajnosts, spathis pedunculatis ter- 
minalibus paucijloris^ valvis exferioribus viridihus lanceolatis . 
acutiSj pedicellis elongatis^Jloribus speciosis successivis fugitivis. 

* Edtigetdia. Qrandifloray stigmatibus secus stylos 


1. T. Pavonia, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 246. — Ferraria Pavonia, 
Linn. Jil, SuppL 407; Cav, Diss. vi. 342, t. 189. fig. 1 ; Andr. Bot. 
Rep.t. 178; Red. LiL t. 6; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1424; Klatt in 
Mont. FL Bras. iii. t. 70.— F. Tigridia, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 532. 
Morsea Tigridia, Tkunb. Diss. No. 20. — Tigridia grandiflora, Salisb. in 
Trans, Hort. Soc. i. 309. Mexico^ Guatemala. 

Var. T. CONCHIFLORA, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 128 ; Paxt. Mag. 
xiv. 53; Flore des Serves, t. 908-910; Ann. Gand. 1847, t. 145. 
T. oxypetala, Morison, FL Conspic. t. 20, Mexico. 

** Beatonia. Parvijlorce, stigmatibus ad apicem stylorum 

capita f is. 

2. T. LUTEA, LinJc, Klotzsch *§- Otto, Ic. t. 34; Baker in Bot. Mag. 
t. 6295. — Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, Cav. Ic. t. 192 (mala). — Beato- 
nia lutea, Klatt in Linntea, xxxi. 566. Peruvia et Chili. 

3. T. A'lOLACEA, Schiede; Schlecht. in Otto 8f Dietr. Gartenzeit. 1838, 
233 ; Link, Klotzsch i Otto, Ic. t. 20.— Beatonia purpurea^ Herb, in 
Bot. Mag. sub t. 3779. Mexico. 

4. T. Van Houttei, Roezl in Flore des Serres, t. 2174. Mexico. 

6, T. atrata, Baker. — Beatonia atrata. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, 
Misc. 72, Mexico. 

6. T. curvata. Baker. — Beatonia curvata. Herb, in Bot. Reg. 1843, 

Misc. 74. Mexico, 

47. Iris, Tourn. 

Tourn. Instit. t. 186-8 ; Linn. Gen. No. 59, ex parte ; Ker, Oen. 







MR. J. G. bakek's ststema ibidacearum. 137 

Irid. 45, ex parte ; SpacTi^ Veg. Phan. xiii. 12 ; Klatt in Linncea^ 
xxxiv. 591. — Evansia, Salish, in Transport. Soc, i. 303. — Dietes, 
Salish, in Trans, Hort. Soc. i. 307 ; Klatt in Zinna^a, xxxiv. 
583. — Xiphion, Farl. FL Ital, iii. 293, ea? parte; Ale/eld in 
Sot. Zeit. 18G3, 296, ex parte. — Neubeckia, Alefeld in Mohl Sf 
Schlecht. Bat. Zeit. xxi. lbG3, 297; Klatt in Linnda^ zxxiv. 
587. — Oncocyclus, Siem. in Mohl, Sf Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 1846, 
705 ; Klatt in Linnaa, xxxiv. 578. — Xyridion et loniris, Klatt 
in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 499-502. 

Perianthium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium brevi vel elon- 
gato, limbi late iufundibularis segmentis difformlbus, ^tribus 
exterioribus obovato-unguiculatis flore expanse falcatis, ungui- 
bus nudis vel barbatis vel cristatis, interioribus obovato- vel 
oblanceolato-spatbulatis ssepissiine erectis, exterioribus minori- 
bus interdum perparvis interdum cum exterioribus patulis. 
Stamina 3 stigmatibus opposita ad faucera tubi inaerta erecta, 
filamentis angustis applanatis, antberis ligulatis basifixis fila- 
mento aequilongis vel longioribus. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis 
in loculo crebris borizontalibus ; stylus filiformis, stigmatibus 
magnis quadratis petaloideis apice cristis duabus laneeolatis vel 
petaloideis reflexis subintegris vel serrulatis prseditis. Capsula 
magna oblonga loculicide trivalvia, seminibus multis globosis 
vel leviter compressis, testa crassa lucida brunnea vel interdum 
coccinea, albumine corneo. Herhce prcesertim regionis horealis 
temperatce^ rhizomafe ohliqiio crasso, foliis hasalibus pluribus 
persistentibus Jtabellafo-disticMs linearibus vel ensiformibus ^ 
caule simplici vel corymboso foliis paucis reductis prceditOy spathcB 
paucijiorcB vel unijlorce valvis magnis laneeolatis arete imbricatis 
viridibus vel margins membranaceis^Jloribus speciosis magnis mo- 
dice persistentibus vel fugitivis sceptssi7ne luteis vel lilacino- 

Series I. Species regionis borealis temperatce, segmentis interioribus 

scepissime erectis. 

Subgenus I. ApoGOif. Perianthii tegmenta exteriora unguibus 

Limniris, Xyridion, et Spathula, TauscTi in Boem. Sf 



* Folia linearia. 



I. ruthenica. 


Ker, Gen. Irid. 54, ex parte,— loniris humilis, Klatt in BoL Zeit, 
1872, 502* Rossia meridionalis, Transylvania, Siberia occidentalis. 

2. I. CRETENSis, Jart^a in (Estr, Bot. Zeit. 1867, 376. — I. stylosa, var. 
angustifolia, Boiss. Diag. xiii. 15. — I. humilis, Sieber, PL Cret, Exsic, 
non M. B, Grcecia, Asia minor, Creta, Insulce lonicce. 

3. 1. uNGUicuLARis, Poiret, Iter^ ii, 56, — L stylosa, Desf. FL Atlant. 
i. 40/t. 5; Hook. fiL Bot. Mag, t. 5773. — Neubeckia stylosa, Alefeld 
in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— lonim stylosa, Klatt in Bot. Zeit, 1872, 502. 

4. L vENTRicosA, Pallas^ Iter, Iv. 455; App. 682, t 27- fig. 1. — Xyri- 
dion ventrieosum, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500. Siberia orientalis. 

5. 1. TEXUIFOLIA, PaWa5, Iter, iv, 302; App. 683, tab. 7- fig* 2. 
Neubeekia tenuifolia, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297-— loniris tenui- 
folia, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 502.— I. acaulis, Pallas, Iter, iii. 313. 

6. I. soxGARicA, SchrencJc, Enum. L 3. — loniris songarica, Klatt in 

Bot. Zeit. 1872, 502. Asia centralis. 

7- I. MACROSIPHOX, Torrey, Bot. Whipple, 144. — I. Donglasiana, 
Torrey, Bot. Whipple, 144, non Herb. California. 

8. L RUTHENICA, Dryand. in Ait. HorL Kew. edit. 2, i. 117; Bot. 
Mag. t. 1123 et 1393.— loniris ruthenica, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 
502. — Iris csespitosa, Pallas in Link, Jahrb. iii. 71- — I- verna, Pallas, 
Iter, iii. 213, non Linn. Transylvania, Siberia. 

9. I. DouGLASiANA, Herft. in Hook. ^' Am. Bot. Beech. 3S5; Hook, 
fil. Bot. Mag. t. 6083. California. 

Var. I. Beecheyaxa, Herb, in Hook. Sf Am. Bot* Beech. 395. 

10. I. ToLMiEAXA, Herb, in Hook. ^ Arn. Bot. Beech. 395. — ? I. mis- 

souriensis, Nuttall in Joum. Acad. Phil. vii. 58. Calif 



T. tridetitata. 

Sweet. Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 274, non Pursh. Carolina ad Floridam. 

12. L TENAX, Douglas in Bot. Reg. t. 1218; Hook. Bot. MagA. 3343. 
loniris tenax, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 502. America borealis. 

13. I. Habtwegii, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876, 323. California. 

14. I. PRiSMATicA, Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 30; Bot. Mag. t. 1504. 
I. virginica, A. Gray, Man. edit. v. 516, non Linn. — I. gracilis. 

Bigelow, Flor. Bost. 12.— I, Boltoniana, Roem. ^ Schultes,Syst. Veg 
i, Suppl. 303. America horealis orientalis. 







15. I. KNSATA, Thunb. in Trans, Linn, Soc. ii. 328. — I. graminea, 
Thunb. FL Jap, 34, 7ion Linn, — I. \n^\ixm%,Vahl, Enum.n. 149; 
D. Don in Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 187- — I. triflora, Balbis, 
Misc, Bot, 6, t. 1; Red. Lil, t. 481. — I. Doniana, Spachy Hist, 


Phan, xiii. 34. — I. liaematophylla, Link, Enum. BeroL i. (50, non 
Fischer,— I. Pallasii, Fisch, in Trev. lad. Sent. Hort. Vrat. 1821 ; 
Reich. Ic. FL Germ. tab. 479. fig. 672; Bot, Mag. t. 2331.— I. oxy- 
petala^ Bunge in C. A, Meyer, Ind. PL Mas. Petrop. 1834, 8.— I. ca- 
ricifolia, Pallas, Roern. *§• Schultes, Syst. Veg. i. 318.— I. fragrans, 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. xxvi. t, 1. — I. longispatha, Fisch. in Bot. Mag. 
f^ t. 2528. — I, Moorcruftiana, Wall. Cat. No. 5021. — Xiphion Pallasii, 

trifloruni, et Donianum, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297. — loniris bi- 
glumis, Doniana, fragrans, longispatha, triflora, et Pallasii, Klatt in 
Bot. Zeit. 1872, 502-3. Siberia, Japonia, China borealis, Asia cen- 

tralis, Himalaya occidentalis. 


Red. Lil. t. 299; Jacq. FL Austr. t. 2 ; Reich, Ic. FL Germ. t. 346.— 
Xipliion gramiiieum, Alefeld in Bot, Zeit, 1863, 297. — XyriJIon gra- 
Tnineum, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 18/2, 500. — Iris Ailami, Willd. in Link, 
Jahrb, iii. 72. — I. couni)ressa, Moench, Meth. 529, no7i Linn. JiL 
Europa centralis et meridionalis, 

Var. LATIFOLIA, Spach, Veg. Phan. xiii. 30. — I. sylvatica, Balbis in 
Roern. ^' Schult, Syst. Veg. i. 476. — I. bayonnensis, Darracq. Gallia 

Var. INODORA, Spach, Veg. Phan. xiii. 31. 

17. I- siBiRiCA, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. ii. 57; Jacq. FL Auslr. t. 3; 
Bot. Mag. t. 60; Red. Lil. t. 420; Reich. Ic. FL Germ. t. 341. fig. 
768. — Xiphion sibiricum. Pari. FL Ital. iii. 300. — Xyridion sibiricum, 
Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500. — I. pratensis. Lam. Encyc. iii. 300; 
Red. Lil. t. 239. — I. acuta, Willd. Enum. BeroL SuppL4; Reich. Ic. 
FL Germ. tab. 343. fig. 770. — I. maritima. Miller, Gard. Diet. edit, 
vi. No. 11 ; Reich, Ic. Germ. tab. 342. fig. 769. — I. stricta, Moench, 
Meth, 528. Europa centralis et meridionalis, Siberia, 



I, sibirica, 

flexuosum, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297. — Xyridion flexuosum. 



I. sibirica, Thunb. FL Jap. 33, non Linn,— J, sanguinea, Bonn, Hort. 

Cant. edit. vi. 17. 


1604.— T. Nertschinkia. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1843.— I. hsematophylla, 
Fisch. in Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 118. Sibiria orientalis, Japonia, 
America borealis occidentalis. 

140 MR. J. G. bakeb's ststema ietdaceabitm. 

& Bouche in Walp 

vi. 55. Siberia. 

** Folia ensiformia. 

18. I. MACULATA, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876^ ii. 517. Mesopotamia, 

19. I. TRIDENTATA, PursTi, FL Amer. Sept. i, 30, — I. tripetala, Hook. 
Bot, Mag. t. 2886, non Walt. Canada. 

20. I. SETOSA, Pallas; Led. FL Ross, iv, 96; Regely GartenflA. 322. 
I. brachycuspis, Fisch. Bot. Mag. t. 2326. — Xiphion brachycuspis, 

Alefeldin Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— Xyridion selosum, iiT/aW in Bot. 
Zeit. 1872, 500, Siberia orientaliSyJaponia. 

21. I. PsEUDAcoRUS, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit, ii, 56; Fl. Dan. t. 494; 
Eng. Bot. t. 578, 3 edit. t. 1495; Svensh. Bot. t. 110; Poit. ^' Turp. 
Fl. Par. t 46. — I. lutea. Lam. Fl. Franc, iii. 496. — 1. palustris, 
Moench Meth. 528.— T. longifolia, DC. Fl. Franc, iii. No. 1993, 
Xiphion Pseudacorus, Pari. FL ItaL iii. 295. — Xyridion Pseudacorus, 
Klattin Bot. Zeit. 1S72, 500.—?!. curtopetala, Red. LiL t. 340. 
Europa totOy Syria. 

Var. I. Bastardi, Boreau, FL du Centre, edit iii. ii. 635. 

Var. I. ACORiFORMis, Boreau, Fl. du Centre, edit. iii. ii. 635. 

Var. I. ACORoiDES, Spach^ Hist. Phan. iiii. 44. — Xiphion acoroides, 
Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863,297.— Xyridium acoroideum, Klattin BoL 

Zeit. \S7 2, 500. 



FL Austr. t, 4; Reich. FL Germ. tab. 345. fig. 772.— Xiphion spu- 
rium, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— Xyridium spurium, Klatt in 

Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500.— I. spathulata. Lam. Ency. iii. 300.— I. Reichen- \, 

bachiana, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 613. — Xyridion Reichenbachianum, 

Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500. Europa centralis et meridionalis, j 


Var. I. DiEUiNCKii, K. Koch in Walp. Ann. vi. 55. 

Var. I. soGDiANA, Bunge, ReL Lehm. 331 • Asia centralis. 

Var. I. DAENENSis, Kotschy in PL Pers. Austr. 1845, No. 616. 


Var. DESERTOBUM, KcT in Bot. Mag. t. 1514. — I. desertorum. Gulden. 
Iter, i. 80. 

Var. I. NOTHA, M. Bieb. Cent. Ross. t. 77-— l- spuria. Red. LiL t.349. 
I. halophila, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 875, non Pallas.— I. spuria, var. 
major, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1131.— Xiphion nothum, Alefeld in 
Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— Xyridion nothum, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 
500. Caucasus^ Armenia^ Kurdistan. 



.J*'' ' 

.. '-■/. 

From Vol. IX. the Zoological and Botanical portions of the 
Journal have been published separately, and each consists of Eight 

The price of each separate number, whether Zoological or 
Botanical, is 25. to the public, and 1*. 6d. to Fellows. 

Each volume of eight numbers, when subscribed for and paid 
in advance, will be charged 125. to the public, and 9^. to Fellows. 

Amr Candidate for admission as a Fellow must be proposed on a 
written Certificate, to be signed by three or more Fellows, from 
their personal acquaintance with him, or knowledge of his charac- 
ter or writings. 

Fellows, on their election, pay an Admission Fee of £6, and 
are thenceforth liable to an Annual Contribution of £3, which may 
be compounded for at any time by one payment of £30 in lieu 
of all future contributions. 

Fellows residing abroad, and not compounding, are required to 
provide such security for the payment of their Annual Contribu- 
tions as shall be satisfactory to the Council. 

The FeUows are entitled to receive, ^ra/e>, all Volumes, or Parts 
of Volumes, of the Transactions and Journal, that may be pub- 
lished after they shall have paid the Admission Fee ; and they 
may be supplied with any of the Society's publications at a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent, under the common selling prices. 

The 1st Series of the Transactions is now completed in 30 vols. 
Sets of the first twenty volumes will be supplied to the Fellows 
at the reduced price of £20 ; or of the first twenty-five volumes, 
with the General Index to the whole, for £30, Any FeUow pur- 
chasing, at one time, ten or more volumes, may obtain those 
from the 1st to the 20th at £1 per volume, from the 21st to 
the 25th at £2 per volume; and single volumes, or parts, to 
complete sets, maybe obtained at the original prices. The price 
of the Index to Vols. 1-25 is 8^. to the public, and 6^. to Fellows ; 
of the Index to Vols. 26-30, 4^. to the public, and 3^. to FeUows. 

Members are requested to apply at the Apartments of the 
Society, to Mr. Kippist, Librarian, for such volumes as they may 
be entitled to, or be desirous to purchase : but no volume can be 
delivered gratis to a Fellow whose yearly Contributions are in 
arrear, nor can any be delivered unless applied for within five 
years from the time of publication. — Of the 2nd Series, of the 
Transactions, Vol. 1, Parts I.-IV., Zoology and Botany, are 
now ready for delivery. A few copies of the several papers 
contained in the later volumes (from Vol. 26 onwards) have been 
printed ofi* for separate sale ; and most of them may still be had. 

The Library is open to the FeUows and their friends daily, 
between the hours of 10 and 4, and on Meeting-days at 7 p.m. 

"With certain restrictions, Fellows are allowed to borrow Books 
from the Library. 

The Council-room, which will in future be used as a reading- 
room, will be open daily from 10 a.m. till 6 p.m., except on Satur- 
days, when till 4 p.m. only. 

- ^ 






^ J'-, 

■r' ^ - T 

^1. 'u \ 

^ T- 



h J 

■ -■ . ■ ,-'^.- 

■ ' _ - ^ :* 



^ . 

' ^m 

■""■_: --V-' 

^ ■ * 

r — 

- ■-■-.- -'-JV-.--? 

■It- :.^ t. 
*i -. • - 

' « 

: -f 


4 -1*S 

w r 

■ -'\:/ 



_ n 



r J 

-' ■ J 


^ _^ 


f ^ 

1^ J 

■/ ^ 


J. ." 

I V^ '*V.n ^ 

- ^ . ^ 


- -' ■. ?' -■■■- . - 

J- ^ 

". s 

^1 '-_■ ■* 

.. .■■\. 

I J 

I ■ 

-> V 


. 1i 

Communications intended to be made to the Society may be addressed to the 
President, or to the Secretary, at the Society's Apartments, Burlington House, 

Piccadilly, London/ v:v:,:-:. ;^-; v-.^ ■ -■:■/■:/■.-■■ :;e,. ^-^-::\-:/.' c^:^V- ^"/^^ 

- -!■- --1 J ■ 

..^v.r-o-;^ ;yr^ 

- 1 \^" . -^/-- 

' L 




Price 2s. 

k ^ 

■- J 

V - 

L _ ' 





-' . '.". 


7. ■ ■ 
'.;■'■ : • 

' 1 

:?- : 




f , ■- 

'.*-r , 

I -L 'J, 


r ; 


r r 


Vol. XVI. BOTANY. No. 91. 

h V 




H + 

A." -A: 

^ '^ K 


^ _ ■ * _ 

V. :■- .\ ■■-■..,.■•■;■ 

r ^-n ^ -T 

1 -' 

.^ . 

v^'>.- ■-- 

tt ^ /■ ^s ■ 1 


^ ■ 

.V. ■._.■ ? 


..^-.;... .. ■ ^^^'-v:.; :-:-^- . -'.^- :---\.-.^:. -■"--^ 

_ri-: ■■- 


- J ' r ' '^ 

h ^' 

'. ' . - - . - ..-:'■ --■:■ ■■'■ S-- -\' ■':.: ■ ^'-^^ -^■-- 

I I 

w* ' 


■w ^ " _" -V :' -,\ . . ^ . ^■ 

r -> 


S-*!- . 

. ■ . ■ . 

I - 




^ I 

' '# 

V ■ ^ 

I. Systema Iridacearum. By J. G. Bakee, Esq,, F.L.S. 

{contintied) 141 


II. Note on the Disarticulation of Branches. By E. Ikwix 

LrNCH, Esq. Communicated by J. G. Baker, Esq., 
E.L,S. (Plate III.).,. 180 


> ' I 

' i 

"..^ - 

r ^ 

> . 

-">;?■ y 

c - 





■ . ■ ^ ■ _ ^■ - 

III. Kemarks on the Distribution of the Perfoliate Penny- 


Cress (Thlaspi ^erfoliatum, Jjinn.) in Britain. By 
Geobge S. Boulgeb, Esq., P.L.S., F.G.S. ... 18:^ 

IV. List of Hepaticse collected by the Eev. A. E. Eatox, at 

the Cape of Good Hope (August and September 1874). 
By William Mittek, A.L.S. (Plates IV. and V.) . 187 


> > 

r _ 


H^", ^ ^ 

^ -. 

;■ /.^ 


J ,' 

.■ . ■ V." ^ .■■■.■■ , '^ 


t _l 






t -_ 

A2fD BY 


'_ "F 

^ - 



^1 "J 

^.^v/:,.; ■-:■ /. ..^ ^ ' --■^■■.■-^ .^ ■ :■' -v:,.:.,-. ■■ .■■■''":;-''J^^ i^- 



23. I. GuLDENST^DTiANA, Lepech. in Act. Acad. Petrop. 1781, 
vol. i. p. 292, t. 8, — I. halopliila, Fall. Iter, ii. App. 733, non Ker. 
salsa, Pallas, Iter, ii. 461. — I. desertonim, Moench, Meth. 529. 
I. stenogyna. Red. LiL sub t. 310. — I, diluta, M. Bieb. Cent. Ross. t. 
8L— I. Gawleri, Red. Lil t. 310.— I. dubia, Poir. Ency. Suppl. iii. 
184. — Xiphion Guldenstsedtii et stenogynum, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 
1863^ 297. — Xyridion halophilum, stenogynum, et Guldenstsedtianum, 
Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500-1. Siberia, Asia centralis, Asia minor ^ 
Moldavia, Transylvania. 

Var. I, SUBBABBATA, Joo ', Walp. Ann. vi. 5G. Transylvania. 

24. I. OCHROLEUCA, Liuu. Mant.l75; Bot. Afa^f. t. 61 ; Trew, PI. 

Select, t. 100; Red. LiL t. 350; Reich. Ic. Crit. fig. 1289.— Xiphion 
ochrolencMJia, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297. — Xyridion ochroleucum, 
Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500.— L orlentalis. Miller, Gard. Diet. edit. 
6, No. 9 (Icones, t.~154). — I. gigantea, Carriere in Rev. Hort. 1875, 
357, cum icone. Patria ignota. 

25. I. AUREA, Lindl. Bot. Reg. xxxiii. t. 59. — Xyridion aureum, Klatt 
in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 50L — I. crocea, Jacquem. MS. Himalaya occi~ 

26. I. MoNNiERi, DC. in Red, LiL t. 236. — Xiphion Monnieri, Alefeld 
in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— Xyridion Monnieri, Klatt in Bot, Zeit. 1872, 
500. — I. ochroleuca, Ker, Gen. Irid. 48, ex parte. Creta. 

27. I. FCETiDissiMA, Li7in. Sp. Plant, edit. ii. 57; Engl. Bot, t. 596; 
3rd edit. t. 1494 ; Red. LiL t. 354 ; Reich. Ic. Germ, t. 347. fig. 77^ f 
Poit. <§• Turp. FL Par. t. 45 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 916. — I. foetida, 

Thunb. Diss. No. 19. — Xiphion foetidissimum, Pari. FL Ital. iii. 297- 
Xyridion foetidissimum, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500. Insults 
Fortunat<e, Europa centralis et meridionalis , Asia Occident alis. 

28. I. VERSICOLOR, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 57 {Dill. Hort. Elth. tab. 
155); Bot. Mag. t. 21 ; Red. LiL t. 339.— Xiphion versicolor, Alefeld 
in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— I. sativa, MilL Gard. DicL edit. 6, No. 15. 

I — I. picta. Miller, Gard. Diet. edit. No. 16. America borealis orien* 



Linn. Sp, Plant, edit. 2, p. 68 ; Bot, Mag 

Jacq. Austr,t. 233, non A. Gray. — Xiphion virginicum, Alefeld in 

Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297- 
Amer. ii. 206. 


Var. I. FLACCIDA, Spach, Hist. Phan. xiii. 41.— Xiphion flaccidutn, 
Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297- 

29. I. HEXAGONA, fValt. FL Carol. 66.— I. virginica, Michx. ex parte. 

America bprealis orientalis. 


142 MK. J. G. baker's systema. ikidacearum. 

30. I. LONGiPETALA, Herbert in Hook, <5' Am, Bat. Beech. 395 ; Hook, 

fit, in Bot, Mag, t. 5298. California. 
l. I. L^viGATA, Fisch. 8f Meyer, In 



Gmeliui, Ledeb, Comm, GmeL iii. 48. — I, Ksempferi, Siebold; Le- 
maire. III. Hort. t. 157 ; Flore des Serres, t. 2073-4 ; Floral Mag. 
n. s. t. 137; Card. Chron. 1872, ii. t. 47. — I. itsihatsi, Hassk, Cat. , 


Bogor, 35. — I. violacea, Klatt in LijincBa, xxxv. 384. — Xyridlon Isevi- - * 

gatum et violaceum, Klatt in Bot. Zeit. 1872, 500, Siberia, Japonia. 


32. I. DicHOTOMA, Linn. fil. SuppL 97; Pallas, Iter, App. No. 61, 

tab. A. fig. 2; Bot. Reg, t. 246; Sweet, Brit. Flow, Gard, t. 96.— I. 
pomeridiana, Fischer, MS, ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 612. — Pardaa- 
thus dichotomus. Led. FL Ross. iv. 106. Davuria, China horealis. 

33. I. FULVA^ Ker in Bot, Mag, t. 1496 ; Reich. FL Exot. t. 38. 
Neubeckia fulva, Alefeld in Bot. Zeit. 1863, 297.— Isis fulva, Tratt. 
Tab. No. 669.— Iris cuprea, Pursh, FL Amer. Sept. i. 30. America 
horealis orientalis. 

Subgenus II. Ojs^coctclus. PeriantJiii segmenta exterior a facie 

et ungue jprorsus pilosa. 

34. l. susiANA, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 55; Bot. Mag. t. 91 ; Savi, 
FL ItaL ii. t. 74 ; Tratt. Arch. Pict, t. 130 ; Flore des Serres, t. 1067-8. 
— I- punctata, Moench, Meth. 527. — Oncocyclus susianus, K. Koch in 
Linncsa^ xxi. 639. Oriens. 

Var. I. nviDA, Tratt. Archiv, Pict. t. 129. — I. susiana, Red. LiL 
t. 18. 

35. I. iBEKicA, Hoffm, Comm. i. 41 ; Regel, Gartenfl, t, 
Flore des Serres, t. 1963 ; Floral Mag. n. s. t. 168 ; IL 
t. 106; Bot. Mag. t. 6847. — Oncocyclus ibericus, Siems 
1846, 408, Caucasus, Armenia, Persia horealis. 

Var. ocHRACEA, i?e^e/. 

Var, I. Heylandiana, Boiss. 

^ N 

36. I. Saarii, Schott; Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876, 787. Oriens. 


37. I. PARADOXA, Stev. in Mem. Mosc. v. 355 ; Regel, Gartenfl, t ; 
fig. 3. — Oncocyclus paradoxus, Siems. in Bot. Zeit. 1846, 706. Geor 

Persia horealis. 


fig. 1. — Oncocyclus acutilobus, Siems. in Bot. Zeit. 1846, 709. — O 
Helense, K. Koch in Linn. xxi. 639. Caucasus, Persia horealis. 









MR. J. o. baker's systema irtdaceartjm. 143 

Subgenus III, Evansia. PeriantJiii segmenta exteriora unguihiis 

cristatis. Lophiris, Tausch, 

39. I. cristata, Soland, in Ait. Hort, Kew. i. 71 ; Smith, Spic, t 13; 
Bot. Mag, t. 412; Red, Lit. t. 376; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1366.— 1. 
odorata, Pers. Syn. i. 53.~Neubeckia cristata. Ale/eld in Bot. Zeit. 
1863, 297. America borealis orientalis, 

40. I. lacustris, Nutt. Gen, Amer. i. 23, Amer, hor, orient. 

41. I. gracilipes, ^. Gray, Bot, Japan, 412. Japonia. 

42. I. SPECULATRIX, Hancs in Trimen'sJourn. 1875, 196. Hong Kong. 

43. I. NEPALENSis, D. Don, Prodr. Nep, 54 ; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 
ser. ii., non Wallich.—I. decora, Wallick, PI. Asiat. Rar. t. 86.— I. 
sulcata, WalL Cat. No. 5049. — Neubeckia decora et sulcata, Klatt 
in Linn^ea, xxxiv. 588-590. Himalaya orientalis et occidentalis. 

44. I, JAPONiCA, Thunb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ii. 327. — I. chinensis. 
Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 373; Regel, Gartenjl. t. 511. — I. fimbriata. 
Vent. Hort. Cels. t. 9; Red. Lil. t. 152.— Isis fimbriata, Tratt. Tabu- 
lar. 668. — Evansia chinensis, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 303. 
China f Japonia. 

4 Subgenus IV. Pogokiris. Perianthii segmenta exteriora 

tmguihus harbatis. 

* Stirps I- pumilae. 

45. I, PUMiLA, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 56, ex parte ; Curt. Bot. Mag. 
t. 9; Red. Lil. U 261 ; Jacq. Fl.Austr. t. 1; Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
tab. 327. fig. 752.— I. Clusiaua, Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 328. fig. 
755, non Tausch. Europa centralis et austro-orientalis. 

Var. I. TRISTI8, Reich, Ic. Fl. Germ. 3. — I. Clusiana, Reich. Ic. Germ. 
tab. 328. fig. 754. 

Var. I. ATTICA, Boiss. 8r Held, Diag. ii. iv. 91 ; Regely Gartenjl. tab. 
377. fig. 2.— I. pumila, Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 327. fig- 754. 

Var. I.'C(ERULEA, Spach, Hist.Phan. xiii. 50. — I. pumila, var. coerulea, 
Bot. Mag. t. 1261 ; Red. Lil. t. 261. 

Var. I. STENOLOBA, A. DC. Moldavia. 

Var. I. ^QuiLOBA, Ledeb. Fl. Ross.ix. 104. — I. longiflora, Ledeb.lnd. 
Sem. Dorp. 1822. Tauria. 

46. I. SUAVEOLENS, Boiss. Diagn. xiii. 15. Bulgaria. 

47. I. PSEUDopuMiLA, Tinco, Cat. Hort. Panorm. 1827,283; Pari. Fl. 
Ital. iii. 287. Sicilia, Servia, Hungaria. 

Var. I. PANORMiTANA, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 3. Sicilia. 



144 MR. J. G. baker's ststema trtdacearum. 

48. I. VERNA, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 58 ; Sweet, Brit, Flow, Gard. 
t. 68. America borealis orientalis, 

49. I. Tigridia, Bunge in Ledeb. FL Alt. i. 60 ; Ledeb. Ic, t, 342. 
Siberia centralis. 

50. I. Cham^tris, Bert. FL ItaL iii. 609. — I. pumila, Linn. herb,\; 
VilL Delph, ii. 224, non Jacq. — T. lutescens. Red, LiL t. 263, non 
Lara. Gallia australis, Italia borealis, Dalmatia. ^ 

Var. I. ITALICA, Pari. FL ItaL'm. 185. Italia borealis. 

Var. I. OLBiENSis, Henon in Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon, viii. 462, cum 
icone; Bot. Mag. t. 6110. Gallia meridionalis. 

Var. I. BALKANA, JanJca, AdatoJc, 173. Thracia borealis. 

** Stirps I, biflorse. 

51. I. GLAUCESCENS, Bunge in Ledeb. FL Alt. i. 51 ; Ledeb. Ic. t. 102. 
?I. scariosa, Pallas; Roem. ^- ScJiult. Syst. Veg.i. 307. Siberia 

Var. I. LONGIFLORA, Herbert, MSS. Siberia. 

Var. I. ELONGATA, Fischer, MSS. Caucasus. 

52. I. nvBRO'MARGis ATA, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1875, 524. Aiia- 



Soc. 1849, 8.— 1. longifolia, Royle, IlL 372, t. 91. fig. 2.— I. tigrina, 
Jacquem. MSS. Himalaya occidentalis. 

54. I. BiFLORA, Linn. Sp. PL edit. 2, 56. — I. subbiflora, Brot. Fl. Lusit. 
t. 98. — I. fragrans, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 303, — T. nudicaulis, 
Bot. Mag. t. 5806, non Lam. — ? I. longiflora. Vest, in Roem. «5' Schult. 
Syst. Veg. i. Suppl. 304. Lusitania, Mauritania. 

55. I. LUTESCENS, Lam. Ency. iii. 297 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2861 ; Reich. Ic. 
Germ. tab. 329. fig. 756, non Redoute.—l. Statellse, Todaro, Nuov.Gen. 
5; Hort. Panorm, t. 6.— I, erratica, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 10. Europa 

56. I. viRESCENS, BC. in Red. LiL t. 295.— I. binata, Schur, Transyl 
656. Helvetia, Transylvania. 

57. I. ARENARIA, Waldst. ^ Kit. FL Rar. Hung. t. 57 i Bot. Reg* 
t. 549 ; Red. LiL t. 296 ; Reich. Ic. FL Germ. tab. 330. fig. 157. 

Europa centralis orientalis. 

68. I. FLAVissiMA, Pallas; Jacq. Ic. t. 220. Siberia centralis. 

59. I. BloudOvii, LeJ. Fl. Alt. iv. 331; Ic. t. 101. -^I. flavissima, 
var. umbrosa, Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. i. 59. Siberia centralis. 
















60. I. GONXOCARPA, Baker in Gard. Ckron, 1876, ii. 71^- Himalaya 



tab. 'iiSQ. Turkestania. 

62. I. Haynei, Baker in Gard, Chron 1876, ii. 710. Palcestina, 

*** Stirps I. variegatae. 

63. I. aphylla, Linn. Sp, Plant, edit. 2,56. — I. nudicaulis. Lam 
Encyc. iii. 296 ; Jieich. Ic. Germ. tab. 331. fig. 758.— I. bohemica, F. 



Plant. Ear. Hung. tab. 226.— I. biflora, Reich, Ic. Ft. Germ. tab. 332. 
fig. 759, non Linn. — I. bisflorens, Hort. Fl. Austr. \. 46.— I. furcata, 
M. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. iii. 42; Bot. Mag. tab. 2361 ; Bot. Reg. 
tab. 801. — I. Clusiana, Tausch ; Klatt inLinneea, xxxiv.598. — I. fal- 
cata, Tausch ; Roem. ^ Schult. Syst. Veg. I SuppL 369.— I. scariosa, 
Willd.; Roem. ^ Schult. Syst. Veg. i. Suppl 305.— I. Fieberi, Siedl. 

in Oek. tech. Fl. Bohm. i. 48 j Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 333. fig. 760, 

— I. rigida, et subtriflora, Fieber ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 598-9. — I. 

diantha, K. Koch in LinrKsa, xxi. 637-— I. extrafoliacea, Mikan.— \. 

Schmidtii, Hort.— I. bifurca, Steveriy MSS. Europa centralis orien- 

talis, Caucasus, 

64. I. VAuiEGATA, Liuu. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 56 ; Jacq. FL Austr. t. 5; 
Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 16; Red. Lil. t. 292; Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 
334. fig. 761. Europa centralis orientalis. 

Var. BELGiCA, Spach^ Hist. Phan. xiii. 57. 

65. I. LURiDA, Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 68 ; Bot. Mag. t. 586, non 
669; Red. Lil. t. 418. Europa centralis orientalis^ 

Var. I. Redouteana, Spach^ Hist. Phan. xiii. 56, 

**** Stirps I. germanicse. 

66. I. FLAVESCENS, DC. in Red. Lil. U 3/5; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 
ser. ii. 56; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 92L— I, imbricata, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
1845, t. 35.— I. sulphurea, K. Koch in Linncea, xxi. 637- Bosnia, 


67. I. sauALENS, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 56 ; Bot. Mag. t. JS? ; Jacq. 
Fl. Austr. t. 5; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 993; Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 336.-1. 
lurida, Bot. Mag. t. 669; Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 337. fig. 764.— I. 
lepida, Heuffel in Flora, 1856, 621. Europa centralis, Caucasus, 
Persia lorealis. 

Var. LAVANDULACKA, Baker in Gard. Chron. 18/6, ii. 77i. 


146 MR. J. Qt. baker's sysxema iridacearum. 

Var. atropurpurea. Baker, loc. cit. 

68. I. sambucina, liinn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 55; Jacq. Hort, Vind, 
t. 2; Curt. Bot. Mag, t. 187; Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 335. fig. 
762. JEuropa centralisy Armenia. 

Var. I. co^coi^OR, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1876, ii, 774. 

69. I. NEGLECTA, Hom. Hort. Hafn. i. 65; Bot. Mag. t. 2435. i 
Stirps hortensis, 

70. I. HYBRID A, Retz, Obs. Bot. iv. 6. — I. amoena, DC. in Red. LiL 

t. 336 ; Sweet, Brit. Flow, Gard, ser. ii. t. 165. — L variegata, var. 
amcena, Spach, Hist. Phan. xiii. 58. Stirps hortensis. 


(Ester. Bot. Wochen 


Var. I. cucuLLATA, Schur, Fl. Transyl. 664. Transylvania. 
Var. 1. AUSTRALis, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 49. Sicilia. 
Var, I. Mandralisc^, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 42. Sicilia. 
Var. I. TiN^i, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 42. Sicilia. 
Var. I. sicuLA, Todaro, Nuov. Gen. 7- Sicilia. 

74. I. PLiCATA, Lam. Encyc. iii. 294. — I. aphylla, var. plicata, Ker in 
Bot. Mag. t, 870. Stirps hortensis. 

75. I. SwERTii, Lam. Encyc. iii. 294 (Swertj Floril. tab. 41. iig. 1); 
Red. Lil. t. 306 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. fig. 1239 ; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 

71. I. GERMANicA, Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, 55 ; Bot, Mag. t. 670; 
Red. Lil. t. 309 ; Reich. Ic. Crit, t. 924 ; Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 338. 
fig. 565. — I. deflexa, Knowles ^ fVestc, Floral Cab. ii. 19, t. 51. — I. 
nepalensis, flMll. in Lindl. Bot. Reg. t.818, non D. Don. — I. viola- 
cea, Savi, Bot. Etrusc. ii. 9, Europa centralis et meridionalis. 

***** Stirps I. pallidse. 

72. I. FLORENTINA, Linn, Sp. Plant, edit. 2,55; Bot. Mag, t. 671 ; 
Red. Lil. t, 23; Sibth, Fl. Grcec, t. 39; Reich. Ic, PI, Germ. tab. 

339. fig. 766 ; Woodville, Med. Bot. iv. t. 263 ; Bentley # Trimen, ^ 

Med. Plants, t. 273.— I. alba, Savi, Fl. Pis. i. 32. Europa meri- 

Var. I. ALBICANS, Lange, Ic. Plant. Hisp, t. 33. Hispania. 

73. I. PALLIDA, Lam. Encyc. iii. 294; Bot, Mag. tab. 685; Red. LiL 
t. 366; Reich. Ic. Crit. fig. 1243; Ic. Fl, Germ. tab. 340. fig. 767. 
I. germanica, Sibth. Sf Sm. Fl. Grcec, t. 40, non Linn. — I. pallide-cae- 
rulea, Pers. Syn,\.b\, — I. odoratissima, Jacq. Hort, Schoen. tab. 9. 
I. glauca, Salisb, in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 302. — I. hortensis, Tausch. 
? I. Cengialti, Ambrosi, Fl. Tyrol. Austr. i. 643. Europa meridionalis. 

■. ^ 

. 1 


MB. J. a. baker's SYSTEiTA IBIDACEAEFM. 147 

ser. ii. t. 254.— I. aphylla, var. Swertii, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 8/0. 
I. dcsertorum, Balbis, Hort. Taur. t. 2, non Moench.—L portuga- 
lensis, Besler, Stirps horfensis. 

Subgenus V. Hexapoqois-. Perianthii segmenta omnia unguibus 


76. I. LONGiscAPA, Ledeb. FL Ross. iv. 93.— I. filifolia, Bmge, Rel. 
Lehm, 330. Asia centralis, Siberia uralensis. 

^ 77. I. FALCXFOLiA, Bunge, ReL Lehm, 329. Asia centralis, Afghan- 


Series II. Dietes, Salisb. Species ausfro-africance et australien- 
seSy perianthii tubo nuUo, segmentis omnibus jlore expanso late 
patulis, Morsea, Miller^ ex parte. 

* AfricancB. 

78. I. COMPRESSA, Linn.JiL SuppL 98. — Morseairidoicles, Linn, ilfaw^. 
28 ; Ker in Bat. Mag. t. 693 ; Jacq. Hort. Schoen. t. 196 (excl. syn.). 

M. vegeta. Miller, Gard. Diet. edit. 6 (/c. t. 239. fig. 1), non Linn, 
herb. — M. irioides, Gaertn, Fruct, i. 40. — Iris moraeoides, Ker in 
Bat. Mag. sub t. 1407. — Dietes iridifolia, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 
i. 307. — D- iridoides, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. edit. 2, 497. — 
pressa, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 585. — Iris crassifolia, Lodd. Bot. Cab, 
1. 1861. C. B. Spei. 

79. I. CATENULATA, Baker. — Moraea catenulata, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 
1074.— Dietes catenukta. Sweet, Brit Flow. Gard, edit. 2, 497. Ma- 

80. I. BicoLOR, Lindl. Bot. Reg, t. 1404; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1886; 
Paxt. Mag. ix. 29.— Morcea bicolor^ Spae in Flore des Serres, t. 744. 

Dietes bicolorj " Sweet,^^ Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 684. C.B. Spei, 

** Australiensis. 

81. I. RoBiNSONiANA. F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 153; G. Bennett in Gard, 
Chron, 1872, 393, cum iconc—Morsea Robinsoniana, F. M. loc. cit, ; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, vi. 409. Insula' Lord Howe. 

48. Hermodactylits, Tourn. 
Tourn. Coroll. 50 ; Adans. Fam, ii. 60 ; Salisb. in 



Iridis sp., Linn 


Perianthium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium brevissimo in- 
fundibulari, segmentis exterioribus obovato-spatbulatis, ungui- 

14S MR. J. a. baker's SYSTEMA IRIDACEARrM. 

bus calvisj flore expanso apice reflexis, interioribus multo ml- 
noribus erectis oblanceolato-spathulatis. Stamina 3 ad faucem 
periantliii inserta stigruatibus opposita, antheris ligulatis basi- 
fixis filamento sequilongis. Ovarium uniloculare, placentis 
tribus parietalibus, ovulis plurimis ; stylus brevissimus, stigma- 
tibus tribus magnia petaloideis apice 2-cristatis, Capsul<^ 
coriacea unilocularis apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus glo- 
bosis, testa crassa brunnea, albumiue corneo. Herha perennis 
mediterranean rJiizomate digitato^ foliis paucis tetragonis^ caule 
dehili elongate simplici uniiloro^ spatha scppissime univalvij 
floribtis sordide purpureisJlavO'Viridihiis, 

1. H. TUBERosuSj Salisb, in Trans, Hort, Soc, i. 304. — Iris tuberosa, 
Linn, Sp, Plant, edit. 58; Bot. Mag. t. 531 ; Red. Lil t. 48; Sibth. 
8f Sm. Fl. Grcec, t. 41 ; Eng. Bot. edit. 3, t. 1496; Flore des Serres, 
t. 1083 ; Reich. Ic. Germ. t. 348.— H. repens. Sweet, Brit. Flow, 
Gard. 2nd ser. sub t. 146. Regio mediterranea. 

Yar. H. longifolius. Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 146. — Iris 
longifolia, Spach, Hist. Phan. xiii. 14. 

Var. H. BisPATHACEXJS, Sweet, loc. cit. {Bot. Mag. t. 531), — Iris bi- 
spathacea, Spach, Hist. Phan. xiii. 15. 

49. DlPLARRHENA, Lahill. 

Lahill Voy. i. 157, t. 15 ; B. Br. Frodr. 304; Ker, Gen. Irid. 44 ; 
Klatt in Linn<jea. xxxiv. 686 ; BentJi. Fl. Austral, vi. 399. 
Morese sp., Valil. 

PeriantMum subregulare leviter obliquum, tubo supra ovarium 
nuUo, segmentis dissimilibus, tribus exterioribus sequalibus 
majoribus obovato-cuneatis obtusis flore expanso falcatis, inte- 
rioribus minoribus obtusis cuneatis supremo latiore leviter for- 
nicato. Stamina 3 epigyna inaequalia, cum perianthii segmento 
interiore supremo arcuato, 2 fertilia filamentis subulatis antheris 
parvis oblongo-ligulatis, tertium sterile longiore appendice api- 
cali petaloidea. Ovarium clavatum, ovulis in loculo crebris ; 
stylus brevis filiformis, ramis tribus angustis petaloideis apice 
emarginatis cuspidibus brevibus patulis. Capsula coriacea 
anguste oblonga trigoua apice loculicide trivalvis, seminibus 
discoideis uniseriatis, testa atro-castanea, albumine corneo. 
BerbcB perennes aiistralienses^ rhizomate hrevi, foliis rosulatis 
disticTiis dnris linearihus, caulibus ancipitihus simplicibus vel 
parce ramosis foliis paucis rediictis prceditiSy spatJiis paucifloris 
valvis exteriorihus lanceolatis aciitis firmis viridihus sfriaiis, 








MU, J. O. baker's SYSXEMA IRlDACEAliUiVr. 149 



pedicellis cum spntha (cguilongis^Jlorihusfugitivis successivis mag- 
nitudine mediocrihus scepissime alhis. Ah Irideis ad Grladeoleas 
recedit perianthii segmento intcriore supr emo fornicato et stami- 
nihus inceg[uilateraliljus. 

1. D. MoR^A, Lab, loc. ci7,— Morsca diandra, Vahl^ Enum.n. 154. 
Tasmania, Australia australis orientalis. 

Var. ALPiNA, Hook.JiL FL Tasm, ii. ^^4. Tasmania. 

2. D. LATiFOLiA^ Benth. FL Austral, vi, 400. Tasmania. 


50. Marica, Ker. 

•Ker, Gen. Irid. 16, ex parte ; Herbert in Bot. Mag 
Cypella, Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 538, non Herbert 
Liehm. Ind. Sem. Havn. 1855. — Morsese et Ferrariae sp. auct. vet. 

Perianthium regulars erectum, tubo supra ovarium nuUo, segmeu- 
tis valde difformibus omnibus basi maculatis, exterioribus 
obovato-cuneatis obtusis flore expanso patulis, interioribus lau- 
ceolato-pauduriformibus acutis multo minoribus diu convolutis. 
Stamina 3 erecta epigyna periantbio multo breviora, filamentis 
erectis brevibus liberis basi deltoideis, antheris ligulatis basifixis 
dorso styli ramis adglutinatis. Ovarium clavatum triloculare, 
ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus brevis inferne filiformls superne 
trigonus lobis supra stigmata cristis tribus subulatis insequali- 
bus praeditis. Gapsula oblongo-trigoua coriacea loculicide tri- 
valvis, seminibus crebris angulatis, testa brunnea, albumine 
corneo. Herbw tropicaJes americance^ rhizomate Irevi, foUis 
coriaccis elongatis ensijbrmibus, caulihus pJanis latis folia simu- 
lantibuSj ramis Jlorifer is solitariis lateralibus, spathis pauci/loris, 
valvis lanceolatis coriaceis viridibus, Jloribus magnis successivis 
fugitivis luteisj cceruleis vel albidis. 

1. M. C.ERULEA, Ker in Bot.Reg. t. 713; Hook. Exot. Flora, t. 222. 
Cypella c£crulea, Seubert ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 538; FL Bras. ixi. 
519, t. 66. fig. 2; Bot. Mag. t. 6162.— Galathea cserulea, Lieim. Ind. 
Sem. Havn. 1855, Brasilia. 

2. M. glauca. Baker. — Cypella glauca^ Seubert; Klatt in Linnaea, 
xxxi. 542. Brasilia. 

3. M. Sabixi, Lindl. in Trans. Hort. Soc. vi. 75, t. 1 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 1164.— M. Sabiniana, Herb, in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3809. Africa tro- 
picalis occidentalis {inquilina). 

4. AI. Noma I ana, AV in Bot, May. t. 651. — Aloraa Northiaua, 

150 MR. J. G. bakeb's ststema ieidaceaeum. 

Schneev. Ic. t. 41, A2i Andr. BoL Rep. L 255.— Cypella Northiana, 

Klatt in Linnma, xxxi. 539.— Iris Northiana, Pers. Syn. i. 52.— Morsea 

vaginata, Red. LiL t. 66.— Ferraria elegans, Salisb, Prodr. 42. Bra- 

5. M. GRACILIS, Herb, in BoL Mag. t. 3713.— Cypella gracilis, Klatt 
in Linncea, xxxi. 541. Brasilia. 

6. M. LUTEA, Herb, in Bot. Mag. t. 3809.— Cypella lutea, Klatt in 
FL Bras. iii. 522. Brasilia. 

r. M. LONGiFOLiA, Link, Klotzsch 8f Otto Ic, PL Select. 123, t. 58. 
Cypella longifolia, Klatt in Linncea^ xxxi. 540. Brasilia. 

8. M. HUMiLis, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1801.— M. humilis, var. princeps. 
Herb, in BoL Mag. sub t. 3809.— Cypella humilis, Klatt in Linnma, 
xxxi. 540, Brasilia. 

9. M. BRACHYPCs, Baker. — Cypella brachypus. Baker in Gard. Chron. 
18/6, 136. India occidentalis. 

51. Patersonia, -B. 5roz6vj. 

a. Brown, Prodr. Fl. Austral. 304 ; Ker^ Gen. Irid. 14 ; Klatt in 
LinncBa^ xxxiv. 630 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vi. 400. — Genosiris^ 
Lahill. Nov. Roll. i. 13, t. 9 ; F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 36. 

Periantliium regulare erectum, tubo supra ovarium producto recto 
liliformi, segmentis exterioribus inagnis obtusfs obovatis vel 
oblongis flore expanso patulis, tribus interioribus minimis lan- 
ceolatis ascendentibus. Stamina 3, ad faucem tubi sequilatera- 
liter inserta, filameutis in tubum cylindricura ad medium. vel 
prorsus connatis, antberis erecto-patentibus oblongis stigmati- 
bus alternis. Ovarium cylindricum sessile triloculare saepe 
villosum, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis erectus, 
stigmatibus tribus obovatis petaloideis patulis basi liberis vel 
conuatis. Capsicla cylindrica sessilis chartacea loculicide tri- 
valvis, seminibus parvis turgidis dimidiato-oblongis, testa raem- 
branacea atro-castanea, albumine corneo. JLerh<s australienses 
durce persistentes perennes glabrcB vel tomentosce, rhizomate hrevi 
Jihris radicalibtcs dtiris gracilihusprcdditOyfoliis dense ccespitosis 
coriaceis anguste linearibus siihtiliter striatis (in P. babianoidi 
pUcatis petiolatis), scapis nudis, Jloribus fugitivis successivis in 
caput cylindricum unicum terminate congestis^ hracteis multis 
imhricatis lanceolatis^ exterioribus duri^ striatiSy interioribus 
memhranaceis, periamthio scepissime c<Bruleo raro luteo vel alba. 

1. P. GLAUCA, R. Brown, Prodr, Fl. Austral. 304; BoL Mag. t. 2677; 




MR. J. a. baker's systema iridaoeabum. 151 


Lodd. Bot. Cab. t, 1 182 ; EndL Icon. t. 50. — Genosiris fragilis, LabilL 
PL Nov. HolL i. 13, t. 9, Tasmania et Australia austr alls orient alls. 

2. P. lonOiscapa, Sweet, FL Austral, t. 39. — P. bicolor, F. MuelL 
MSS. Tasmania et Australia australis, 

3. P. occiDENTALis, R. Brown^ Prodr. Austral, 304. — Genosiris oc- 
cidentalis, F. MuelL Frag. vii. 31, — P. sapphirina, LindL Bot. Reg, 
1839, t. 60. — P. Diesingii, EudL in PL Preiss. ii. 30. — ? P. nana, 
compar, flaccida, sylvestris ef montana, EndL in PL Preiss/u. 30,31. 
Australia occidentalism 

Var. LATiFOLiA, Benth. FL Austral, vi. 403. Australia occid. 

Var. ? ANGUSTiFOLiA, Benth. loc. cit. — P. tenuispathaef turfosa, EndL 

in PL Preiss. ii. 31. Australia occid. 
Var. ? ERiosTEPHANA, F. MuelL Fragm. vii. 32. Austr. occid, 

4. P. UMBROSA, EndL in PL Preiss. ii, 31, — Genosiris umbrosa, 
F. MuelL Frag, vii. 32. Australia occidentalism 

5. P. XANTHINA, F. MuelL Fragm. i. 214. — Genosiris xanthina, F. 
MuelL Fragm. vii, 33, Australia occidentalis. 

6. P. LI MB AT A, EndL in PL Preiss. ii. 29. Australia occidentalis. 

7- P- JUNCEA, LindL Swan Riv. App. 58.— Genosiris juncea, F. MuelL 
^ Fragm. vii. 33, — ? P. Roei, EndL in PL Preiss. ii. 31. Australia occi- 

Var. ELONGATA, Benth. FL Austral, vi. 405. Australia occidentalis. 



Maxwellii, F. MuelL Fragm. vii. 34, Australia occidentalis. 

9. P. PYGM^A, LindL Swan. Riv. App. 58. — Genosiris pygmaea, F. 
MuelL Frag. vii. 33. Australia occidentalis. 


10. P, LONGXFOLiA, R. Brown, Prodr. FL Austral. 303. — Genosiris 
longifolia, F. MuelL Frag. vii. 35. Austral, orient, australis. 

11. P. SERiCEA,ii. Brown in Bot. Mag. t. 1041 ; Prodr. Fl. Austr. 303. 
Genosiris sericea, F. MuelL Fragm. vii. 35.—? P. glabrata, -Bo^ R^iir- 

t. 51, non R. Br. Australia orientalis. 
Var. ? L ATI FOLIA, Benth. FL Austral, vi. 406. AustraL orient. 

12. P. LAN ATA, R. Brown, Prodr. FL AustraL 303] Sweet, FL Austr. 
t. 15.— Genosiris lanata, F. MuelL Fragm. vii. 35. Australia occi- 

Var. P. PANNOSA, EndL PL Preiss. ii. 29. AustraL occid. 

13. P, RUD IS, EndL in PL Preiss. ii. 29.— Genosiris rudis, F. MuelL 
Fragm. vii. 35. Australia occidentalis. 

14. P. MACRANTHA, Benth. Fl, AustraL vi. 407. AustraL occid. 

15. P. GLARRATA. R. Rrnwn. Prodr. FL AustraL 304; Lodd.Bot. Cab 

152 ME. J. G. baker's systema iridaceaeum. 

. t. 768. — Genosiris glabrata, F. MuelL Frag. vii. 35. — P. media, i?. 
Brown, loc. cit. Australia orientalis. 



17. P. iN^auALis, Benth. Fl. Austral vi. 408. Austral, occid. 
18* P. GRAMINEA, Beuth. FL Austral, vi. 408, Austral, occid. 
19. P. BABiANOiDES, BentTi. FL Austral, vi. 408. Austral- occid. 

52. LiBEKTiA, Spreng. 

Spreng. Syst. Veg, i. 127 ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxi. 380. — Eeneal- 
mia, _B, Brown, Prodr. Fl. Austral, 591 ; Ker^ Gen. Irid. 26, 
nan Linn.fil. — Nematostigma, D. Dietr. Synops. i. 150. — Sisy- 
rinchii sp., B. Brown, Frodr. 305; F. Muell. Frag. vii. 91. 

Ferianthium rotatum, regulare, erectum, tubo supra ovarium nullo, 
segmentis flore expanse patulis, ssepissime insequalibus interio- 
ribus majoribus, exterioribus minoribus magis brunneolis vel 
viridulis. Stamina sequilateralia epigyna, filamentis suraum 
subulatis deorsum connatis, antheris oblongo-ligulatis versati- 
libus, stigmatibus alternis. Ovarium subglobosum, ovulis in 
loculo plurimis ; stylus filiformla profunda trifurcatus, ramis 
subulatis iutegris falcatis apice capitato-stigmatosis. Capsula 
parva coriacea globosa vel obovoidea loculicide trivalvis, semi- 
nibus minutis triquetris, testa membranacea brunnea, albumine 
corneo. Serhce perennes australienses, novce-zelandicce et ameri- 
cance austro-occidentales, radicihus fibrosis, foUis radicalihus 
distichis angusfe linearibus firmis dense congestis, caulibus tere- 
tihus foliis paucis valde reductis instructis, injlorescentia scepis- 
sime laxe corymhoso-paniculata spathis paucifloris, valvis paucis 
lanceolatis pedicellis elongatis^ interdum minus ramosa,floribus 
dense congestis pedicellis brevibus, periantJiio albo, raro cceruleo, 



1. L. PULCHELLA, Sprcug. Syst. i. 169. — Sisyrincbium pulchellum, iJ 

Br. Prodr. 305. 

Prodr. 592.— Ne- 

matostigma pulchellum, Dietr. Synops. 151. — Libertia micrantha, A. 
Cunn. in Hook.Jil. Flor. New ZeaL i. 252, — L. Lawrencii, Hook.fiL 
FL Tasm. ii. 34, t. 129. Nova Zealandia, Tasmania, Australia austro- 

2. L. TRicoccA, Philippi in Linneea, xxix. 63. Chili. 

3, L. ixioiDES, Spreng. Syst. i. 168; Reich. Hori. t. 157. — Sisyrin- 


MH. J. G. baker's SYSTEMA TIirDACEAllTJM. 153 

chium ixloides, Jbrsf . Prodr. No.325.— Moraa ixioides, Thunb, Diss 
Morma, No. 7.— Ferraria ixioides, Willd. Sp. Plant, iii. 588.— Re- 
nealmia ixioides, Ker, Gen, Irid. 27.— Nematostigma ixioidcs, Dietr. 
Synops. 150. — L, restioidcs, Klatt in Linnceay xxxi. 383. Nova Zea- 

4. L. ELEGANS, Poepp. Frag, Syjiops. I. — L. ixioides, C. Gay, FL Chil^ 

vi. 31, non Sjjre??^.— Roterbe elegans, Steud. in LechL PL ChiL Exsic, 

No. 669. — L. chilensis, Klotzsch^ MSS. — Marica inicrantha, Ker, Gen. 

Irid. 22. — Bermudiana Narcisso-Leucoji flore, Feuill, Peruv. iii. 9, 
t. 4. Chili. 

5. L. PANicuLATA, Spreng. Syst. i. 168 ; Bot, Mag, t. 6263. — Sisy- 
rinchium paniculatnm, I?. Br. Prodr. 305. — Renealmia paniculata, jR. 
Br, Prodr, 592. — Nematostigma pauiculatura, Dietr, Synops, 151. 
Australia orientalis et australis. 

i), L. GRANDiFLORA, Sojeef, Hort . Brit , edit. 1, 498. — Renealmia gran- 
diflora, R, Br. Prodr. 592. — Libertia macrocarpa, Klatt in hinncBa^ 
xxxi, 384. Nova Zealandia. 

^"^ DensiflorcBy pedicellis brevibus. 

7. L. FORMOSA, Grah. in Edinb, New Phil, Journ. xv. 383; LindL in 
Bot, Reg, t. 1630; Bot. Mag, t. 3294.— L. ixioicles, Klatt in Mart. 

^ FL Bras, iii. 530, tab. 68. fig. 2, non Spreng, Chili. 

Viir. L. CRASSA, Grah. loc, cit. Chili. 

8. L. ccERULESCENS, Kuntk in LinvfEa, xix. 382. — Sisyrlnchium sessi- 
liflorum. Hook. ^ Am. Bot. Beechey, 47. Chili. 


53. Anomatheca, Ker, 

Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 227; Gen. Irid. Ill; 
Linn<sa^ xxxii. 774. — Gladiolas et Ixise sp. auct. vet. 

Perianthium subregulare vel leviter irregulare tubo supra ovarium 
elongato cylindrico leviter curvato, segmentis oblongis subae- 
qualibus flore expanse irregulariter patulis, tribus inferioribus 
magis patulis, fauce maculatis. Stamina 3 ad faucem tubi 
inserta secunda arcuata, filamentis brevibus fiiiformibus, antbens 
linearibus basifixis contiguis parallelis. Ovarium oblongUHi, 
triloculare, ovulis in loculo pluribus crebris ; stilus filiformis, 
ex tubo protrusus, stigmatibus tribus brevibus subulatis bifidis 
ramis divaricatis. Capsula parva oblonga vel globoaa membra- 
nacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus globosis, testa atro-castanea 
membranacea nitida, albumine corneo. Herhce capenses et afri- 
cance tropicales, huJhi tunicis suhtiliter Jtbroso-refinilatigj/oliig 

154 MR. J. G, baker's ststema iribacearum 


lihus graminoideis JlahellatiSy caulinis paucis reductis^ flo- 

laxe spicatisy spathis unifloris, valvis parvis lanceolatis 

acutis integris viridihus,Jloris limho albido velruhro. A Lapey- 

rousia prcesertim recedit foliis radicalihus congestis Jlahellatis 

et Jloribus in spicain unicam vel profunde furcatam dispositis. 

1. A. jruNCEA, Ker in Konig ^" Sims, Ann. i. 227 ; Reich. Uort. t. 111. 
Gladiolus junceus, Linn, SuppL 94 ; Red. Lil. t. 141. — Laj)eyrousia 
juncea, Pourr. Act. Tolos. iii. 15. — Ixia spicata, Burm. FL Cap. i. 
(1768). — Gladiolus polystachyus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. (iS. — G. marrao- 
ratus. Lam. III. \. 118. — G. paniculatus, Pers. Syn. i. 45. — G. excisus, 
Jacq. Hort. Schoen. t. 491. — Ixia excisa, Linn. SuppL 92ynon Thunb. 

Ixia Gawleri, Schrad. Journ. iv. 67. — Gladiolus amabilis, Salisb. 
Prodr, 4. — Ixia emarginata, Vahl, Enum. ii. 2/0. — Gladiolus seti- 
folius, Linn. Supph 96. C B. Spei, 

2. A. CRUENTA, LindL Bot. Reg. t. 1639; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1857; 
Pawt. Mag. i. 103, cum icone. C. B. Spei, Natal. 

3. A, GRANDiFLORA, Baler inTrimen^s Joum. 1876, 337. Africa austro- 
tropicalis in terra Jluminis Zambesi. 

4. A. ANGOLENSis, Baker in Trimen^s Journ. 1876, S37. Angola. 


Gladioli et Ixise 

sp., Thunb. etc. 

Perianfhium subregulare vel leviter Irregulare, tubo supra ovarium 
cylindrico brevi vel elongate plus minus curvato, segmentis ob- 
longo-spatbulatis fauce maculatis subsequalibus vel 3 inferion- 
bus minoribus flore expanso magis patulis. Stamina 3 ad 
faucem tubi inserta, filamentis arcuatis brevibus filiformibus 
ssepissime contiguis parallelis, antberis oblongis basifixis. 
Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylics filiformia, 
ex tubo brevlter protrusus, stigmatibus brevibus subulatis bi- 
fidis ramis divaricatis. Capsula parva oblonga vel globosa 
torulosa membranacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus crebris 
minutis globosis, testa brunnea membranacea, albumine comeo. 
Serhw buTbosdd capenses et africancd tropicales, huJbi tunicis mem- 
hranaceis vel Jlbroso-reticulatis hasi circumscissis , foliis paucis 


54. Lapeykousia, JPourret. ^ i 

ourret in Trans. Acad. Tolos. iii. 79, t. 6 (1788) ; Ker, Gen. Irid. 
107, non Thunb. (1800).— Ovieda, Spreng. Sysf. Veg. i. 147; 
Klatt in LinncBU, xxxii, 776. — Meristostigma, Dietrich, Synops. 
i. 126.— Peyrousia, 8weet, Hort. Brit. edit. 2, 499.— Sophronia, 



MB. J. G. baker's ststema iridace.veum. 155 

superpositis linearihas vel loratis caulinis sensim reductis, cau- 
lihus scepe productis ancipitihus prof unde fur catis Jloribus copiosis 
coryrnbosO'paniculatis^ rarais ultimis spicatis, spathis unifloris 
valvis 2 latis navicularihus viridibus, Jloribus limbo parvo rubro^ 

cceruleo vel albido. 


1. L. CORYMBOSA, Ker in Konig ?f SimSy Ann. i. 237 ; Bat, Mag. t. 595. 
Ixia corymbosa, lAnn. Sp, Plant, i. 51 ; Jacq, Ic, t. 288; Houtt, 

Handl. xi. 27, t. 77- fig. 1. — Ovieda corymbosa, Spreng, Syst, Veg, i. 
147. — Peyrousia corymbosa. Sweety Hart Brit, edit. 2, 499. — Meris- 
tostigma corymbosum, Dietr, Synop, i. 161, — Ixia crispifolia, Andr. 
Bat. Rep, t. 35. — I, fastigiata. Lam, Encyc. iii. 337. — Lapeyrousia 
fastigiata, Ker in Konig 8f SimSy Ann, i. 237. — L. azurca, EckL Top, 
Verz, 41 ; Plukenet, Aim. t. 275. fig. 1. C, B. Spei. 

2. L, PURPUREO'LUTEA, Baker, — Ovieda purpureo-lutea, Klatt in 
Linnaa, xxxii. 789. C, B, Spei. 

3. L, ERYTHRANTHA, Baker, — Ovieda erytlirantha, Klotzsch in Peters, 
Mossamb. Bot, 51fi, t. 18. Africa tropicalis austro-orientalis, 

4. L. ABYSSiNiCA, Ba^er. — Geissorhiza abyssiaica, .R. Brown in App, 
^^ SaWs Travels. — Montbretia abyssinica, Hochst. in Schimp. PI. Abyss, 

No. 329. — M. gallabatensis, Schwein. in PL Gallab. Exsic.^o, L 
Abyssinia, Gallabat, Angola, 

5. L. MACROCHLAMVS, Baker in Trimen^s Journ, 1876, 338. C. B. 


6. L. DivARicATA, Baker in Trimen*s Journ, 1876, 337. C B, Spei, 


Longicollis acanlis (Sophronia, Licht.), 

7. L. FASCicuLATA, Ker in Konig <5* Sims, Ann, i. 237. — Ovieda fas- 
ciculata, Spreng. Syst, i. 147. — Galaxia plicata, Jacq, Ic. t. 292. — Ixia 
heterophylla, Willd. Sp. Plant, i. 159. — Meristostigmaheterophyllum, 
Dietr. Synops. i, 161. C, B. Spei. 

*•* Longicolles caulescentes. 

8. L. FISTULOSA, Baker. — Ovieda fistulosa, Spreng; Klatt in Linnwa, 
xxxii. 781. C. B. Spei. 

9. L. FissiFOLiA, Ker in Konig *S' Sims, Ann. i. 237; Bot, Mag, t. 1246. 
Gladiolus fissifolius, Jacq. Ic. t. 268.— Ovieda fissifolia,Sprew^. Syst. 

i. 147. — Meristostigraa fissifolia, Dietr. Synops. i. 161 •—Peyrousia 
fissifolia, Sweet, Hort.Brit. edit, 2, 499.— Gladiolus bracteatus, TAunft. 

156 MR. G. baker's ststema irtdacearum. 

Prodr. 186. — Lapeyrousia bracteata, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1246. 
Peyrousia bracteata. Sweety loc^ cit, — Meristostigma bracteata, Dietr. 
loc. cit. C B. Spei. 

h ■ 

10. L. MiCRA'STKAyBaker. — Ovieda micrantha, E.Meyer in herb. Drege ; 
Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 781. — Lapeyrousia manuleaeflora, EckL Top. 
Verz. 31. C. B. Spei. 

11. L. Fabricii, Ker in Bot. Mag, sub t. 1246. — Gladiolus Fabricii, ' 

Thunb. Prodr. 186.— Ovieda Fabricii, Spreng, Syst. i. 147. — Peyrousia i 


Species fioribus mihi ignofis. 

18. L. LXTTORALis, BoJcer. Angola, 


Fabricii, Sweety Hort.Brit, edit. 2, 499, — Meristostigma Fabricii, Die/r. 
Synops. i. 161. — Gladiolus anceps, Linn. herb, ex parte, — Diasia iridi- 
folia, Eckl. Top. Verz, 31, non DC. C. B. Spei. 

12. L. siLENOiDES, Ker in Bot, Mag. sub t. 1246. — Gladiolus silenoi- 

des, Jacq, Ic. t. 270. — Ovieda silenoides, Spreng. Syst, i- 147.— Me- . 

ristostigraa silenoides, Dietr. Synops. i. 161. — Peyrousia silenoides, 
Sweety Ilort. Brit. edit. 2, 499. C. B. Spei. 

13. L. ANCEPS, Ker in Konig 4' Sims, Ann. i, 238 ; Sweet, Brit. Flow. 
Gard. t. 143. — Gladiolus anceps, Linn. Suppl. 94^ ex parte] Thunb. 
Diss. Glad. No. 17, t. 2. fig. 3. — Ovieda auceps, Spreng. Syst. i. 147- 
Peyrousia anceps, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. edit. 2, 499. — Meristo- 
stigma anceps, Dietr. Synops. i. 164. — Lapeyrousia compressa, Pourret 
in Act. Tolos. iii. t. 6. — Ixia Fabricii, Delaroche Diss. 18 (1766)- 
Ixia pyramidalis. Lam. Ency. iii. 334. — ^Witsenia pyramidalis. Vers. 
Syn. 1. 42.— Gladiolus denticulatus, Lam. III. i. 118. C. B. Spei. 

Var. L. ACULEATA, Sweet, Hort, Brit. 396. — Peyrousia aeuleata. Sweet, 
Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. 2, t. 39. — Ovieda aeuleata, Klatt in Linncea, 
xxxii, 777. — Gladiolus anceps, Linn. herb, ex parte, C. B. Spei. 

14. L. Bainesh, Baker in Trimen'sJourn. 1876,338. Africa australis 

Var. BREVIFLORA, Baker. Transvaal. 

15. L. ODORATissiMA,BaA:^. — Psilosiphon odoratissimus, Welw.herb. 

16. L. FRAGRANS, Baker. — Psilosiphon fragrans, Welw. herb. An* 

17. L. cyanescens. Baker. — Psilosiphon cyanescens, Welw. herb. 








55. Watsoxia, Miller. 
Miller, {Tc. li. 184, t. 276) Diet. edit. 6 (1771); Ker, Gen. Irid. 

122; Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 735. — PLomenia*, Pourret in 
Act, Tolos. iii. 13.— Neubcria, EcJcl. Verz. Top, 37.— Micran- 
thus {Pers. Syn, i. 4tQ\EckL Verz. Top, 43.— Beilia, Eckl Terz. 
Top, 43. — Gladioli et Antholyzse sp. auct, vet. 

^ericaithiuvi leviter irregulare, tubo supra ovarium producto cur- 
vato, deorsum filiforini, sursum cylindrico, limbi secfmentis sub- 
apqualibus oblongis vel laiiceolatis flore expanse patulig. Sta- 
mina 3 ad basin tubi partis dilatatse unilate. alitor inserta cum 
tubo arcuata, filamentis filiformibus ex tubo exsertis, antberia 
linearibus basi profunde sagittatis. Ovarium cylindricum tri- 
loculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis cum tubo 
curvatus, stigmatibus tribus bifulis brevibus divaricatis. Cap- 
sula cyllndrico-triquetra coriacea apice umbilicata tarde loculi- 
cide trivalvis, semiuibus crebris oblongo-discoideis, testa atra 
membranacea. Serhce hulhosce scepissimce capenses elatce^ iulbi 
tunicis reticulatis apice dense Jibrosis, foliis ensiformihus vel 
linearibus, caulinis valde reductis, Jloribus copiosis srspissime 
rubris spicatopaniculatis magnis velraro parviSfSpathce unijloris 
valvis integris lanceolatis duris sfriatis brnnneis interdnm late 

AVatsoxia, Echl. El at ce^ perianth a li?nbo quam tubus breviore. 

1. W. ALETROiDEs, Ker in Bat, Mag, t. 533. — Antholyza aletroidcs, 
Burin, Trodr, Cap, 1. — Gladiolus aletroides, Vahly Enum. ii. 5)6. — G. 
tubulosus, .Jacq, Ic. t. 229. — Watsonia tubulosa, Pers. Syn. 42. 
W. Jacquini, Pers, Sgn. i. 42.— Antliolyza Mcrianella, Curt, in Bot. 
Mag. t. 441, non Ltwn.— Gladiolus Merianas, Thunb. Diss. Glad. 

^ No. 12. C. B. Spei. 

2. W. angupta, Ker in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. i. 230.— Gladiolus Meri- 
anus, var., Jacq. Ic, t. 231.— Antholyza fulgens, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 
192.— W. iridifolia, var. fulgens, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 600.— W. ful- 
gida, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 323.— W. atrosanguinea, Klatt 
in Linncea, xxxii. 738. C. B, Spei {Java, inquilina). 

3. W. cvLiNDRiCA, Baier i»Trm^n,Joum. 1876,336. Madagascaria. 

LoTneyiia horbonica, Pourret, ex descrip. loc. cit., est planta borbonica ab 
speciebus nostris elatis Wafsonia capensibiis recedetis stigmatibus 5 ct perian- 
thii tubo quara liuibus duplo breviore. 


158 MR. J. G. baker's SrSTEMA IRIDACEARTJM. 

4, W, Meriana, Miller j Gard. Diet. edit. vi» No. 1 (Icon. ii. 184, 
t. 2/6); Ker in Konig 8f Sims, Ann, i. 230. — Antholyza Meriana, 
liinn. Sp. Plant. 54 ; Bot. Mag, t. 418. — Gladiolus Merianus, Jacq. 
Ic. t. 230; Red, Lit. t. 11, non Thunb. C. B. Spei. 

Var. W. cocciNEA, Herb. MSS. — Watsonia Meriana, var., Ker in Bot. 
Mag, t, 1194 j Trew, Ehret. 11, t. 40. C. B. Spei. 

Var. W. ROSEo-ALBA, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 537* — Gladiolus roseo-albus, 
Jacq. Hart. Schoen. t. 13. C. B. Spei. 

Var. W. iRiDiFOLiA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 600, ex parte, 
iridifolius, Jacq. Ic, t. 234 (non 235). 

Var. W. DUBiA, Eckl. Verz. Top. 36. C. B. Spei, 


6. W. STRICTIFLORA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1406. C, B. Spei. 

6. W. DEXSiFLORA, Baker in Trimen, Joum. 1876, 336. C. B. Spei 
in ditione orientali^ Natalia. 

7. W. HUMiLis, Miller, Gard. Diet. edit. vi. No. 2 {leon. ii. 198, t. 
297 fig. 2); Bot. Mag, t. 631 et t. 1193.— Antholyza caryophyllacea, 
Houtt. HandL xii. t. 79. fig. 3. — Gladiolus laccatus, Jacq, Ic. t, 232; 
Red. Lil, t. 343. — Watsonia laccata, Ker in Bot, Mag. sub t. 631. — 
Neuberia laccata, Eckl. in Unio, Itin. Exsic. No. 560. — Gladiolus 
marginatus, Thunb., ex p^rte. — G. strictiflorus. Red. Lil. t. 399. 
Watsonia tubulosa, herb, Drege, ex parte. C. B, Spei. 

** Neuberia, Eckl. Elatce, limhi segmentis tubo (jequilongis 

V el p aula brevioribus. 

8. W. ROSEA, Ker in Konig iSf Sims, Ann. i. 230 ; Bot, Mag. t. 1072. 
Gladiolus pyramidatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 335. — G. iridifolius, var.. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 235.— Neuberia rosea, Eckl. Verz. Top. 37.— Gladiolus 

gluuiaceus, Thunb. Prodr. 186. C. -B. Spei. 

9. W. BREViFOLiA, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 601. — W. hyacinthoides, Pers, 
Syn, i. 43. — Antholyza spicata, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 56. — Gladiolus 
testaeeus, Vahl, Enura. ii. 105. C. B. Spei. 

10. W. MARGINATA; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 608. — Gladiolus marginatus, 
hinn. Suppl. 95; Thunb. Diss* Glad. No. 20, ex parte. — Ixia margi- 
nata, Soland. in Ait. Hort, Kew. i. 59. — Neuberia marginata, Eckl. 
Top. Verz. 37. — Ixia Sceptrum, Hort. C. B. Spei, 

Var. MINOR, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1530. C. B. Spei. 

*** Beilia, Kckl. Sumiles , floribus magnitudine mediocribus. 

11. W. punctata, Ker in Konig 8f Sims, Ann. i. 229. — Gladiolus 
punctatus. Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. i. 425.— G. bracteolatus. Lam. 






MB. J. G. baker's ststema iridacearum. 159 

Encj/. ii. 725, — Watsonia rubens, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1072 
Gladiolus rubens, Vahl, Enum, ii. 98. — Ixia punctata, Andr. Bot. Rep, 

t. 177. — Beilia triticea et spicata, EckL Top, Verz, 43, excl, syn. C, 
B, Spei. 

Var. Zeyheri, Baker. C. B. Spei, 


C. B, Spei, 

*### MiCRANTnas, Pers, Humiles^florilus minutis demissimis, 

spathce valvis margine late memhranaceis albis. 

12. W. SPICATA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 229. — Gladiolus spica- 

tus, Linn, Sp, Plant, i, 53, teste Ker, non Linn, herb, — G. tubulosus. 

Burnt, Prodr, 2. — G. fistulosus, Jacq. Hort. Schoen, t. 6. — Ixia fistu- 

losa, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 523. — Micranthus fistulosus, EckL Top, 

Verz, 44. — Ixia spicata, Soland.; Willd, Sp, Plant, i. 200. — I. cepa- 

cea. Bed. Lil. t, 96.— Gladiolus alopecuroides, herb. Linn, ex parte. 

I. alopecuroidea, Linn, Suppl, 92. — Gladiolus alopecuroideus, Pers, 
Syn, I. 46. C. B, Spei, 

t. W. PLANTAGINEA, Ker in Bat, Mag. t. 553. — Ixia plantaginea. 
Ait, Hort, Kew. i. 59; Red, Lil. t, 198. — Gladiolus plantagineus, 
Pers, Syn. i, 46. — Ixia triticea. Burnt, Prodr, 1. — Gladiolus triticeus, 
Thunb, Fl, Cap, i, 194. — Plialangium spicatum, Houtt. Handl, xii. 
t. 80. fig. 2. — Gladiolus alopecuroides, Linn. Sp. Plant, 54, ex parte. 
Micranthus plantagineus et alopecuroideus, EckL Verz, Top, 43. — 

W. compacta, Lodd. Bot, Cab. t. 
Var. JUNCEA, Baker, C, B. Spei. 

C. B. Spei. 

56. AciDAA'TUERA, Hochst. 

Hochst. in Regensb, Florae 1844, 25. — Sphaerospora, Klatt in 
LinnceUj xxxii. 275, non Sweet. — Solenantbus, Steud, MS8. teste 
Klatt, — G^ladioli et Ixise sp. auct, vet. 

Perianthiiim leviter irregulare, tube supra ovarium longe pro- 
ducto cylindrico leviter curvato medio baud dilatato, limbi seg- 
mentis subaequalibus oblongis vel oblanceolati?, inferioribus 
flore expanso magis patulis fauce saepe maculatis. Stamina 
3 ad faucem tubi unilateraliter inserta arcuata contigua, fila- 
mentis filiformibus, antberis angustis basifixis, interdum con- 
nectivo producto mucronatis. Ovaritim oblongum triloculare, 
ovulis in loculo crebris ; stilus filiformis ex tube protrusus, 
stigmatibus tribusparvis integris oblanceolatis. Capsula 'pavva 
oblonga membranacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus minutis 
globosisy testa membranacea brunnea, albumine corneo. Herhm 



hullosce capenses et africance tropicales hulhi tun lets memhrana- 
ceis velJihroso-reticuIatis^foHis paucis sitperpositis angiistisj can- 
libus teretihus scepissime simpUcihuSjJlorihttspaiccis Taxe spicafis, 
spathcB uniflorce valvis maynis lanceoJatis acutis viridibns inte- 
gris^interiorihus minoribus inclnsis^floribus magnitudine medio- 
cribus scepissime suberectis tubo longe producto. A Moutbrelia) 
speciebus paucis spatlics valvis magnis lanceolatis viridihus rece- 
dit peria7ithii tubo ad faucem cylindricOj segmentis magis cequa- 

* Perianthii tubus ex spatha longe exsertu^, 

L A. UNicoLOR, Hochst. in Sckimp. PL Abyss. No. 2304. — Trito- 
nia Schimperi, Aschers. Sf Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 697- Abyssinia. 

2. A. BicoLOR, Ilochst. in Regensh, Flora, 1844, 25 ; Bouche ^ Wittm, 
in Berlin, Monat. xix. 12, t.l. — Ixia Quartiniana, A, Rich. FL Abyss, ii. 
310. — Sphserospora gigantea, Klatt in Linncea, xxxiv. 699. Abyssinia. 

3. A. ^QUiNocTiALis, Baker. — Gladiolus sequinoctialis. Herb, in Bot, 
Reg. 1842, Misc. 97, Sierra Leone. 

4. A. BRACHYSTACiiYS, £aker in Trimen, Journ. 1B7G, 33S. C.B. 

5. A. GRAMiNiFOHA, Baker in Trimen, Joum, 18/6, 338. C. B. Spei. 

6. A. PLATYPETALA, Baker in Trimen, Joum. 18/6, 339. Natal. I 


Perianthii tubus ex spatha breviter exsertus 

7. A. HuTTONi, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 339. C. B.Spei. 

8. A. FLEXUOSA, BaA-er in Berlin Monat. xix. 15. — Gladiolus flexuosus, j 
Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 8, t. 1. fig. 1. — Sphserospora flexuosa, Klatt | 
in Linncea, xxxii. 726. C B. Spei. 

9. A. TUBULOSA, Baker. — Ixia tubulosa, Houtt. Handl. xii. t. 78. fig. 
2.— Gladiolus exscapus, Thunb. Flor. Cap. i. 175.— Sphserospora ex- 
scapa, Klatt in Linnaa, xxxii. 725. — Acidanthera exscapa. Baker in 
Berlin. Monat. xix. 15. — Gladiolus longiflorus, Linn. herb, ex parte. 
Freesia costata, Ecklon in herb. Zeyher. C. B. Spei. 


Perianthii tubus in spatha inclusus. 

10. A. BREVicoLUS Baker in Trimen, Joum. 1876, 339. C. B. Spei. 

MR. J. g.bakkk's systkma ihidaceauum. 161 


57. HoMOGLOSSUM, Salish, 

Salisb. in Trcms, H.ort. Soc. i. 325. — Gladioli ei Autholyzao sp. 

Perianthium leviter irregulare, tubo supra ovarium longeproducto 
curvato deorsuin filiformi sursum cylindrico, segmentis brevi- 
bus suba^qualibus vel Inferioribus miuoribus flore expanso 
inagis patulis. Stamina 3 ad basin tubi partis cylindriea) unila- 
teraliter inscrta, filamentis filiforinibus secundis contiguis ar- 
cuatis, antberis linearibua basi profuude sagittatis. Ovarium 
oblongum triloculare, ovulia In loculo crebris; stylus filiformi?, 
cum stamiuibus arcuatus, stigmatibus tribus brevibus integris 
apice cuneatis. Gapsulam maturam non vidi. Herbce elatce 
hulhoscB capenses^ hulbi tunicis in segmenta linearia sectis^ foliis 
angustissimis duris segregafis superpositis, floribus rubris mag- 
7iitudine mediocribiis dense vel laxe simpUciter spicatts, spath<^ 
luiijloris valvis lanceolatis integris brunneis vel viridibus. 

* Laxijlora. 

1. H. UEVOLuruiM, Baker. — Antholyza revoluta, Burm. Prodr, 1. — 
^ Watsonia revoluta, Pers, Syn. i. 42. — Gladiolus praecox, Avdr, Bot. 

Rep. t. 38. — Homoglossum prBecox, Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc* i. 
325. — Watsonia precox, Pers. Syn, i. 42.— Gladiolus Watsonius, 
Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 10 ; Jacq. Ic. t 233 ; Bot. Mag. t. 450 ; Red. 
LiL t. 369. — G. recurvus, Houtt. HandL xii. 59, t. 79. fig. 1. C. 
B. Spei. 

Var. Gawleri. — G. Watsonius, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 569. C. B. 

2. II. Meuianella, Baker. — Antholyza Merianella, Linn. Syst. Veg. 
xiv. 87, non Bot. Mag. t. 44 1. —Gladiolus Merianellus, Thunb. Diss. 
No. 1 1. — G. hirsutus, var. tenuiflorus, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 574. 

*^ — G. hirsutus, var. Merianellus, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 727. — Wat- 

sonia humilis, Pers. Syn. i. 42, non Miller. C. B. Spei. 


** Densiflorum. 

3. H. LuciDOR, jBaA;er.— Antholyza lucidor, Linn. Suppl. 96.— Watso- 
nia lucens, Pers. Syn. i. 42.— W. lucidior, Eckl. Verz. Topog. 36. 

C. B. Spei. 

58. Tbitoxia, Ker. 

Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 581 (1802); Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 227, ex 
parte ; Gen. Irid. 113, ex parte ; Klatt in Linncea, xxxii, 755, 

162 MR. J. G. baker's STSTEMA lEIDACEARUM. 


excl. sp. — Belemcanda, Moench^MetTi. 529, ex parte. — Dichone, 
"Laws.y^^ Salisb. in Trans, Sort. Soc, i. 320. — Crocosma, Planch. 
in Flore des Serres, t. 702. — Agretta, EckL Verz. Top. 23. — 
Waitzia, Reich. Conspect. 60, ex parte. 

Ferianthium subregulare late iiifundibulare, tubo supra ovarium 
brevi diinidio superiore obcouico vel ad faucem cylindrico, 
segmentis subaequalibus obtusis obovato- vel oblongo-spatbu- 
latis diu aseendentibus Imbricatis. Stamina ad faucem tubi 
inserta secundavel subsecunda, filamentis filiformibus, antheris 
contiguis vel divarieatis liuearibus vel oblongis. Ovarium ob- 
longum triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; styhis filiformis, ex 
tubo protrusus, stigmatibus tribus integris oblanceolatis falca- 
tis. Capsula parva oblonga trigibba membranacea loculicide 

trivalvis, seminibus minutis globosis, testa membranacea atra, 

albumine firmo. IIerh(jB graciles hulbosc^ capenses, hulbi tunicis 
Jihroso-reticulatiSy foliis multis lasalihtis Unearihus Jlahellafis, 

I furcatis^Jlorib 


tiore fricuspidafa, interiore emarginata^ perianthii limbo parvo 
vel magnitudine mediocri rubella^ croceo vel albido, segmentis 
alternis vel omnibns scepe fauce maculatis. Genus ad Ixieas 
arete accedens ; Eutritonia a Morphixia et Dichone ab Ixia^r^- 
sertim recedunt antheris plus minusve secundis. 

Sect. I. EuTEiToifiA. Grandijlorce^ perianthii tubo apice 


1. T. CROCATA, Ker in Konig ^ SimSy Ann. i. 227- — Ixia crocata, Linn, 
Sp. Plant, i, 52; Linn. Herb. !; Linn.fil. PL Rar. Hart. Ups. t. 7 ; 
Pot. Mag. t. 184. — Gladiolus crocatus, Wendl. Obs. Bot. t. 4. — Ixia 
iridifolia, Delaroche, Diss. 24 ; Miller, Ic. t. 239. fig. 2. C. B. ^ 

Var. T. PURPUREA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1275. — Ixia purpurea. Lam. 

Ency. iii. 341. C B.Spei. i 

Var. T. SANGUiNEA, EckL Verz. Top. 29. C. B. Spei. I 

Var. T. cocciNEA, Eckl Verz. Top. 29. C. B. Spei. 

Var. T, AURANTIACA, EckL Verz. Top. 29. C. B. Spei. 

2. T. MINIATA, ii^er in Bot. Mag. t. 609. — Ixia luiniata, Jacq. Hort. 
Schoen. t. 24. — I. crocata. Red. Lit. t. 335. C- B. Spei. 

3. T. DEUSTA, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 622.— Ixia deusta, Hort. 
jf^,t». i. 60.— I. miniata, Red. LiL t. 89.— I. gibba, Salisb. Prodr. 3S. 



L crocata, var. nigro-maculata, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 134, C. B, 

I 4. T. HYALiNA, Baker. — Ixia hyalina, Linn. f^uppL 91. — T. fencstrata, 

Jocq. Ic. t. 289.— Tritonia fenestrata, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 704. C. 
B. Spei. 

5. T. SCIUALIDA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 581. — Ixia squalida, Soland. in 
Ait. Hort. Kew. i 61, ex parte. — I. hyalina, Red. Lil. t.S7,nonLi?uu 

■I. similis, Salisb. Prodr. 38.— I. fenestrata, var., Jacq. Frag. t. 34. 
fig. 2. — I. lancea, Thunb. Diss. Ixia, No. 21, nan Jacq. C. B. Spei. 

6. T. BoLUsii, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 18/6, 337. C. B. Spei. 

Sect. II. DiCHONE. ParviJlorcB, perianthii tubo ad faucem cylin- 

drico^ genitalibus hreviius. 

7. T. UNDULATA, Baker. — Ixia undulata, Burm. Fl. Cap. 1 (1768). — I. 
crispa, Linn. SuppL 91 (1781) ; Thunb. Diss. Ixia, No. 8, t. 2. fig. 3 ; 
Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 599; Red. Lil. t. 433. — Dichone crispa. Laws. 

Cat. 6, teste Salisbury. — Agretta crispa, EckL Verz. Top. 24. C 
B. Spei. 

8. T. sciLLARis, Baker. — Ixia scillaris, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 52; Houtt. 
llandl. xi. t. 77- fig- 2; Red. Lil. t. 127.— I. pentandra, Linn. SvppL 
92.— Agretta pentandra, Eckl. Verz. Top. 29."IIesperantba pcntan- 
dra, herb. Drege.—Ixm reflexa, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 14 (I. rotata, 
Andr. Recens.). — I. retusa, Salisb. Prodr. 25.— I. polystachya, var. 
incamata, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 128.— I. polystachya, Jacg. Ic. t. 275; 
Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 629, non Linn. C. B. Spei. 

Sect. III. Ceocosma. Grandijlora, periantMi tuho adfaucem 

cylindrico^ genitaJilus ex tubo longe exsertis. 

9. T. aurea, Pappe, MSS.; Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 4335.— Crocosma 
aurea. Planch, in Flore des Serres, t. 702. Natalia, Kaffraria. 



59. Freesia, Klatt. 

Klatt in Linn<ea, xxxiv. 672 {non EcMon.Verz. Top. 30).— Gla- 
dioli sp., Jacq. Sfc. — Tritonise sp., Oawh Sfc. 

Pcrianthitim irregulare, tubo supra ovarium longe producto, 
dimidio inferiore cylindrico, dimidio superiore late infundibu- 
lar!, segmentis brevibus oblongle inaqualibus diu ascenden- 
tibus- Stamina 3 ad medium tubi unilateral iter iuserta secunda 
contigua, filamentis filiformibus, anthcris lincaribus inclusis 
basi sagittatis. Ovarium triloculare, ovnlia in loculo crebria ; 

164 MR. J. G. baker's systema iridaceauuat. 

stylus filiformis staminibus recjuilongus, apice ramis 6 stigma- 
tosis brevibus subulatis prgeditus. Capsula parva oblonga vel 


globosa trigibba membranacea loculicide trivalvis^ semiuibus 

minutis globosis. Serhce hidhoscs cajjenses, hiilhl timicis Jaxe 

Jibroso-reticulatis^foliis congestis grcnninoideis JlahcUaiis^ cauH- 

bus gracilihus teretihus profunde furcatis^ Jloribus in spicas se- 


Jloribus Ji 

Habitus omnino Montbretia?, sed recedit stigmatibiisfi 

1. F, R^FRACTAy Klatt in Linncca^ xxxiv. i^'JS. — Gladiolus rcfractus. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 241 ; Red, Lil, 419. — Tritonia refracta, Ker in Konig ^• 
Sims, Ann. i. 227 ; Bot. Reg. 135. — Gladiolus resuj)inatus, Pers. Syn. 
1,45, — G. Spavrmamii, Thunh. FL Cap, edit. 2, 49. — Tiitonia odorata, 
Lodd, Bot. Cab. t. 1820. — Freesia odorata, Klatt in Linn(ea, xxxiv. 

672.— Gladiolus xanthospilus, DC. in Red. Lil. t. 124. — Freesia 
xauthospila, Klatt, loc» cit, — Sparaxis Joubertii, EckL MSS, C. 
B. Spei. 

2. F. Leichtlinii, Klatt in Regel^ Gartenjl. t. 808. C J3. Spei. 

60, Babiana, Ker. 

Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 539 ; Gen. Irid. 140 ; Klatt in Linncca^ xxxii. 
765.— Acaste, SaKsb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 322. — Gladioli, 
Ixiae, et Autliolyzse sp, auct. vet. 

PerianfJiium irregulare vel subregulare, tube supra ovarium pro- 
ducto subrecto elongato vel brevi gracili apice infundibular!, 
lin)bi segmentis oblongo- vel oblanceolato-spathulatis suba?qua- 
libus vel supremo maximo coclileato, reliquis minoribus. Sta- 
mitia prope faueem tubi inserla secunda arcuata, filamentis fili- 
formibus brevibus vel elongatis, antheris linearibus basifixis. 
Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis 
cum staminibus arcuatiia ex tubo protrusus, stigmatibus tribus 
integris apice cuneatis. Capsula globosa trigibba coriacea 
loculicide trivalvis, semiuibus parvis turgidis, testa crassa car- 
nosa brunuea, albumine corneo. Ilerbce bulbosce capenses pilosce, 



obliqtce petiolatis jylicatis nervis validis percursis, cliulinis paiicis 
rediictis, Jloribus rubris imrpureis luteis vel albidis spicatisj 
spafhce xcnijloris valvis dense pilosis lanceolatis, interiore scepe 






Subgenus Eubabia^a. PeriantJiii limlus irregularis. 

* Tubus ex spaiha protrnsns, 

1. B. SAMBUCiNA, Ker in Konig <5' Sims, Ann. i. 234; Bot- May. t. 
lOiy. — Gladiolus sambucinus, Jacq. llort.Schoen. t. 15. C. B.Spei, 

2. B. SPATIIACEA, Ker in Koniy Sf Sims, Ann. i. 2^4 ; Bo/, Mag. 
t. 6*38. — Gladiolus spatluueus, Linn, SuppL 96. C. B, Spei. 

3. B. iiYi»oGii':A, Burchell, Travels, ii. 589. C. B. Spei, 

4. B. Baixesii, Baker in Trimen^Journ, 1876, 335. C. -C. Speiindi- 
tione Transvaal, 

5. B. DuEGEi, Baler in Trimen,Journ. 18/6, 336, C. B. S//fi. 

6. B. DisTicHA, Ker in Konig <^' Sims, Ann, i. 234; Bot, Mag, t. (j2G. 
Gladiolus plicatus, Jacq. Ic, t. 237, vix Linn. C, B. Spei, 

7. B. TUBATA, Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard, edit. ii. 500. — Gladiolus tuba- 


tus, Jacq. Ic, t. 264. —G. longiflorus, Andr. Bot. Rep, t. 5. — Babiana 
tubiflora, var. tubata, Ker, Bot, Mag, t. 680. — B. stricta, var. tubiflora, 
Ker, Gen.Irid, 151. C. B. Spei. 

8. B. TUBIFLORA, Ker in Konig cf- Sims, Ann. i. 233; Bot. Mag, t, 
3. 847 ct 1019.— Gladiolus tubiflorus, Linn, SuppLVG; Thunb, Diss, 

Glad. No. 23, t. 2. fig. 2 ; Jacq, Ic, i. 266. — G. angustifolius. Lam, 
111, i. 119.— G. inclinatus. Red. lAl, t. 44.—? Babiaua tubulosa, Ker, 
Gen. Irid. 154 (Ixia tubulosa. Barm, Prodr. 1). C. B, Spei, 

9. B. Thunbergii, Ker in Konig cf Sims, ^nn.i.233. — Autbolyza ])li- 
cata, Linn. Snppl, 96. C JB. Spei, 

** Tubus ex spalJia vix protrusus, 

10. B. Si'RENGELii, Baker. — B- pygmita, Spreng, in PI. Zeyher. C. 
B, Spei. 

11. B. PYGM^A, BaAer.— Ixia pygma'a, Burm, Prodr, Cap. 1 {Pluke- 
net, Phyt, 424, fig. 8.)— Babiana nana, Spreng. Syst, Veg. i. 156. 
Gladiolus nanus, ^n Jr. Bot. Rep. t. 137. C. B. Spei. 

12. B. FLABELUFOLiA, Ilaiv, MSS,; Klatt in Linnaa, xxxv. 380. 



13. B. CUNEIFOLIA, Baker in Trimen, Jcurn. 1876, 335. C. B. Spei. 

14. B. MUCKONATA, Ker in Aonig ^' StW, /l««.i. 233.— Gladiolus mu- 
cronatus, Jacq, Ic, t. 253. C. B. Spei. 

15. B. PLiCATA, Ker in Bot, Mag, t. 5/6.- Gladiolus i)licatu8, Thvnh, 
Diss, No. 24, ex rartc— G. fiagrnns, Jacq- llort. tchorn. \. 14.— B. 

166 MB. J. G. bakeb's ststema irtdacearum. 

reflexa, Ker, Gen. Irid, 154. — Gladiolus reflexus, Licht, in Roem.Sf 

SchuUes, Syst, Veg. i. 439. — B. caemlescens, Eckl. Verz. Top, 32. C 
B. Spei, 

16. B. FiMBRiATA, Baker, — Antholyza fimbriata, Klatt in Linncea, 

XXXV. 299. C. -B. Spei. 


t. 1006, — Antholyza ringens, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 54 {Commelin. Hort, 
Amsiel. i. t, 41), C. B. Spei. 

Subgenus A caste (Salisb.). Perianthii limhus siihregularis. 

18. B. STRICTA, Ker in BoL Mag. t. 621 et 637 - — Gladiolus strictus, 
Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 63. — G. plicatus, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 53, 
ex parte. — Ixia plicata, Linn. Amcun. Acad. iv. 300, ex parte.— Gladio- 
lus nervosus, Lam. Encyc. ii. 722. — G. inucronatus. Red. Lil. t- 142. 
C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. VI LLCS A, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 583. — Ixia villosa, Soland. in 
Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 58. — I. punicea, Jacij'. Tc. t. 287. — I. flabellifornils, 
Salisb. Prod. 37- — Gladiolus villosus, Vahly Enum. ii. 145. — G. puni- 
ceus, Vahly Enum. ii. 144. C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. RUBRO-cYANEA, Ker in Konig (§' SimSy Ann. i. 233.— Ixia 
rubro-cyanea, Jacq. Ic. t. 285; Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 410. — I. cyanea, 
Pers. Syn. i. 48. — Gladiolus rubrocyaneus, Vahly Enum. ii. 98.— B. 
rubro-caerulea, Reich. Exot. t. 30. C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. OBTUSiFOLiA, Ker in Konig 8f Sims, Ann. \. 233. — Ixia villosa, 
Jacq, Ic. t. 284, non Soland. — Gladiolus villosulus, Roem, 8f Schult. 
Syst. Veg. i, 444, C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. PURPUREA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1019. — Ixia purpurea, 
Jacq. Ic. t. 286 et 286 a. — B. stricta, var. purpurea, Ker in Bot. Mag. 
t. 1052. C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. SUL.PHUREA, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1019; Konig ^ SimSy 

Ann.i. 239; Bot. Mag. t. 1053. — Gladiolus sulphureus, Jacq. Ic. 
t. 239.— G. plicatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 268. C. B. Spei. 

Var. B. ANGUSTiFOLiA, Sweety Brit. Flow. Gard. edit. ii. 499.— B. 
stricta, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 637. — Ixia villosa, var., Jacq. Mag. 
22y t. 14. fig. 3, C. B. Spei. 

Species dubia, spathce valvis brevibus laceratis. 

19. B. SECUNDA, iiTer, Gen. Irid. 154.— Gladiolus secundus, Thunh. 
Prodr. ii. 186; Act. Soc. Hafn. ii. t. 4. C, B. Spei. 













MR. J. a. bakeb's ststema ibidaceakum. 167 

61. Melasph^bula, Ker. 

Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 615 (Jan. 1803); Gen. Irid. 157.— Diasia, 
DC. in Bull. Soc. Phil. 1803, 251 (1804); Klatt in Linncea, 
xxxii. 746. — Phalangium, Burm. Prodr. Cajp. 3, non Tourn. 

Top. 44. 


— Agla?a, EcHoUj Verz. 

I^erianthmm irregulsLTej tubo supra ovarium brevissimo campanu- 
lato, limbo bilabiato, segmentis tribus superioribus oblowgis 
acuminatis, tribus inferioribus longioribus angustioribus. Sta- 
mina 3 ad basin tubi uuilateraliter inserta secunda arcuata 
limbo triplo breviora, filamentis filiformibus parallelis, antberis 


parvis oblongis. 

in loculo paucis ; stylus filiformis cum staminibus arcuatus, 
stigmatibus tribus integris falcatis apice cuneatis. Capsula 
parva duplo latior quam longa profunde acute triquetra mem- 
branacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus in loculo paucis minu- 
tis globosis, testa nitida punctata atro-castanea, albumine duro. 





tegris acutis margine memhranaceis. 

1. M. GRAMiNEA, Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 615. — Gladiolus gramineus, 

Linn. Suppl 95, eoccl. syn, ; Jacq. Ic. t. 236; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 62. 

G. ramosus, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 53. — Phalangium ramosum, Burm. 

Prodr. Cap, 3, excl. syn. — Agla^a graminea, Eckl. Verz. Top. 44. 

Diasia iridifolia, DC. in Red. LiL t. 54. — D. graminifolia, DC. in Red. 

LiL t. 163.— Melasph^erula parviflora, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1444.— M. 

intermedia et iridifolia. Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 502.— Asphodelus 

foliis planis caule ramose floribus sparsis, Miller^ Ic. 38, t. 56, C 
jB. Spei. 

62. ]Vro>'TBRETIA, DO. 

C. in jBuU. Philom. 1803, 251 ; Klatt in Linneea, xxxii. 752 
(extens,), — Houttuynia, Hoictt. Handl. xii. 448, t. 85, non Thunh. 


Ker in Konig & 



60, ex parte. 

Perianthium irregulare, tubo supra ovarium longe vel breviter 
producto deorsum cjlindrico sursum oblique late infundibular!, 


segineutis brevibus oblongls insequalibuSj superiore majoro, 
tribus inferioribus minoribus basi maculatis vel iuterdum callo 
producto instructls. Stamina ad basin tubi partis infuadibvi- 
laris unilateraliter inserta secunda arcuata coutigua, filamentis 
filiformibus, autberis linearibus basifixis. Ovarium triloculare, 
ovulis in loculo crebris ; stylus filiformis cum staminibus ar- 
cuatus, ramis stigmatosis tribus oblauceolatis integris falcatis. 
Capsula parva oblonga trigibba membranacealoculicide trivalvis, 
semiuibus minutis globosis, testa bmunea membranacea, albu- 
mine corueo. Herhce hulbosce capenses {species unica africana 
tropicalis) hulbi tunicis memhranaceis velJibroso-reticidatis,foliis 
couffcstis linearibus graminoideis JlabellatiSy florihus spicatis^ 
spatlicB valvis s<£pe parvis ohloncfis apice sphacelatis dentatis^ in- 
terdum majorihus integris lanceolatis^ periantliii Umbo pallido 
vel rubella. 

* HorTTUTXiA. Spathce valvce lanceolatce acuta integrae. 

1, M. CAPEXSis, Baker. — Ilouttuynia capensis> Houtt. Handh xii. 
44S, tab. 85. fig. 3. — Tritonia capensis, Ker in Konig Sf Sims, Ann. 
I 228; Bot. Mag. tab. 618, 1531.~Gladiolus roseus, Jacy. Ic. t. 
261. — Tritonia rosea, Dry. in Hort. Kew, edit, ii, 191. — Gladiolus 
ixioides, Thunb. FL Cap. i. 208. C B. Spti. 

2. M. I'AuciFLORA, Baker in Trimen, Journ, 1876, 336. C. B. Spei. 

** EuMOiSTTBRETiA. SpatJiiB vulvce oblongcB apice spliacellatcd 



t Longicolles, 

3. M. LACERATA, Baker. — Gladiolus laceratus, Burm, Prodr. Cap. 2. 
— Gladiolus crispus, Linn. Suppl. 94 ; Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 7, 
tab. l.fig. 2} Jac. Ic. t. 267; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 142.— Tritonia 
crispa, Ker in Konig ^- Sims, Ann. i. 228 ; Bot. Mag. t. 678.— Frcesia 
crispa, EckL Verz, Top. 30. C. B. Spei. 

Var. PECTINATA, Baker. — Gladiolus peetinatus,SoZa«c?. in Herb. Banks. 
Ixia pectinata, Vahl,Enum. ii. 62. — Tritonia pectinata, Ker tn Bot. 
Mag. sub t, 1275. C. B. Spei. 

4. M. STRIATA, jBaA^r.— Gladiolus striatus, Soland. in Herb. Banks. 
C. B. Spei. 

5. M. PALLIDA, Baker, — Tritonia pallida, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub 1. 1275. 
— Gladiolus lungiflorus, Jacq. Ic. t. 262, non Linn. C. B. Spei. 






6. M. viiuDis, J5^/ter.— Gladiolus viridis, Soland. in Ait. Jlort. Kew. 
iii. 481.— Tritonia viridis, Ker in Bot. Mog, t. 12/5. C. B. Spei. 

tt Brevicolles, 

7. M. SKCURiGERA, DC. in Red, Lil. t. 5:i— Gladiolus securiger, Ait, 
Hort. Kew. i. 65; Bot. Mag, t. 38.3.— Ixia gladiolaris, Lam, Encyc. 
iii. 341.— Tritonia securigera, Ker in Konig ^^ Sims, Ann. i. 228. C 
B. Spei. 

8. M. FLAVA, Klattin Linntea, xxxli. 753.— Gladiolus flavus. Ait. Hort 

Kew. i. 65. —Tritonia flava, Ker in Konig ^' Sims, Ann, i. 228 ; Bot 
Reg. t. 747. — Gladiolus securiger, var. flavus, Pers. Syn. \, 45. — Ixi 
flabellularis, Vahl, Enum, ii. 67. C J5. Spei, 

9. M. UNEATA, BaJcer, — Gladiolus lineatus, Salisb, Prod, 40; Bot. 
Mag, t. 487 ; Red. Lil. t. 55 et 400. — Tritonia lineata, Ker in Konig 
^- Sims, Ann, i. 228. — Gladiolus venosus, Willd, Emim, i. 58. — Ixia 
squalida, Thunh. Fl. Cap, i. 224, ex parte. — I. reticulata, Thunh, Fl, 
Cap, edit, .i, 60. — T. Thunbergii, Roem. <§' Schult, Syst, Veg. i. 391. 
C. B, Spei, 

10. M. ROSEA, BaJcer, — Tritonia rosea, Klatt in Linncca, xxxil. 760. 
C. B, Spei, 

11. M. nuniA, Balcer, — Tritonia duhia, J?cHow, MSS.-, Klattin Linncea, 
xxxii 7fil. C, B. Spei. 

12. M. STRiCTiFOLiA, Klatt in Linn^a, xxxii. 753. C. B, Spei, 

13. M. hAK.iFOi.iA, Klatt in Linn(ea,xxxn- 7^4; Baker in Trans, Linn. 
Soc, xxix. 155, t, 101 A. C. B. Speiy Africa fpquatorialis orientalis. 

14. M. KAMiSBERGExsis, Baker. — Tritonia kamishergensis, Klatt in 
Linncea, xxxii. 760. C. B, Spei, 

63. Synnottia, Sweet, 

Sweet, Brit. Flow, Gard, t. 150; Klatt in Linn(ra, xxxii. 749. 
Sparaxidis sp., Ker, — Gladioli sp., Thiinl, <5' Jacq. 

Perianthium irregulare, tubo supra ovarium louge producto, di- 
midio inferiore gracili cjlindrico, medio genieulato, diniidio 
superiore oblique late infundibulari, segmentis oblongis ina?qua- 
libus?, superiore majore, tribus inferioribus minoribus flore 
exnanso falcatis. Stamina ad medium tubi inserta secunda 
contigua arcuata, filameutis filiformibua, antbcris linearibus 
basi sasittatis. Ovarium oblongum triloculare, ovulis in loculo 

170 MR. J. G. baker's system:a iridacearum. 

crebris ; stylus filiformis Btaraiuibus aequilongus, stigmatibus 
tribus oblanceolatis integris falcatis. CapsuJa parva oblonga 
trigibba merabranacea loculicide trivalvis, seminibus minutis 
globosis. Herhcd hulbosce eapenses, hulhi tunicis foveolatis^ foliis 
congestis loratis memhranaceis Jtahellatis, Jlorihus paucis laxe 
spicati$,spatTi(B valvis ohloiigo -navicular thus memhranaceis palli- 
dis striis hrunneis deeoratis, apice laceratis^ Jlorihus versi- 

1. S. BicoLOR, Sweety Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 501. — Gladiolus bicolor, 
Thnnb. Diss. Glad. No. 16, t. 2. fig. 1 ; Jacq. Ic. t. 240,— Sparaxis bi- 
color, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann, i. 225. — Ixia bicolor, Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 548. C. B. Spei, 

2. S. GALE ATA, Swctt, Hovt, Brit. edit. ii. 501. — Gladiolus galeatus, 
Jacq, Ic. t. 258. — Sparaxis galeata, Ker in Konig ^' SimSy Ann. i. 
225. C. B. Spei. 

3. S. VARIEGATA, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 150, — Sparaxis luteo- 
violacea, Eckl. Verz. Top. 27.— S. Wattii, Harv. MSS. C. B. Spei. 

64, Gladiolus, Tourn. 




Eclclon^ Topog. Verz. 41. — Sphserospora, Sweety Brit. Flow. 
Gard. edit, ii, 501, non Klatt. — Scbweiggera, Meyer in Tierh. 
Drege^ non Mart. — Symphyodolon, Ballosporum, Ophiolyza, 
Hyptissa, et Eanisia, Salish. Gen. 142-3. 


Perianthium irregulare, tubo supra ovarium producto curvato in- 
fundibulari, e basi ad faucem sensim ampliato, segmeutis inae- 
qualibus tubo sequilongis vel longioribus oblongo- vel obovato- 
spathulatis vel unguiculatis, supremo maximo recto dorso con- 
vexo, inferioribus minoribus flore expanse falcatis fauce ssepis- 
sime maculatis. Stamina 3, prope faucem tubi unilateraliter 
inserta, filamentis filiformibus arcuatis, antberis linearibus 


basifixis parallelis rectis. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in loculo 
crebris ; stylus filiformis cum staminibus arcuatus, stigmatibus 
tribus integris oblanceolatis. Capsula obovoidea chartacea 
loculicide trivalvis, seminibus ssepissime discoideis late alatis, 
testa tenui, interdum globosis exalatis, testa crassiore mucosa 
castanea, albumine corneo. Serhce elates hulbosce capenses^ 
qfricance tropicales^ mediterranece et orientales. hulbi tunicis 



MR. J. G. baker's ststema iridacearum. 171 

membranaceis hrunneiSj caule elato simpUci vel ramoso, foliis 
paucis supcTyositisJirmis ensiformibus vel linearibus scepissime gla- 
hris, Jlo7nhus magnis spicatis scepissime rubro-purpureiSy spathce 
unijloris valvis integris scepissime magnis lanceolatis viridibtis. 

Subgenus I, EuaLADioLus. Ferianthii segmenta oblongo- vel 


* Species mediterranece et orientales, 

t Semina discoidea alata, 

1. G. BYZANTiNUS {BauMu, Pinax, 4\); Miller, Gard. Diet, edit. vi. 
No. 3 ; Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 874 ; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 643, Regio me- 



1575 ; Red. LiL t. 267 ; Reich. Ic. Crit, tab. 598 ; FL Germ. tab. 
349. fig. 777-. Regio mediterranea. 

A^ar. G, Notarisii, Pari, FL ItaL iii. 259. Liguria. 

3. G. imbricatus, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 52; M. B. Cent. Ross. t. 60; 

Reich. Ic. Crit. tab. 599; FL Germ. tab. 350. fig. 778.— G. rossicus, 

Pers. Syn. i. 46.— G. tenuis, M. Bieb. FL Taur. Cauc. i. 29.— G. 

galiciensis, Besser^ FL Galic. i. 51.— G. neglectus, Schult. Obs. 14. 

Europa centralis orientalisy Caucasus, Persia borealis. 
Vflr. O rnTSDiTi'T ouFTc TT^'rhfirf in 'Rnt. Ren. 28. Misc. 65. Rossia 




Var.? LiBANOTicus, Boiss. Diagn. ser. ii. 4, 92. Syria. 


Reich. Ic. FL Germ. t. 352. fig. 780; Syme in Seem. Journ. Bot. I 
t. 4 ; Eng. Bot. edit. iii. t. 1493. Anglia, Europa meridionalis. 
Var. G. Reuteri, Boiss. PugilL 113.— G. serotinus, B^e/w. Exsic. 




G. Boucheanus, Linnaa, vii. 488.— G. palustris, /)»>/rtcA, Fl. Boruss. 
t. 13. Europa centralis. 


7t. Mag. t. 719; Sturm. FL Germ. xix. 
600; Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 353. fig. 781.— G. 

172 Mn. J. a. p.A.KKFt's ststema niiuiCKAUUM:. 

communis, Linn., ex parte; Sibth. ^- Smtli, FL Grcec, t. 37. —(5. ita- 
licus, Gaud. FL Helv. l 96, — G. dubius, Guss. Prodr. StippL S. — G. 
infestus, Bianca in Att. Catan, xix. 94. — G. tenuiflorus, K. Koch in 
Linncea, xxi. 636. — Sphserospora imbricata, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard, 


edit. ii. 501, ex parte. Re^io mediterranea. 

Var. G, coMMUTATUS, Bouche, Regio mediterranea, 

Var. G. LuDOViC-^; Jan, Elench. i. Italia, Gallia meridionalis. 

Var. G. ixARiMEXSis, Gussone, Enian, PL Inarinim, 326, t. 14. 

Var. G. GcJEPiNT, Koch in Flora, 1840, 466. Gallia. 

Var. G. cAUCAsicus, Herbert in Bot. Reg, xxviii. Misc. 65. Caucasus 

7. G. KoTSCHYANus, Boiss. Diag. xiii. 15, Persia, 

8. G. ALEPPicus, Boiss. Diag* xhi. 13, Asia minora Syria, 


Species minus cognitce seminihus milii ignotis 

9. G. sPATHACEUSj Parl.FL ItaL iii. 262, Sicilia. 

10. G. TUiPiiYLLUS, Sibth. in Flora Grceca, t. 3S. — Sphrerospora tn- 
phylla. Sweet, Brit, Flow, Gard. edit. ii. 501. Cyprus. 

11. G. PERSIC us, Boiss. Diagn. vii. 102. Persia, 

12. G. HALOPHiLus, Boiss. Diag. xiL 14, Asia minor. 

13. G. ATROvioLACEU.s, Boiss. Diag. xiu, 14. Persia. 


14. G. PKTRMus, Boiss. 4* Huet in Huet FL Armen. Exsic. Armenia, 



t Angustifolii, perianthii segmentis ohlongo-spathulatis acutis, 

15. G. TRiSTis, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 53, ex parte; Bot. Mag. t- 272; 
Jacq. Ic. t. 243 ; Red. Lit. t. 35 ; Ref, Bot. t, 23 ; Miller, Tc. t. 235. 
fig. 1. — G. spiralis, Pers, Syn. i. 43. C. B. Spei. 

Var. G. coNCOLOR, Salisb. Parad. 1. 18 ; Bot. Mag, 1. 1098. C B. Spei. 

16. G. GRANDis, Thunb. FL Cap. i. 186.— G. tristis, var. grandis, 
Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 8.— G. tristis, Linn, herb., ex parte !—G. 
versicolor, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 1.9; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1042. — G. 
versicolor, var. major, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 556. C. B. Spei. 

Var. G. L^vis, Thunb. Prodr. ii. 184. — G. versicolor, var. binervis, Ker 
in Bot. Mag. sub t. 1042. C, B, Spei, 

Var. G. ELONGATUS, Thunb, Prodr. ii. 185. — G. pterophyllus, P^rs. 
Syn. i. 43. — G. versicolor, var. longifolius, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub t. 
556. — G. tristis, var., Jacq. Ic. t. 244. C, B. Spei, 




MR. J. a. baker'^s ststema irtdaceauum. 173 

Var. suAVEOLENS, KeVy Gen, Irid, WiG. — G. versicolor, var. tenuior, 
Ker in Bot. Mag, sub t. 566. C, B, Spei. 

17. G. RECURVUS, Linn, Mant, 28; Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 5/8. — G. cari- 
natus, Soland. in Ait. Hurt, Kew, i. 64. — G. punctntus, Jacq. Ic. t. 
247.— G. ringens, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 27 et 227 ; Red. Lil, t. 123. 
G. maculatus, Sweet; Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 708. — G. odoFus, 
Salish. Prodr. 40, — G. violaceus, Pers. Syn, i. 43. — Watsonia recurva, 
Pers. Syn, i. 43.— G. tristis, var. punctatus, Thunb. Diss. No. 8. — G. 
Breynianus, Ker, Gen. Irid, 135; Miller, Ic. 157, t. 235. fig, 2. 
C\ B, Spei. 

18. G. LONGicoLLis, Baker in Trimen's Journ, 1876, 182. Kaffraria. 

19. G. gracilis, Jacq. Ic, 246 ; Red. Lil. t, 425 ; Ker in Bot. Mag. 
t. 562. — G. setifolius, EckL Topog. Verz, 37.— G. spilanthus, Spreng. 
in herb. Zeyher. C. B, Spei. 

20. G, Lambda, Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 708. C. B. Spei. 

21. G. TRicHONEMiFOLius, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. \483. — Ixiaspathacea, 
Soland. in herb. Banks. C, B. Spei, 

22. G, Thunbergh, Eckl. Top. Verz. 37- C. B. Spei. J 

23. G. PUBESCENS, Baker in Trimen^s Journ. 1876, 333, Kaffraria 

> 24. G. ANGUSTUS, Linn, Sp. Plant. 55 ; Linn., herb,, ex parte ! ; Hort. 

Cliff. 20, t. 6; Jacq, Id, 252; Aiidr. Rep. t 589; Red. Lil. t. 344, 
G, undulatus, Jacq, Ic. t, 251 ? non t 257. — G, trimaculatus, Lam, 
III. i. 116. t. 32. fig. 3.— G. cordatus, Thunb. Prodr. ii, 185, C. B. 
Spei, Africa tropicalis orientalis, 

25, G. cuspiDATUS, Jacq. Ic. t, 257 ; Ker in Bol. Mag. t, 582.— G. 

angustus, Linn, herb, ex parte. 


t. 219. — G. cuspidatus, var. longiflorus. Red. Lil. t. 136. — G. undu- 
latus, Linn. Mant. 27, ex parte. — G. affinis, Pers. Syn. i. 45. C. 
B. Spei. 

Var. G. VENTRicosus, Lam. Ency. ii. 7'2T. — G. cuspidatus, Andr^ Bot. 
Rep. t. 147 ; Red. lAl. t. 36.— G. carneus, Jacq. Ic. t. 255; Ker in 
Bot. Mag, t. 591, non Delaroche.—G. cuspidatus, var. breviflorus. 

Ldnneea, xxxii. 721. C. B. Spei. 


G. vomerculus, Ker, Gen. Irid. 142.— G. tigrinus, Ecklon, MSS 
C. B. Spei. 

ft Angustifolii, perianthii segmentis obovato-spathulatis obturis vel 


. 27. G. BREviFOLius, Jacq. Frag. iii. 12, tab. 2. fig. 1 ; Ic. t. 249, 


174 MR. J. G. baker's STSTEMA IRTDACEARTT^r. 

G. carneus, Andr. Bot, Rep. t. 240, non Delaroche. — G. hirsutus, var. 
brevifolius, Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 7^27* — G. hirsutus, var. aphyllus, Ker 
in Bot. Mag. t. 992. — G. aphyllus, Ker, Gen, Irid. 134. — G. tristis, 
Thunh. Diss. No. 8, ex parte. C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. OrtOBANcHE, Red. Lil. t. 125. C, B. Spei. 

28. G. VXLLOSUS, Ker^ Gen, Irid. 133. — G. hirsutus, var., Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 823. — G hirsutus, var. villosiusculus, Ker in Bot. Mag. sub 
t. 727. — G. villosiusculus, Soland. in herb. Banks. — G. laccatus, 
Thunb. FL Cap. edit. ii. 45, excl. syn. Jacq. — G. pilosus, Eckl. Top, 
Verz. 38. C. B. Spei, 

29. G. cocHLEATUs, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 140. C, B, 

30. G. DEBiLTSj Ker in Bot. Mag, t. 2585. — Geissorhiza albens, E. 
Meyer in herb. Drege, C. B. Spei. 

31. G. STRiATus, Jacq, Ic. t. 260. — Tritonia striata, Ker in Konig 8f 
Sims, Ann. i. 228. C, B. Spei. 

32. G. TENELLUs, Jacq. tc. t. 248 ; Schneevoght, Ic. t. 40. — G. tristis, 
varr. humilis et luteus, Thunb. Diss. No. 8. C. B. Spei. 

33. G. TENUIS, Baker in Trimen^s Journ. 1876, 335. C. B. Spei. 

34. G. INFLATUS, Thunb. Prodr. ii. 185.— G. ringens, Eckl. Top. Verz. 
37, non Redouts. C. B. Spei. 


35. G. iNVOLUTus, Delaroche, Diss. 28, t. 3, — G. bimaculatus. Lam. 
Ency. ii. 727; Miller. Icones, 158, tab. 236. fig. 1. C. B. Spei. 

3G. G. ATROPURPUREus, Baker in Trimen, Journ. 1876, 335, Terra 
jluminis Zambesi. 

37- G. CCERULESCENS, Baker. Angola, 

38. G. LURiDUS, Welw, herb. Angola. 

39. G. BREViCAULis, Baker. Angola. 

40. G. LAXiFLORus, Baier. Angola. 

41. G. GREGARius, Welw. herb. Angola. 

42. G. BENGUELLENSis, Baker. Angola. 

43. G. HYALiN us, Jacg. Jc. t. 242. — G. strictus, Jacq. ColL iv. 170. 
C. B, Spei, 

44. G. viTTATUs, Hornem. Hort. Hafn, ii. 950. — G. fasciatus, Roem. 
^ Schultes, Syst. Veg. \. 429.— G. undulatus, Schneev, Icon, t 19. 
G. undulatus, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 538. C, B. Spei. 

46. G. SALTATORUM, Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxix. 155. Africa 
tropicalis orientalis. 










MR. J. G. bakkr's systema tuibacearum. 175 

4(i. G. coHNEUs, Oliver in '^f'rans, Linn, Soc, xxix. 155, tab. 100. fig. 1. 
Africa tropicalis orientalis\ 

47. G. Newii, Baker i?i Trimen^s Journ. 187(), 334. Regio temperata 
montis Kilijnanjaro, 

48. G. IGNESCENS, Bojer, MSS, ; Baker in Trimens Journ. IBJfi, 334. 

49. G. Melleri, Baker in Trirnen's Journ. 187(!, 334. la ditione fin- 

b ■ 

mints Zambesi. 

50. G. Welwitschii, Baker. Angola. 

ttt Latifolii, 

51. G. PURPUREo-AURATUs, Hook.fiL in Hot. Mag. t. 5944. Natalia. 

52. G. ocHROLEucus, Baker in Trimen's Journ. 1876, 182. Kaffraria 

53. G. CRAssiFOLius, Bflier in Trimen^s Journ. 1876, 334. Natal, 
Orange Free State, Faku territory, Transvaal. 

54. G. EcKLONi, Lehm.; Klatt in Linna^a, xxxii. 712.— Neuberia lon- 
gifolia, EckL Topog, Verz. 37.~Gladio]us carneus, Klatt in Linnaa, 
xxxii, 722, non Delaroche. C. B. Spei, Natal, Kaffraria, Orange 

Free State. 

Mag. t. 5427.— Autholyza hir- 

suta, Klatt in Linn<sa, xxxv. 379. C. B. Spei. 

Var. G. LuDWiGii, Pappe. C. B. S^jei, iSTafa/, Orange Free State. 

56. G. spiCATus, Klatt in Linnma, xxxv. 377, non Linn. Guinea. 

57. G. Papilio, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 5565. C. B. S^jef, Natal, Orange 
Free State. 

58. G. MULTIPLORUS, Baker. Angola. 

69. G. BLANDus, Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 64 ; Ker in Bot. Mag. 

t. 625. — G. angustus, Linn, herb., ex parte. C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. CAMPANULATUs, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 188.— G. blandus, var., 

Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 645. — G. blandus, var. purpureo- albescens, Klatt 

in Linncea, xxxii. 718. — G. blandus, var. campanulatus, Ker, Gen. 

Irid. 140. C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. CARNEUS, Delaroche, Diss. 30, t. 4. C. B. Spei. 
Var. ExcELsuSj Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1665. — G. excelsus, Sweet, Brit. 

Flow. Gard. edit. 2, 501. C. B. Spei. 
Var. G. ALBiDus, Jacq. Ic. t. 256. — G. blandus, var. albidus, /iTcr, Gen. 

Irid. 140.— G. blandus, var. niveus, Ker in Bot. Stag. t. 648.— G. 

blandus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 99. — G. carneus, var., Red. Lil. t. 377- 

C. B. Spei. 
Var. ?G. GuKiNZii, Kunze in Linmea, xx- 14. C. B. Spei. 


176 MR. J. G. baker's ststema ieidaceakum. 

60. G, opposiTiFLOBUs, Herbert inBot, Reg, 1842, Misc. 98, Ma* 

61. G. MoRTONiANUs^ Herbert in Bot. Mag. t. 3860. C. B, SpeL 

62. G. FLORiBUNDus, Jacq. Ic. t. 254; Ker in Bot, Mag. t. 610. — G. 
grandiflorus, Andr.Bot. Rep. t. 118. C B. Spei. 

63. G. MiLLERi, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 632. — Antholyza spicata^ 3Iilkr, 
Gard. Diet. edit. 6, No. 2 (Icones, 2/, t. 40). C. B. Spei. 

64. G. UNDULATUS, Jacq. Ic. t. 254; Red. Lil. t. 122; Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 647. — G. striatus, Andr, Bot. Rep. t. 111. — G. angustus, Linn. 
Tierb.y ex parte ! C, B. Spei, 

65. G. HiRSUTus, Jacg. Ic. t. 250; Red. Lil. t. 278. — G. roseus, Andr. 
Bot. Rep. t. 11. — G. hirsutus, var. roseus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 574. 
G. ambiguus, Roem. ^ Sckult, Syst. Veg, \. 446. — G. mucronatus. 
Lam. III. i. 119. C B, Spei. 








66. G. CARDiNALis, Cwr^ Bot. Mag. t. 135 ; Schneev. Ic. t 27 ; Red. 
Lil t. 122; Kerner^ Hort. t. 19,— G. speciosus, Eckl. Topog. Verz, 
41, non Thunb. C. B. Spei. 

67. G. CRUENTUS, Moore in Gard. Chron. 1868, 1139; Hooh.fil. in ^, 
Bot. Mag. t, 5810. Natal. 

68. G. SPLENDENS, Balcer in Trimen^s Journ. 1876, 333. C. B, Spei. 


69. G. PSiTTAciNUS, HooJc. in Bot. Mag. t. 3032 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1442; 
Reich. Exot. t, 116.— G. natalensis, Reinw.-, Lodd.Bot. Cab.t. 1756; 
Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 281,— Watsonia natalensis, Eckl. 
Topog. Verz. 34, Natal, C. B. Spei, Transvaal, Africa tropicalis 

70. G. CooPERT, BaTcer in Bot. Mag. t. 6002. Natal, C. B. SpeL 

71. G. Saundersii, Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5873. C. B. Spei. *j 

72. G. ANGOLENSis, Wclw. herb. Angola. 

73. G, DECORATus, Baker in Trimen^s Joum. 1876, 333. Terra fu- 
minis Zambesi. 

74. G., Hook.fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5884. Natal. 

75. G. AURANTiACUS, Klatt in Linn, xxxv, 378. Natal. 

76. G. QuARTiNiANUS, A. Rich. Fl. Abyss, ii. 307. — G. Schimperia- 
nus, Steud. MSS. Abyssinia, terra fluminis Zambesi, Angola, Ma- 
dag ascaria 1 

'JT . G. ANDONGENSis, Welw. herb, Angola. 






Formse notabiliores hortenses Lybridse EugladioU sunt (cf. Her- 
bert in Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 89) : 

G. Gandavensis, Van Houtte, Cat. 1844; Flore des Serves, March 
1846, t, 1 ; Paxt, Mag. xi. 2/. Inter psittacinum et cardinalem, fide 
Van Houtte ; inter psittacinum et oppositijlorum, fide Herbert. 

G. BRENCHLEYENSis, Hort., ad gandavensem accedens. 

197. Inter G, tristem et cardinalem 


G. RAMOS us, Paxt, Mag. vi. 99. Inter cardinalem et oppositiflorum, 

G. PUDiBUNDus, Sweet, Brit. Flow. Card, ser. ii. t. 176; Paxt. Mag. 
Bot. ii. 197. Inter blandum et cardinalem. 

G. Spofforthianus, Herb. Inter blandum et cardinalem, 
G. MiTCHAMiENSis, Herb. Inter tristem et blandum. 
G. RiGiDus, HerS. Inter tristem et blandum. 
G. PROPiNauus, Herb. Inter floribundum et blandum. 

G. FRAGRANS, Herb, Inter recurvum et tristem. 

G. IIaylockianus, fferS. Inter versicolorem et blandum, 

G. Hrrbertianus, G. Do». Inter tristem et Spofforthianum. 

G. ODORATXJSj HerJ. Inter hirsutitm et Spofforthianum. 

G. DELiCATUS, Herb. Inter recurvum et blandum. 

G. CANDiDUS, HerS. Inter cardinalem et blandum. 

G. iNCARNATus, i/or^ Inter cardinalem et blandum, 

G. "VTiLLMOREANUS, F/ore c?e5 Serves, t. 639. Inter floribundum et 

Subgenus II. Hebea. Segmenta j)eriant7iii rofundaio-rJiomloidea 
vel obovata^ omnia distincte unguiculata. SpatJice vahce virides 

^* 78. G. ALATUS, Lmn. Sp. Plant. 53 ; ^wdr. J5o/. Rep. t. 8 ; Bo^ Mag. t. 

586.— Hebea alata, EcA:/. Topog. Verz. 42.— Gladiolus speciosus, 
Thunb. Prodr. i. 196.— G. papilionaccus, Licht. in Roem. Sf Schultes, 
Syst.Veg,\. 408,— UeheagBletit^yEckL Topog. Verz.Al. C.S.Spei. 
Var. G. NAMAQUENSis, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 592.— G. galeatus, Andr. 
Bat. Rep, t. 122.— G. equitans, Thunb. Fl. Cap. 192; Act. Soc. Hafn. 
vi. t. 2. C. B. Spei. 

79. G. ORCHiDiFLORUS, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 241.- G. alatus, Jacq. Ic. 
t. 259, non Linn,—G. alatus, Thunb. Diss. No. 15, ex parte— G. 
' viperatus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 688; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 156. 
G. virescens, Thtmb. FL Cap. i. 196. C B. Spei. 



80. G. PERMEABiLis, Delavoche, Diss. 27, t. 2.— G, dichotomus,TAwwi. 

Dm. No. 6. — G. edulis, Burchell; Ker in JBot. Reg. t. 169.— G. i 

Dregei, Klatt in Linncea^ xxxii. 693.— Ilebea Zeyheri, Ecklon, Topog. 
Verz. 42. C. B. Spei. 

81. G. PULCHELLUS, Klatt in Linmjea, xxxii. 693.— Hebea pulchella, 
Ecklon, MSS. C. B. Spei. 

82. G. FORMosus, Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 692. — Hebea formosa, EckL 
Topog. Verz. 42. C. J3. Spei. 

S3. G. BicoLOR, Baker.— Heheh bicolor, EckL Topog. Verz. 42. 
Gladiolus luteus, Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 694, ex parte. C. B. Spei 

84. G, LUTEUS, Lam. Encyc. ii. 725. Madagascarla. 


85. G. UNGUicuLATus, Baker. — G. cochleatus, Baker inTrimen, Journ 

1876, 333, non Sweet. Sierra Leone. 

Subgenus III. ScnwEiaaERA, E. Meyer, Parviflori^ segmeiitis 
omnihus ohovatis vel ohlongis longe U7iguiculatis, Spathce valvcB 
parvce hrunnece rigiduke. 

86. G. MONTANus, Linn. SuppL9o; Thunb. Diss. Glad. No. 1, tab. 

1. fig. 4. — Antbolyza inoiitana, Ker in Kdnig Sf Sims, Ann. i. 233; #r_ 

Lodd. Bat. Cab. t. 1022.^G. parviflorus, Jacq. Obs. iv. 2, t. 78.— G. 
tabularis, FckL Topog. Verz. 43.— Schvveiggera nemorosa, E. Meyer j 

in herb. Drege. C. B. Spei. 
Var. RAMosus.— Ilebea ramosa, -EcA:Z. Top. Verz. 43. — Antholyza ra- 
niosa, Klatt in Linncea, xxxii. 734. C. B. Spei. 

87. G. ARENARius, Baker .—II thitdi oichidiflora, EckL Top. Verz. A3, 
sed non Gladiolus orchidiflorus, Andr. — Antholyza orchidiflora, Klatt 
%n Linncea, xxxv. 733.— Schweiggera moutana, E. Meyer in herb. 
Drege. C. B. Spei. 

65. ANTHOLYZA, Linn. 

Liiin. Gen. No. 58 {excl. sp.)\ Ker^ Gen. Irid. 154; Klatt in 
Linncea, xxxii. 729. — Cunonia, Miller, Diet, edit. vi. — Peta- 
menes, Salish. in Trans. Hart. Soc. i. 32i. — Amsv^uth as, Sweety 
£rif. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 84. 

Perianthium valde irregulare, tubo supra ovarium longe producfco 
curvato deorsum filiformi sursum cyliadrico, segmentis valde in- 
aequalibus oblanceolato- vel oblongo-spathulatig, supremo recto 
dorso convexo, inferioribus minoribus, flore expauso falcatis. 
Stamina 3, ad basin tubi partis cylindricae unilateraliter iuserta, 
filauientis filiforinibus parallelis cum tubo arcuatis, antheris 












iiuearibus basi sagittatis. Ovarium oblongum triloculare, ovulfa 
in loculo pluribus crebris; stylm filiformis, cum staminibua 
arcuatus, stigmatibus tribus integria oblanceolatis. Capsula 
magna oblongatrigibbachartacea loculicide trivalvia, aeminibua 
variis, interdum turgidis exalatis, interdum triquetris anguste 
alatia, interdum discoideis late alatis ; testa castanea, albumine 

corneo. HerhcB elatce hulhosce capenses ef africance tropicales 
buJbi tunicis membranaceis, foliis linearibus vel ensiformibus, 
caulinis paucis reductis^ jioribus multis speciosis spicatis, spatJicB 
valvis lanceolatis vel oblongis viridibus vel brunneis integris vel 
interiore apice emarginata. 

* EuAJs^THOLTZA. Semiua turgida, nullo modo alata. 

1. A. ^THiopiCA, Li/m. Sp, Plant, 54 ; Bot, Mag. t. 561 ; Andr. Bot. 
Rep, t. 210; Red. LiL t. 110. — A. floribunda, Salish. in Trans, Hort. 
Soc, i. 324.— A. pra^alta. Red. Lit. t. 387. C. B. Spei. 

Var. A. RiNGENS, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 32. — A. vittigera, Salisb. in Trans. 

Hort. Soc. i. 324. — A. a;thiopica, var., Bot. Mag. t. 11/2. C. B. Spei. 
Var. A. BICOLOR, Gasp, in Belg. Hort. ii. 145, cum icone. — A. aethio- 

pica, var. minor, Bot. Reg. t. 1159. C. B. Spei. 

** Semina triquetra anguste alata. 

2. A. ABYSSINICA, A. Brong. in A. Rich. Fl. Abyss, ii. 306. Abys- 

3. A. CAFFRA, Ker in Konig ^ Sims, Ann. i. 232.— Aaisanthus splen- 
dens. Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. ser. ii. t. 84.— Antholyza rupcstris ei 
brevifolia, Ec/clon, MSS., teste Klatt. C. B. Spei. 

*** Semina discoidea, late alata. 
„ 4. A. NERVOSA, Thunb. Diss. No. 3. C. B. Spei. 

5. A. CuNONiA, Linn. Sp. Plant, i. 54 ; Sliller. Ic. 75, t. 113; Red. 
^. LiL t. 12.— Cunonia Antholyza, Miller, Diet. edit, vi.— GlaiHolus 

Cunonia, Gaertn. Sem. i. 31, t. 1 1. fig. 4.— Anisanthus Cunonia, Sweet, 
Hort. Brit. edit. ii. 500.— Antholyza coccinea, Spreng. Neue Ent. i. 
253. C. B. Spei. 

6. A. HUiLLENSis, Welw. herb. Angola. 


Semina mihi ignota. 

A. aUADRANGULARls, Burm. Prodr. Fl. Ca/>.— Gladiohis qua- 
drangularis, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 567.— Petamenes quadrungiilaris. 
Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. I 324.— Anisanthus quadranirularis, Klaft 
in Linn<ea, xxxii. 727.— Gladiolus abbreviatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 
166.— Antholvza abbrevinta, Pers. Syn. i. 42. C. B. Spei, 


8. A. SACCATA, Baker. — Anisanthus saccatus, Klatt in Linnma^ xxxv. 
300. C. B. Spei. 

9. A. PANicuLATA, Klatt in Linnceay xxxv. 379. Natalia. 

10. A. INTERMEDIA, BaJcer, C. B, Spei, 

11. A. FUCATA, Baker, — Tritonia fucata. Herb, in Bot. Reg. xxiv. 
t, 35. C. B. Spei. 

Note on the Disarticulation of Branches. By E. Ikwin Lynch, 



[Read April 19, 1877.] 
(Plate III.) 

The object of the present communication is to bring before the 
Fellows of the Society a short notice of some striking examples 
of the disarticulation of branches, which recently have come under 
my observation. The literature of the subject includes : — a con- 
tribution by H. von Mohl to the * Botanische Zeitung,' I860 ; 
** On the shedding of branches and leaves in Coniferse," by Dr. 
James Stark, in Trans. Koy. Soc. Edinb. vol. xxvii. ; mention by 
Frof. Sachs, in his Text-book of Botany (Eugl. trans, p. 446), of 
the case of Taxodiian distichum^ where the axes bearing the leaves 
are deciduous ; and the Eeport of the Scientific Committee of the 
Eoy. Hort. Soc. C G-ard. Chron.' 1877, p. 506), before whom Sir 
Joseph Hooker exhibited branches of Dammar a rohusta^ illustra- 
ting their deciduous nature. It has thus been observed of many 
trees that branches are cast off in an irregular manner ; and this 
often, I think, arises from the ripening process having ceased at 
the point where detachment takes place. Vitis macrojpus is a 
notable instance: only the lower part of the year's growth is 
ripened, and by far the larger portion falls away with the leaves 
(see subjoined woodcut). K cirrhosa offers a similar illustration. 
A specimen at Kew has now two climbing stems ten feet long, the 
whole of which will apparently be cast off this autumn, with the 
exception of about three inches, — all above the second and third 
leaves respectively. 

In Castilloa^ however, the lateral branches are detached at tne 
point of insertion, regularly from below upwards, apparently from 
the same cause that determines the fall of a leaf, leaving behind a 
similar scar (consult figs. 1-6, Plate III.). Nature, in this case, 
leaves a provision for replacement of. the fallen branch : beside 
the scar there always exists a dormant bud, which bud is on 









either its right or its left side. In the Eoyal Gardens, Kcw, are 
plants from two sources ; in one case the buds are on the right, 

Fitis macropus, Welwitsch. Sketches from a living specimen growing in 
Kew GardcnB. A, tlie entire plant, considerably reduced: a, the swollen base 
of the stem ; h, line marking where last year's branch was thrown off ; c, ano- 
ther line indicating the position of next disarticulation, the interval between h 
and c being the permanent portion of current year's growth; d, portion (all 
above r) which falls off with the leaves. B, another draw ing, of natural size, 
of the parts of flg. A between the letters h and d. At c in this figure an in- 
terspace is given to show the mode of disarticulation of the year's growth from 
that part of the stem which remain.s. 

and in the other on the left side 

Antiains toxicaria has tlie 

same habit of detaching its branches at the point of insertion. 
The scars do not always remain round, as in the illustrations, but 

* The plants have further developed since writing the above, and show that 
oxceptions maj occur, the buds changing side in part or throughout the entire 


are gradually compressed to almost a horizontal line, and at last 
become obliterated. 

In reply to some questions with reference to Castilloa elastica^ 
I have received the following information from Mr. B. Cross, the 
well-known collector of Caoutchouc, Cincliona^ and other plants. 
He states that in the forest the young Castilloas push up stems 
to a great height, and during the progress of growth throw out at 
variable distances a number of simple leafy shoots. These, on be- 
coming mature, begin to wither in succession from the oldest or 
lowest, and finally separate by an articulation. At last, however, 
branches are produced which bear fruit and do not drop off. 
Sometimes the trunk, after running up to a certain height, divides 
into two or three stems, each furnished with numerous short stiff 
upright branches, which are permanent and ripen fruit abundantly. 
Probably, however, the "abortive" shoots are produced during 
the entire growth of the tree. Mr. Cross does not consider these 
to be " true" branches. He says that the wood is not properly 
formed, the buds are imperfectly developed, and from these the 
plant cannot easily be propagated. All this perhaps arises from 
the nourishment being required for the ascending growth — a con- 
clusion borne out by the plants at Kew, which show that a given 
bud may grow into an erect permanent branch, or into a horizonal 
deciduous branch, according to the requirements of circumstances. 
The latter, if taken in time, appear, under cultivation, to strike as 
freely as the permanent branches. The character of a branch is 
evidently brought about by the direction of its growth. 

In the preceding cases the disarticulatory branches have not a 
leaf-like appearance ; in Vitis macropus (woodcut) they bear flowers 
and fruit, but never, as before said, in Castilloa^ or perhaps in the 
case of Antiaris. In the following cases, however, the deciduous 
branches are very leaf-like (in some instances have been described 
for leaves) and bear flowers and fruit. The examples laid before 
the Society are PTiyllanthus {Ecidid) glaucescens anA P. jugVandi- 
folius) ; further instances may be found in other species of the 
genus and in the allied genera of Cicca^ Sauropus, &c., all belong- 
ing to Euphorbiaceffi. The leaf-like branches of these plants have 
much in common with true leaves ; they fall off in the same way, 
and have buds in their axils which alone continue the permanent 
branching of the plant ; the stem also is swollen at the base, as are 
many petioles. It must be remarked that branches arc always 
axillary in production, and in these cases are subtended by 




Fitch, imp. 


minute squamiform leaves. These leaves therefore subtend two 
buds, one of which grows into a leaf-like deciduous branch, and 
the other remains dormant unless required to produce a perma- 
nent branch. The deciduous branches have in some species the 
form of a pinnate leaf, as in the above mentioned, or may in some 
cases be supra-decompound, as, for instance, Phyllanthus Conami, 
The foregoing has, I think, some interest, as bearing on the 
morphology of leaf and stem. In Dr. Masters's * Vegetable Tera- 
tology,' p. 4/9, it is said that the two organs may be spoken of as 
morphologically identical. It is important to observe that the 
fall of a flower or inflorescence is equal, morphologically, to the 
fall of a branch, all the parts of the flower representing leaves. 


Fig. 1. Part of the stem, with portion of the branches and a leaf of Castilloa 

elasHca, of natural size. Drawn from a specimen growing iu theEoyal 
Gardens, Kew. The following lettering (except where otherwise given) 
applies to this and the succeeding figures: — br, branch; hd, dor- 
mant buds; sr, scars remaining after the disarticulation of the lateral 

branches ; I s, scars of the fallen leaf. 
Fig. 2 is the lower portion of stem or continuation of fig. 1 ; and shows the scar 

of earliest fallen and lowest branch with the scar of its subtending leaf. 
Fig. 3. A segment of the stem of another and larger specimen of Caatilloa elas- 

tica, showing branch and leaf-scar, of natural size. 
Fig. 4. Enlarged view, part of stem of fig. % showing leaf-scar in a different aspect. 
Figs. 5 and 6. A profile and end view, showing the articular surface of a fallen 

branch of Castilloa elastica, slightly enlarged. 
Fig. 7. Angle of junction of a stem and branch o{ Phyllanthns jvglandifolius; 

d, scale-like leaf. * 
Fig. 8. A poj'tion of the stem, branches, leaves, and flowers of Phi/Uanthu$ 

(Reidia) fflauccaceus: bd, hud growing into permanent branch sub- 
tended by deciduous branch-bearing flowers ; si, scale-Uke leaf. Also 
from a plant growing at Kew and sketched of about nat. size. 

Eemarks on the Distribution of the Perfoliate Penny-Cress 
{Thlaspi perfoliafum, Linn.) in Britain. By George S. 

BouLGER, Esq., F.L.S., P.G.S. 

[Eead May 3, 1877.] 

The insignificant little Crucifer a few notes on whicli I wish to 
lay before the Society, derives its chief interest to us from its very 
limited area of distribution in Great Britain. 


Dr. Hooker, in his * Student's Tlora/ gives its general distribu- 



Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire." Mr 

Watson, in the ' Cjbele Britannica ' (1846, vol. i. p. 118), writes 
of it as follows : — " South limit in Oxfordshire and Grloucester- 
shire. North limit in the same countries. Estimate of provinces 2. 
Estimate of counties 2, Latitude 51°-52^. Local type of dis- 
tribution. Agrarian region. Inferagrarian zone. Descends to ^ 

? Ascends to -? Eangeof temperature (48°) ? Native. 

Eupestral ? An extremely local plant, the area of which has been 

?xtended through misapplications of the name. Apparently 


it is quite limited to the two adjoining counties indicated.'^ 

The reference here is to an erroneous record of the plant in the 
north of England. 

"But," Watson continues, "the dividing line between those 
counties being also the dividing line between the eastern province 
of Thames and the western province of Severn, the species will 
stand proportionably higher in a provincial census than in one 
founded on counties. I cannot state anything exactly concern- 
ing the altitude or local situations in which this Thlaspi is found, 
and am consequently uncertain as to the temperature.'' 

There are no specimens of the species in Dr. S. P. AYoodward's 
Herbarium, now at the Cirencester Agricultural College, which 
was collected just before the publication of the ' Cybele.' I am not 
aware what other localities may have been recorded in Oxford- 
shire ; but, I believe, Burford, only two miles from the Glouces- 
tershire border, was always considered the most important. I 
have not heard of its occurrence there of late years. 

Some years ago Professor Buckman, E.L.S., found the species, 
for several successive seasons, a little to the south-west of the 
village of Sapperton, in Grloucestershire, by the side of a road 
leading dow^n the Sapperton branch of the great Stroud valley, 
the escarpment of the Great Oolite. This locality is just within 
the Severn drainage-area, and about a mile from one I shall men- 
tion presently. I visited it in vain last year. 

In 1868 or '69 Professor Thiselton Dyer found the species about 
300 yards west of the Tetbury-Eoad Station, well known to geo- 
logists for the interesting local patch of Bradford Clay. The 
plant was there growing on the side of the railway-embankment, 
on pure limestone. Professor Dyer described the locality and 













figured the plant most admirably in the ' Proceedings of the Cottes- 

wold Club.' I believe either Professor Dyer or Professor Duthie 

also found it about a mile up the line westward, at Hayleigh AVood. 

On the 2nd of last May and several succeeding days I visited 

these localities on the Great AVestern Eailwav, and found the 

plant growing in abundance on the embankments, on the ballast 

heaps, and between tlie rails. I traced it westward, with breaks of 

never more than two or three hundred yards, from Tetbury-Eoad 

Station, through Hayleigh Wood, to the mouth of the shorter of 

the two railway-tunnels at Sapperton. Climbing up the cutting 

I found it again on the top and traced it to a waste-heap over the 

tunnel. This was the furthest westward extension I could find, 

and is one of the highest points in the neighbourhood, being, I 

believe, nearly 500 feet above mean sea-level. Ou my map of the 

county I have drawn the line of watershed between the Thames 

and the Severn only a few yards west of this point. 

I then returned to the Tetbury-Eoad Station and traced the 

Thiaspi eastward, beyond the station and viaduct, which marks 

the boundary of the county of Wilts, to a point just west of 

another archway, about halfway between Tetbury-Eoad and 

>- Kemble stations — that is, about half a mile over the county boun- 


Though this is not much on which to add a new county to the 
distribution of the species, it is about as much over the border as 
the well-known sole locality for Carex tomentosa at Marston 
Maisey ; and, as I have mentioned, Burford is only two miles from 

I had a specimen alleged to have been found on the College 
Farm at Cirencester, brought to me by one of the students ; and 
Mr. S. P. Elton, of Cirencester, to whom I am indebted for much 
botanical information, has a specimen which he believes is from 
Baunton, rather more than a mile north-west of Cirencester. 
Finally Professor Church believes he has seen the species growing 
at Foss-bridge. If this last locality is confirmed it will be inter- 
esting as uniting that of Burford with the Sapperton-Kemble 
one, and as indicating that this calcareous waste-heap plant may 
have spread along the ancient Ackman Street. 

The general distribution assigned to the species by Dr. Hooker 
^ay be, I suppose, expressed as the Old-world north temperate 
zone ; but the term ^^rupestral" applied to its habitat by Mr. 
Hewett Watson is far more nearly accurate than Dr. Hooker's 


" Limestone pastures." I doubt whether this species could pos- 
sibly survive in a pasture. Its radical leaves do not usually form 
a strong rosette ; and all the spots where I have seen it were com- 
posed of loose limestone destitute of other plants. If it cannot 
be termed a " pascual " plant, it tells us little to term it " viatical.'' 
The exposed situations in which it occurs would render " glareal '* 
an appropriate term, had not Mr. Watson himself confined it 
chiefly to sand and gravel. Most "rupestral" plants certainly 
are "calcophiles ;" so perhaps we must use that term in default 
of a better. Estimated roughly, the range of altitude I have ob- 
served is from about 360 feet to nearly 500 feet above mean sea- 

The fact of the boundary between Oxfordshire and Gloucester- 
shire coinciding with that between Watson's provinces of Thames 
and Severn, and that between G-loucestershire and Wiltshire with 
that between the Severn and Channel, illustrates very forcibly the 
unfortunately artificial characters of those provinces, which their 
author himself points out. 

As a matter of fiict, Professor Buckman's Sapperton locality 
alone is barely within the Severn basin ; and all the others, inclu- 

Wilt shire 



records Thlaspi perfoliatum at Burford, Naunton, and Seven 
Springs, near Stow-on-the-Wold, in 1818 ; and Bagster, in 1839, 
as abundant at Foss-bridge. In the 6th ed. of 'The British 
Flora ' of Hooker and Arnott it is also mentioned as occurring 
on stone walls about Kineton, Warwickshire. In 1844 Professor 
Buckman, in his 'Botany of Cbeltenliam,' writes, "about the 
stone quarries, at Kyneton Thorns, Harford Bridge, and the 
Seven Springs, Naunton. These habitats are perhaps the only 
ones .... as it has been lost from .... Burford." In Deakin^s 
' Florigraphia Britannica ' (1845) " Burford and Upper Slaughter 
Oxfordshire ; Kineton, Gloucestershire," are given. Kineton is 
about ten miles from the Warwickshire border, Upper Slaughter 
almost as many from that of Oxfordshire, both places being in 
G-loucestershire. There is an unauthenticated record from near 



List of Hepaticse collected by the Eev. A. E. Eaton at the Cape 
of Good Hope (August and September 1 874). By William 

Mitten, A.L.S. 

[Read April 5, 1877.] 
(Plates IV. & V.) 

With two exceptious, the species enumerated in the following 
list were collected on the Cape-Town side of the base of Table 

\ Mountain and Lion Mountain, within the area bounded by the 

"• town, the cliffs of the two mountains, and the summit of the 

j saddle-like Kloof between them. The Eound House is only just 

beyond the brow of the Kloof Two species were obtained near 
Klasenbosch Kloof on the opposite side of Table Mountain. 
Many more forms, no doubt, could be obtained along the remain- 
ing flanks of these mountains and on the hills near Simon's Town. 

Plagiochila, 2^ees et Mont. 

Plagiochila jayanica, Swartz (Jungermannia). — Lindenberg, 
Spec. Hepat. t, 4. 

Hah. Base of Table Mountain near Cape Town. 

Stems nearly simple, without fruit. Lindenberg conjectured 
that Thunberg had made a mistake in giving Java as the locality 
for this species, no specimens having been seen since from that 
country ; but it is generally present in collections from the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

P. saementosa, Lehm. — Lindenh. Spec. Hepat. t. 18. 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain near Cape Town. 
The specimens are barren, in which state only this plant is yet 


Jtjngebmannia coloeata, LeTim. 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain. 

(C. Muller) 

tufts. All without fruit. 

Hedwigidimn imherbe 

Cephalozia, Dumort. 

Cephalozia tenuissima, Lehm. — (Jungerma 
Hah, Base of the Lion's Head, on damp soil, 
road, Cape Town. 


Scattered stems with perianths are observable with Fossomhro- 
nia tumida^ and Fimhriaria marginata. It is a very minute species, 
nearly allied to C. dentata^ Eaddi. 

LopHocoLEA., Dumort. 

LopnocOLEA BiDEis'TATA, Liuu, — (Jungermannia). 
Hah. On the bank of a stream on the Cape-Town side of the 
base of Table Mountain. 

Barren specimens, which appear to belong to this species. 

L. SEMiTEKEs Lehm, — (Jungermannia.) — Chiloscyphus semi- 
teres, Lehn, et Lindenh. ; GotfscJie Lindenh. et I^ees. Syn. Jlepat* 

Hob. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 

A small species nearly allied to the L. TieteropTiylla of Europe, 
and strongly exhaling the same aromatic odour. The perianth is 
terminal, of an ovate outline, the angles alate for about half their 
length, the alse being obtuse and but little dentate, the three lips 
at 'the apex obtuse and shortly dentate. The involucral leaves 
ovate, bidentate at their apices, with a few short teeth at their 
margins on both sides, combined at their bases with the obovate 
stipule, which at its apex is shortly toothed. As the leaves ap- 
proach the perianth they become gradually more and more dis- 
tinctly bidentate. Fertile specimens were gathered by 


Chiloscvphus, Oorda. 
ExPAKsus, Lehm, — (Jung( 


Kloof road, Cape Town. 

Specimens barren. The species is not unlike LopJiocolea hete- 
ropJiylloideay Nees. , 

NoTOSCTPHUS, Mitt, in Seemann, FL Viti. 418. 

jN'otosctphus taeiifolius, Mitt. Caulis prostatus radicans. 
Folia antice ineurva subquadrato-rotunda obtusissima integer- 
rima e cellulis hexagono-rotundatis areolata pellucida. Amphi- 
gastria caule vix latiora ovata profunde bifida laciniis lanceolatis 
erectis. Folia versus involucrum acute obtuseve bidentata, invo- 
lucralia majora marginibus ventralibus coadunatis dorsalibus ad 
medium usque liberis apicibus obliquis retusis. Amphigastrium 
involucrale liberum latins, laciniis inferne extus unidentatis. 
(PL IV. figs. 1-4). 


Hab. On red earthy clay, and also on yellowish clay banlta by a 
stream near Orange G-rove, Cape Town. 

Stems forming pale whitish-green patches. Leaves spreading 

or incurved, here and there tinged slightly with red, about a third 
i of a line in diameter, with pellucid cells sharply defined by narrow 

walls. Near to this, but differing in its more orbicular leaves, 
I with larger cells and less divided stipules, is the AUculariaflexuosa 

(Lehm.), Gottsche, Lindenb. et Nees, Syn. Hep. 11, which may be 
found to be congeneric when fertile specimens have been gathered. 
* In the fructification, so far as can be seen from the specimens 

without capsules, the involucre resembles that of N. lutescem, 
Lehm. et Lindenb., and iV^, Belangerianus eorund. {Jungermannid) ^ 
both of which were placed, in the ' Synopsis,* in Oymnomitrium. All 
the species emit many rootlets under the involucre, and seem to 
approach nearly to the genera which have a descending torus, as 

in Lindigina. 

LiNDiGiNA, Gottsche. 

LiNnioiis^A SCABIOSA, Lehm. — Pug. iii. ( Jungermannia) ; Gym- 
j nomitrium scariosum, Gottsche^ Lindenb. et Hees, Syn. Hep. 3, 


Caulis prostratus simplex crassus inferue radiculosus ex apice 
) innovans. Folia sursum secunda conniventia arctlssime imbricata 

opposita antice basi anguste combinata reniformia concava integer- 
rima margine pallidiore scarioso limbata cellulis hexagonis parie- 
tibus angustis pellucidis in folii medio granulis repletis areolata. 
Perigynium tubulosum fuscum radiculosum longe in terram 

descendens. (PI. V. figs. 1-6.) 


beside the pine-plantation near Cape Town. 


The spe- 

cies is minute and seems to plough its way along the surface of the 
earth by its thick stem, the leaves are so closely imbricated as to 
appear on the upper surface like an uninterrupted edge; and it is 
only when separated by the needle that their form or position is 
discernible. The outline of the leaves is reniform, the wider end 
being that towards the underside ; no important modification of 
the leaves around the apex of the perigynium is observable ; but 
no plants have been seen with capsules, and therefore none com- 
pletely matured. 

A^erynearto tliis species is the LindigiaLiebmanniuna,Qottsche, 
Mex. Leverm. 120, t. 20 (Gymnanthe), from Me^iico, wliich has 



leaves, according to the figure, of a reuiform outline ; and probably 
they are connected on the dorsal side, although on this point the 
description is silent. The genus Lindigia was changed to Lin- 
digina, Gottsche, " Prodr. PL Novo-Granatensis " in ' Ann. des Sc. 
Nat/ 4nie serie, toni. i. 1864, Lindigia having been employed by 
Hatnpe for some species of Meteoria, of which the Leskia acicu- 

lata, Taylor, is one. 

Z. scariosa in the * Synopsis ' is described with leaves " lato ro- 
tundis," and in the 'Mexikanske Levermosser ' L, Lielmanniana 
with leaves " obovatis cauli oblique adcretis ;" amongst further par- 
ticulars below, they are " ovato-rotunda obovatave." Fortunately 
there is a good figure of this species, exhibiting the leaves to be 
really reniform, as in L. scariosa] or identification, from the de- 
scription alone, would be in either case almost impossible. 

[Fragments have been seen of another species of the Lethocolea 
group from the Cape of Good Hope, which may be the same as 
the i. prostrata from Tristan d'Acunha. 

In the ' Handbook of the Tlora of New Zealand,' in ignorance 


of Lindigina, LetJiocoIea was employed to designate some species 
which agree with those referred by Gottsche himself to Lindigina, 
yet in some respects diflTer from it if i. Liehnantiiana is taken as 
the typical species, and also if its leaves are opposite and com- 
bined; it would then, with L. scariosa and L, renijolia and some 
other Mexican and South- American species, all with opposite and 
combined leaves on the dorsal side, form a group with a more lax 
areolation than is observable in the Lethocolea Drummondii and 
L. concinna of the Taamanian flora, and also in the Lindigina 
Oranatensis, Gottsche, " Prodr. Tl. N.-Granat." in 'Ann. des Sc. 
Nat.' 5me ser. torn. i. 1864, 137, in all which the leaves are alter- 
nate and of more dense substance. 

In a Mexican species belonging to the opposite-leaved section 
oi Lindigina the male inflorescence consists of anthcridia in the 
saccate bases of cauline leaves as in LopTiocoJea. 

L. EENiFOLiA, Mitt. Caulis prostratus simplex ex apice inno- 
vans subtus radiculosus. Folia opposita sursum incurva conni- 
venti-imbricata reniformia apice lata truncata inflexa basi antice 
cum folio opposite anguste connexa integerrima e cellulisrotundo- 
hexagonis areolata. Perigynium tubulosum longe in tevram 
descendens radiculosum. (Pi. V. figs. 7-12), 

Hah. On hard bare damp soil in the interspaces of the brush- 




wood {e,g, a footpath) on the summit of the ridge of the Lion's 
Eump near the Signal-station. 

Stems three or four lines long, with the leaves from half to 
three quarters of a line wide. Leaves all whitish green, closely 
imbricated on each side so as to leave a furrow along the middle, 
although the stem itself is everywhere covered. The perigynium, 
of a pale brow^nish colour, has many scattered hair-like roots ; 
its transverse section shows it to be composed of about six 
strata of cells, of which the interior consists of much longer some- 
. what ovate cells affixed by their bases, the narrower ends being 
free. Very different from L, scariosa in its greater stature, and 
m the imbrication of its leaves (which have no scarious margin), 
but approaching in the outline of the leaf. 


Calypogeia, Eaddi. 

Hah. Near Cape 
Stems all barren. 

Web. — (Jungermannia), Nees 
Sun. Sepai, 199. 

Leperoma, Mitt, in Handbook of New-Zealand Flora, ii. p. 75 i. 

Leperoma ocnKOLEUCA, Spreng^- — (Jungermannia). 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain near Cape Town. 

Small barren specimens with Lepidozia truncatella. 

Lepidozia, Dumort. 

Lepidozia truncatella, Nees ah E. 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 
In patches associated with riaglochila sannenfosa, Dicranum 
dieJioto7num, and PGecilophyllum Zeyheri, C. Miiller, w^ithout fruit. 

Radula, Dumort, 

Eadula complanata, Linn. — (Jungermannia). 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 
The specimens are in that form which has the margin of the 
leaf fringed with gemmae. 

E. PHTSOLOBA, Mont.—Bot. Crypt. Bin. Astrolabe, t. 17. f. 4. 
Hah. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 
AVithout fruit or inflorescence. 

Lejeuxia, Libert. 
Lejetinia xanthocarpa, Lehm. et Lindenh. — OottscTie, Lindenh. 

et MeSj Syn. Hep, 330. 



Ilab. Base of Lion Mountain, above the Bound House, Kloof 

road. Cape Town. 

Very few perianths are present. 

L. nxj^^^Q^TS^i lAndenb. — Gottsche^ Nees^Syn. Hejpat 


Hal, Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 

This species has not been before reported from the Cape of 
Good Hope ; it is, however, widely dispersed in austral regions. 
The specimens agree with those from Magellan, and are fertile. 

L. CAPEKSis, Gottscle—idem^ Lindeh. et Nees, Syn. Sepat. 


Hob, Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 

With Hadula compJanata. 

L. EcKLONiANA, Lindenb. — GoitscTie, Lindenh. et Nees, Syn. 
Hepat. 381. 

Eah. Base of Table Mountain (exact site doubtful). 

L. TABULARis, Spreng. Syst, Yeg, iv. 325 — (Jungermannia). 
Hal. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town (probably be- 
side a stream, on a bank). 

Growing with Leptodon Smithii and other mosses, but without 





commencement of Kloof road, Cape Town ; also on the bank of 
the same stream nearer the quarry. 

The small stems of this on bark and mixed with other species 
are not sufficient to decide if there are more than one South- 
African species similar to the European species. 

L. HAMATIFOLIA, HooJc. Brit. Jung. t. 51. 

Hal, Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town. 

"Without fruit, but presenting no difference in colour, stature, 
or habit from British examples ; it has not been before received 
from the Cape of Good Hope. 


Feiilla:nia, Maddi. 

Pevllania capensis, GottscTie — idem^ Lindenl. et JV^ees, Syn. 
Hepat. 449. 

Hal. On boulders and rocks near the quarry at the base of 
Table Mountain near Cape Town. 







F, TRixERVTS, Lehm. et Lindenl). — GoffscJie^ Lindenh. et Nees^ 
Syn. Hepat. 427. 

Hah, On a tree iu the public avenue near Government Ilouse ; 
also on trees near a stream above Orange Grove, and on rocks in 
the same place as the preceding species, or just above the Round 
House, Kloof road, Cape Town. 

r. BRUNNEA, Spreng, — (Jungcrmannia). — OottscJie, Lindenb. et 
JVees, Syn, Hepat. 441. 

Hah, Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town (exact site 

This pretty species, in the apiculate leaves and in the slender form 

and the position of its lobules, resembles the species of Folyotus, 

rossoMUEOXiA, Baddi. 

rossoMBBO]!^iA CRTSPA, -^^^^5 ah E. — Gottsclie^ Lindenh. et Neesy 
Syn, Hepat. 5G9. 

Hah. Base of Table Mountain, near Cape Town (exact site 

With Fissidens rufescenSy Hornsch. 

LEUCOXANTHA. LeJim. et lAndeh 


r. TUMID A, Mitt. Caulis prostratus simplex brevis. Folia 
sursum incurva tumide imbricata conniventia ambitu rotundata 
concava integerrima e cellulis laxis pellucidis auguste limitatis 
areolata. Perianthium turbinatum margine repando-subdentato. 
Capsula magna sporis hemisphaericis obscuris papillosis. (PI. IV. 

figs. 10 to 13.) 

Hah. On damp ground near the pine-plantation at the foot of 
the Lion's Head, near the beginning of the Kloof road. Cape 

Stems from 2 to 4 lines long, the rootlets purple as usual in 
the genus, with the leaves a line wide. Leaves whitish green 
tinged with purplish brown, imbricated iu such a manner that 
the plants have the appearance of being inflated when wet — which 
partly remains in the dry state, as thej do not become crisped 

or contorted. 

In many respects this species agrees with the F. intestinaUs, 
Taylor, from Australia ; but in that the spores are almost smooth 
and without evident papilla?. 


SYMPnoGYKA, Mont, et I^ees. 

SrMPnoGTNA poDOPHYLLA, TJiuub. — GotfscJie, Lindenh. et Nees^ 
Syn. Hep. 481. 

Ilah. In a kloof near Klasenboach "Wynberg, growing at the 
foot of trees in cjespitose masses and sheets, partly in and partly 
out of a stream, but exposed to the spray. Barren. 

Aneura, Dumort. 

Akeura mtjltifida, Limi. — (Jungermannia). 

Hah. Wynberg side of Table Mountain, with Sympliogyna podo- 
phylla, but more fully exposed to the water. 

^Differing slightly from European specimens in the more nume- 
rous branches, but without fruit. 

Metzgeria, Baddi. 



Syn. Hepat, 502 ; var. Z 1, ceruginosa^ ?, c, 502. 

Hah. Beside a streamlet above Orange-grove, Capo Town, on 
the bark of an oak tree, and on the ground. 

LuisruLARTA, MicJieli. 

LuNULAEiA CRTJCIATA, Liuti. — (Marchantia). 

Hah. On clayey soil at the side of a ditch boundhig a pine- 
plantation near the commencement of the Kloof road, and in a 
field on the opposite side of the road at the base of the Lion's 
Head, and also near the Bonnd House. Common. 

A few barren fronds with gemmae establish the presence 
of this or a nearly allied species in South Africa. 

FxMBRiARiA,iVees ah E, 


Hah. On damp ground. Near the first pine-woods along the 
Kloof road, Cape Town. 

G-rowing with Archidium capense, Hornsch., and other small 
mosses. Specimens with perfected fruit. 

Taroionia, Micheli. 

Taroiokia capensis, Huehen. 

Hah. In the same place as the preceding. 












EicciA, MichelL 

Etccia ALBOMAEGiNATA, BiscJiof. GottscJw, Lindenb, et Nees, 
Syn. Hep. GOJ?. 

Ilah. At the base of the Liou'a Head. 

Some small fronds amongst Fossonibronia tumida appear to be 
this species, which in the living state does not present distinctly 
the white margin; but after drying and again macerating in 
water, it becomes evident. * 


Syn. Hep. Gil. 

Hah. On damp soil near t 
the Kloof road. Cape Town. 

Jluitans ; and the plants gro 

well floating on water, but become more slender and less green. 

E. LiMBATA, Bisch. — GoftscJi.j Li7idenh. et Nees, Syn. Hep. 606. 
Hah. At the base of Lion Mountain. Growing amongst Fos- 

somlronia titmida. 

The spores of this species are almost black, shining, and minutely 

Anthoceiios, MicTieli. 

Anthocekos mikijtus, Mitt. Trons pusillus lobis obovatis re- 
tusis obtusisve teneris lajvibus costa media obacura notatis, in- 
volucrum magnum ventricosum. Theca cylindracea basi angustata 
subpedunculata apice calyptra conica obtecta loDvis sicca longitu- 
dinaliter plicata sporis rotundis Isevibus. (PI. IV. figs. 5 to 9.) 

Hah, Base of Lion Mountain, in wet places near the Kloof 
road, above the Eound House. 

Fronds growing in patches with lobes about a line and a half 
long, scarcely half a line wide; when dry, blackish. Substance 
when wet, of thin-walled bladdery cells, towards the margins of 
the lobes in three strata, which are continued across the width of 
the frond ; in the middle, beneath, are a mass of brown obscure cells 
constituting the costa, which is seen through the frond ; below this 
costa is another series of three strata of cells, which are thin-walled 
and pellucid. The involucre is large for the size of the plant ; it 
consists of a pale-brownish membrane of a nearly oval form ; from 
this the capsule, rather more than a line long, is exserted ; in the 
wet state it appears straight ; but dry (in the unripeucd stale), 
strongly plicate ; at its apex it boars the small rampanidate calyptra 


of a brownish colour. Within the capsule is a slender columella, 
round smooth spores, and short moniliform threads scarcely ex- 
ceeding in length the diameter of the spores, 


Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Noioscyphiis variifoliiis. Stem, of the natural size. 

2. A portion of the same, with involucre, as seen at the side. Magnified. 

3. A portion of the stem with leaves and stipule. Also highly mag- 

nified, m 

4. Two stipules next to the involucre, still more enlarged. 

5. Anthoceros mimttus. Plants of the natural size. 

6. A portion, with involucres and fruit, surmounted by the minute calyptra. 


7. A transverse section of a frond vnih. the central mass, which gives it a 

costate appearance. Also much enlarged. , 

8. Involucre laid open to show the pedicellate base of the capsule. ; 


9. Spores and elater. Also greatly magnified. 

10. Fossambronia tumida. A stem, of the natural size. 

11. Apex of the 'stem, with leaves, perianth, and capsule, as seen laterally. 

Greatly enlarged, 

12. A single leaf, still more highly magnified. 

13. Spores, also greatly magnified: a, as seen vertically; and J, lateral 


Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Lindigina scariosa. Stem, of the natural size. 

2. A stem, as seen from above, and considerably enlarged. 

3. Apex of the same, more enlarged, and as se'en laterally with the descend- 

ing perigynium. 

4. A portion of the stem, with the leaves opened to show their combination 

on the upperside. Also very considerably enlarged. 
, 6. Cellular structure of the leaves towards the vertical margin, under a 

higher power of the microscope. 

6. Cellular structure of the same towards the dorsal margin, also under a 

high power. 

7. Lindigina renifoUa, A stem, of the natux-al size. 

8. The apex, with leaves and descending torus of the same, as seen laterally, 

and considerably enlarged. 

9. A portion, more enlarged, of the stem, with leaves expanded. 

10. A leaf removed from the stem. 

11. The cellular structure of the leaf towards the ventral margin, under a 

high power of the microscope. 

12. A portion of the transverse section of the perigynium, showing the larger 

partially free cells composing its interior surface. Highly magnified. 










Linn Soc Jour Bot. Vol XVI.Pl IV. 


Fzg 9 



Nat. size 


Nat. size. 


jirUJioc^ros minu^xzs 

Ftg- 23. 

y b 



Nat. size. 




Fitch, imp 

W Mat tec. 

LiNN Sog.JourkBot.Vol.XVIPlV. 


NaLt . :^\7. e . 

Zt ituHy iria^ scar^tosit^ 


Nat s:2e 











^ ( 

\ < 

/ V 

■s J/-. 


I + 

\ I ' 




Fi^. 4 

Fi^ 6 



Fi^ 20. 

•iNFitch litTi. 


Fitch 1 



From Vol. IX. the Zoological and Botanical portions of the 
Journal bare been published separately, and each consists of Eight 

The price of each separate number, whether Zoological or 
Botanical, is 25. to the public, and Is, 6d. to Fellows. 

Each volume of eight numbers, when subscribed for and paid 
in advance, will be charged 125. to the public, and 9s, to Fellows. 

Ajtt Candidate for admission as a Fellow must be proposed on a 
written Certificate, to be signed by three or more Fellows, from 
their personal acquaintance with him, or knowledge of his charac- 
ter or writings. 

Fellows, on their election, pay an Admission Fee of £6, and 
are thenceforth liable to an Annual Contribution of £3, which may 
be compounded for at any time by one payment of £30 in lieu 
of all future contributions. 

Fellows residing abroad, and not compounding, are required to 
provide such security for the payment of their Annual Contribu- 
tions as shall be satisfactory to the Council. 

The Fellows are entitled to Teoeiy engrafts, all Volumes, or Parts 
of Volumes, of the Transactions and Journal, that may be pub- 
lished after they shall have paid the Admission Fee ; and they 
may be supplied with any of the Society's publications at a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent, under the common selling prices. 

The 1st Series of the Transactions is now completed in 30 vols. 
Sets of the first twenty volumes will be supplied to the Fellows 
at the reduced price of £20 ; or of the first twenty-five volumes, 
with the General Index to the whole, for £30. Any Fellow pur- 
chasing, at one time, ten or more volumes, may obtain those 
from the Isfc to the 20th at £1 per voliime, from the 21st to 
the 25th at £2 per volume ; and single volumes, or parts, to 
complete sets, may be obtained at the original prices. The price 
of the Index to Vols. 1-25 is 8s. to the public, and 6s. to Fellows ; 
of the Index to Vols, 26-30, 45, to the public, and 3^. to Fellows. 

Members are requested to apply at the Apartments of the 



yearly Contributions are m 
arrear, nor can any be delivered unless applied for within five 
years from the time of publication. — Of the 2nd Series, of the 
Transactions, Vol. 1, Parts I.-IV., Zoology and Botany, are 
now ready for delivery. A few copies of the several papers 
contained in the later volumes (from Vol. 26 onwards) have been 
printed off for separate sale ; and most of them may still be had. 

The Library is open to the Fellows and their friends daily, 
between the hours of 10 and 4, and on Meeting-days at 7 p.m. 

With certain restrictions. Fellows are allowed to borrow Books 
from the Library. 

The Council-room, which will in future be used as a reading- 
room, will be open daily from 10 a.m. till 6 p.m., except on Satur- 
days, when till 4 p.m. only. 

Communications intended to be made to the Society may be addressed to the 
President, or to the Secretary, at the Sodety's Apartments, Burlington House, 
PiccadiUr. London. ^ ^ 

- ^ ^^ 

September 25. 

Price 2s. 




Vol. XVI. BOTANY. No. 92 


. I 



I. On a Collection of Perns made by Miss Helen Gilpin 

in tlie interior of Madagascar. By J. G*. Bakee, F.L.S. 197 

II. Note on the Causes of the Numerical Increase of Parts 

of Plants. By the Eev, George HEJfSL0w,M.A., P.L.S., 
P.G.S 206 

III. Contributions to the Botany of H-M.S. * Challenger': — 

. The Lichens of the * Challenger ' Expedition 
(with a revision of those enumerated by Dr. J. Stiiv 


ton in Linn. Joum. Bot. xiv. pp. 366-375). By 
the Eev. J. M. Crombie, P.L.S. &c 211 

I Y. Note on the Blimbing (AverrJioa Bilimhij Linn.) . By E. 

Irwix Ltnch, Esq. (Communicated by Dr. J. 
MuRiE, P.L.S.) 231 

V. Contributiones ad floram Algarum aquae dulcis Promon- 

torii Bonae Spei. By PatxIi Frederic Eeevsgh, 
(Communicated by Sir Joseph Hooker, Pres. E.S., 
P.L.S.) (Plate YL) 232 

Yl. On the Peculiarities and Distribution of Eubiaceae in 

Tropical Africa. By W. P. Hiern, M.A., P.L.S., &c. 
(Plates YIL&YIIL) ............ 248 


- ' ' - J 

. i 






' ^^ -■■ ^ ' ^ ^^^-■'^■■^-^;.-. ;V■^- ^ ■ . - VT ? ... ■ y.^:.\i ■:.-^....-;- ; . ^^V-^ -' — - "■■■ ■.^-- ;■ ^ f-^-':.--" ■-■.". ■ ^ ^ . .. ■■/ ; ;, .. .■^.^'■ "^ ^:: ^ -■ " -^ :^-?"/"^ ■ ;.- ■' "^/V- ^-<-^v,--^--?'.^.^:-:;^r; ^ 


On a Collection of Ferns made by Miss Helen Gilpin in the 

interior of Madagascar. By J. G. Baker, F.L.S. 

[Kead April 15, 1877.] 

Last session, I laid before tlie Society an account of a collection 
of Ferna, made in the interior of Madagascar, which had been pre- 
sented to the Kew herbarium by Mr. W, Pool (Proc. Linn. Soc. 
vol. XV. p. 411), This spring I have had the opportunity of 
studying in detail another collection, made principally in the 
neighbourhood of Antananarivo by Miss Helen Gilpin, of the 
Friends' Foreign Mission Association, who has lately returned 
temporarily to England after a residence of many years in the 
capital of the island. Miss Gilpin's collection«»contains about 150 
species of Ferns and the allied orders. In reporting upon it I 
shall not repeat the species included in my former list unless I 
have any thing fresh to say about them, and, as in my former 
paper, shall indicate, in the case of the novelties, by means of num- 
bers prefixed to the names, the position into which the plants fall 
according to the arrangement adopted in our ' Synopsis Filicum.' 

Gleichenia DicnoTOMA, Wtlld. 

Hemitelia Melleri, Saker, in fine fructificatioJi. 

Trichomanes flabellatum, Bory. 


DiCKSONiA Henrietta, Baker, '* Creeps up the branches of 
trees to a height of 20-30 feet." 

19*. D. HTPOLEPiDoiDESj Baker, n. sp. Frond deltoid, 2-3- 
pinnate, 2-3 feet long and broad. Rachis dull grey, finely pu- 
bescent, not at all scaly. Texture moderately firm ; both surfaces 
green and, especially the lower one, finely pubescent all over. 
Pinnae lanceolate, acuminate, the lowest the largest, a foot or more 


long, 1-2 inches broad ; lower pinnules lanceolate, acute, free, cut 
away cuneately on the lower side at the base, with deep obtuse 
close erecto-patent entire lobes ^-J in. broad. Veins erecto- 
patent,fine, distant, forked or subpinnate in the lowest tertiary seg- 
ments. Sori regularly seriate at the base of the ultimate sinuses, 
one to each, placed on the upper side of the ultimate lobes. Invo- 
lucre a depressed round cup, | line broad, highest on the inner side. 
General habit and texture like that of Bavallia strigosa. 

D. rLABELLTFOLiA, Baker. Under the great rock at the left- 
hand side of the waterfall of Andrangaloaka, 




16*, LiNDSATA MADAGASCAKIEKSIS, Bakevy xi. sp. Stipes (in- 
complete) glossy, brown, naked, Frond deltoid, bipinnate, mem- 
branous, brigbt green, glabrous, 5-6 in. long and broad. Lower 
pinnse the largest, lanceo]ate, 2-3 in, long, 1-1^ in. broad at the 
base. Pinnules cuneate or rhomboid, |-| in. broad, the lower 
ones shortly petioled, entire on the inner and lower borders, 
regularly rounded or somewhat angled for the rest of the edge, 
and irregularly denticulate. Veins few, distant, free, dichoto- 
mously forked. Sori distinctly intramarginal, the inner valve of ^ 


altered denticulate upper and outer edge of the pinnule produced 
the breadth of the sorus beyond it. 

We received a small specimen of this in 1874 from the interior 
of Madagascar, from Lady Barkly, gathered by Mr. Cameron. The 
general habit of the plant is completely that of Z. fiahellulata^ in 
which the sorus is marginal and the two valves of the involucre 
are of equal breadth. 

Var. INTERMEDIA, BctTcev, Pinnules again divided into cuneate 
tertiary segments |-J in. broad at the tip. 

Var. DAVALLioiPEs, Baker. Frond decompound, the pinna ^ 

more deltoid than in the type, cut up entirely into laxly disposed 
ultimate segments |-1 line broad at the tip, and the sori and in- 
volucre just those ot DavalUa, § Odontoloma. 

Bears the same relation to the type that the Ceylonese Bavallia 

scTiizophylla^ Baker, Syn. Fih edit. 2, p. 468, bears to Lindsaya 
tenera^ and completely connected with the type by Miss Gilpin's 
fine set of specimens. 

LoNCHiTis PUBESCENs, Willd. The typical form, in addition 
to L. madagascariemisy Hook., aind L, polypus. Baker, both of 
which are copiously represented in this collection. ' ^ 

13*. Cheilanthes (Adiantopsis) madagascaeiensis, Baker^ 
n. sp. Stipe (incomplete), like the rachises, naked, glossy, cas- 
taneous. Prond subdeltoid, 3-9 inches long, 2-7 in, broad, char- 
taceous, green, glabrous, 3-4.pinnate. Pinnae deltoid, patent, 
short-petioled, lowest the largest, 2-2| in. broad, produced on 
the lower side. Pinnules oblong-deltoid, sessile or the lowest 
shortly petioled; tertiary segments oblong, obtuse, more pro- 
duced on the upper side at the base, with a few obtuse lobes. 
Veins dichotomous, flabellate. Sori few, round, distinct, placed 

at the end of the ultimate lobes. Involucre glabrous, hemisphe- 
rical . 







Very close to the South-American C, cJilorqpJi^Ua, Sw., with 
which it quite agrees in texture and sori. 


P, ANGULOSA, Baker. 

Ptekis CRETICA, li, 

-t 14*. p. EEMOTiFoLTA, Bakev. Stipe |-1 foot long, like the 

rachises, glossj and stramineous. Prond 1-2 feet long and broad, 
deltoid, bright green, moderately firm in texture, glabrous, simply 
bipinnate, or in some of the specimens the lowest pinnules dilated 
and again pinnate. Pinnae 3-7, lanceolate, the lowest the largest, 
1 J-4 in. broad, caudate at the tip. Pinnules sessile, lanceolate, 
laxly disposed, 1-2 in. long, 2 lines or (the barren ones) 3 lines 
broad, cuneate at the base on both sides, subobtuse, the upper ones 
patent, many lower, more or less deflexed. Yeinlets 15-30-jugate, 
very distinct, usually forked at the base. Sorus absent from the 
tip and base of the pinnules. Barren segments entire. 

X This is the plant mentioned in the account of Mr, Pool's collec- 

tion as a probable new species midway between P, quadriaurita 
and madagascarica, 

P. TBiPLiCATA, Agardh. Miss Gilpin's specimens show con- 
clusively that the Madagascar P. Melleri, Baker, is conspecific 
with P. tripUcata, of Mozambique. 

LoMABiA BiFORMis, Baker. Miss Gilpin's gatherings materi- 
ally widen tbe range of variation here, as in some of the barren 
fronds the pinnae are quite entire, and in others the upper pinnaa 
are entire and the lower ones regularly pectinato-pinnatifid. 

Aspleis-ium LTJAirLATuK, Sw. Besides the type, this collection 
includes characteristic examples of the varieties harjpeodes and 

A. OLTGOPHTLLUM, Kaulf. This is a Brazilian species ; but I 
cannot distinguish Miss Gilpin's Madagascar specimens and one 
received in 1874 from Lady Barkly, gathered by Mr. Cameron, 
from the Brazilian plant. 

A.L^TUM, Sw. This, again, is only known previously in America; 
and we had it also from Lady Barkly, gathered by Mr. Cameron. 





nato-pinnatifid, acuminate, many upper with all the lobes except 
the lowest on the upper side small, ligulate, erecto-patent and 
parallel. A. affine seems to be as variable in cutting in Mada- 
gascar as A, lineatum is in Mauritius, running into dareoid forms, 
both bipinnate and tripinnate and sometimes taking root at the 
tip ; and yet, as known elsewhere, it keeps to the same characters 
over a wide geographical range. 

109*. AsPLENiUM GiLPiNJE, Baker, n. sp. Stipe (incomplete) 
green and scaleless, like the rachis- Frond oblong-lanceolate, 'f 

bipinnate, under a foot long, 3^ in. broad, membranous, glabrous. 
Pinnse distant, short-petiolcd, lanceolate-acuminate, cut away 
cuneately on the lower side at the base, the lowest the largest, 
an inch broad, with shallow, close, erecto-patent, ligulate lobes in 
the upper, and a single free rhomboid pinnule on the anterior side 
at the base, which is ^-| in. long, f-l in. broad. Veins distinct, 
erecto-patent, \ line apart, the lower compound, the upper simple. 
Sori median, 3-4 lines long, reaching neither the midrib nor the 
edge. Involucre narrow, persistent. 

Very like the American A, obtusifoUum in texture and the 
shape of the pinnae, but in cutting coming near horridum and K 


126*. A. nERPETOPTERis, BaJcer^ n. sp, Ehizome about as 
thick as a goose's quill, flexuose, wide-trailing, nearly black, thinly 
clothed with spreading linear acuminate dark brown scales -^ in. 
long, Fronds distant, with slender faintly scaly stipes about an 
inch long, brownish, like the slender rachis. Lamina lanceolate, 
3-8 inches long, 1-2 inches broad at the middle, narrowed gra- 
dually to both ends, tripinnatifid, glabrous, moderately firm in 




base, cut down to the rachis at the base, the lower segments 
cuneate, the upper ones ligulate and not so deep. Veins erecto- 
patent, one central in each of the ligulate segments, flabellate in 
the cuneate ones. Sori median, |-4 in. long. Involucre narrow, 
glabrous, persistent. 

Differs mainly from the small forms of ^. affine by its slender, 

Wide-trailing rhizome, and, like qffine^ running into a dareoid 

A. viviPAHUM, Presl. 

• A. (Athtrium) yiQ-RivEB, Blume. Miss Gilpin's set of -4Mj/r/a 
show a wide range of variety ; but I do not think any of them are 








safely separable from nigripes. In some of them the frond is nar- 
rowed gradually to the base ; and in others the lowest pinnce are 
as long as the central ones. There is a small form with tlie 
lamina not more than half a foot long, and yet copiously soriferous, 
and another with ultimate segments regularly, closely, and sharply 
iucised to a depth of a line or more. 

220*. AsPLENirM (DiPLAziu^j) BREViPEs, BciJcer^ n. sp. Stipe 
(incomplete) slender, green, naked, like the rachis. Frond oblong- 
lanceolate, membranous, glabrous, simply pinnate, 6-8 in. loug, 



lanceolate, 10-12-jugate below the pinnatifid apex, the upper ones 
sessile, the lower distinctly petioled, the largest 12-15 lines long, 
I in. broad, obtuse, cuneate-truncat^ on the lower side at tlie base, 
produced on the anterior side and imbricated over the rachis, with 

shallow oblong lobes 


down to the midrib. Veins pinnate opposite the lobes of the 
pinnae, with 2-3-jugate ascending distinct veinlets. Sori usually 
one to each group on the lowest anterior fork, beginning at the 
base, but not reaching the tip, only few diplazioid. Involucre 
narrow, glabrous, persistent. 

Andrangaloaka, 1871. Closely allied to the American A. She^- 
herdij var. caraccfsanum, 

Nephrolepis cordifolia, Fresh 

10*. Nephrodiuai (Lastrea) tricuopulerium, Baker^ n. sp. 
Stipe (incomplete) naked, browniah. Frond oblong-lanceolate, 
bipinnatifid, 15-18 in. long, 4-6 in. broad, not narrowed at the 
base, moderately firm in texture, pale green and finely pilose 
beneath, dark green and glabrous beyond the midrib above, 
copiously marked with white dots on the margin; rachis brown, 
finely pubescent. Pinnae lanceolate, only the lowest minutely 



Veins in pinnate groups opposite the lobes of the pinna?, with 
4-6-jugate distinct erect o-patent veinlets, the lowest pair ceasing 
before they reach the edge and bearing each a sorus at the tip. 
Sori on the other veins median. Involucre brow^n, glabrous, per- 
sistent, \ line broad. 

Allied to N, sulliauritum siui j)unctulatum^ which, like iT. albo- 
puncfafum, show the same copious white dots on the edge of the 
lobes of the pinnae. 


17*. Nephkodium (Lastrea) subcrenulatum", Bakery n. sp. 
Stipe (incomplete) slender, castaneous, furnished, as is the rachia, 
with a few minute, linear, brown scales, and a little pubescence. 
Frond o,blong-]anceolate, membranous, glabrous, bright-green, 
bipinnatifid, 8-12 in. long, 4-5 in. broad. Pinnse lanceolate, patent, 
cut down nearly to the rachis into obscurely crenate, obtuse lobes 


2-2^ lines broad ; the central pinnae shortly petioled, |— | in. 

broad, the lowest pair deflexed and produced on the lower side ^ 

(I in. broad). Veins distinct, erecto-patent, 6-8-jugate, usually 

simple, but in the dilated segments of the posterior side of the 

lower pinnse forked. Sori median. Involucre small, glabrous, 


Most resembles N. cTirysolobum and the small forms of N, 

N. pate2^s, var. madagascakiense. Baker. Dwarf (lamina a 
foot long), densely pilose ; many lower pinnse gradually reduced ; 
largest pinnse 2 in, long, 4-4^ lines broad ; segments at most a 
line broad, completely filled up with sori, 8-9 on a side ; involucre 
persistent, densely pilose. 

Eecedes from the type in the direction of the pubescent varie- 
ties of IT, conterminum. 

45*. ]Sr. (Lastrea) anateinqphlebium, Baker^ n, sp. Stipe 
(incomplete) grey, naked. Frond oblong-lanceolate, bipinnatifid, 
moderately firm in texture, glabrous, l|-2 feet long, 7-8 in. 
broad, narrowed at the base ; rachis finely grey-pilose, not scaly. 
Pinnse sessile, lanceolate, acuminate, |-1 in. broad, cut down 
nearly or quite to the racliis into crenulate ligulate segments \ in. 
broad. Veins 8-9-jugate, simple, erecto-patent, very distinct. 

Sori small, supramedian, on the veins. Involucre minute, 

Allied to N, conterminum, 

53*. N. (Lastrea) loxgicuspe, Baker, n. sp. Stipe (incom- 
plete) naked, pale brown. Frond oblong-deltoid, bipinnatifid, 1|- 
2 feet long, 10-12 in. broad, the lower pinnse suddenly dwarfed, 
the lowest represented by a gland only, moderately firm in tex- 
ture, glabrous except on the midrib of the pinn^ beneath, which, 
like the scaleless pale-brown rachis, is finely pubescent. Pinnse 
very numerous, sessile, linear, with a long cusp, | in. broad, cut 
down to a narrow wing into ligulate erecto-patent segments 





I line broad. Veina 10-12-jugate, simple, erecto-patent, distinct. 
Sort minute, median. Involucre minute, glabrous, persiateut, 
. Avery distinct plant, nea^rest J^. prolix um^ Baker, well marked 
by its long very narrow cuspidate pinnae, very narrow segments, 
and copious minute sori, 

N'BPHEODiuii (Lasteea) BucHANAifi, Baker. 
N. (Ectxephrodium) pexxigerum, Kook. 

183*. N. (Ec-NEPHRoniuAf) costulare, Saker, n. sp. Stipe 
(incomplete) green, naked, like the rachis. Frond oblong-deltoid, 
bipinnatifid, 2 feet or more long, a foot broad, membranous, 
bright green, entirely glabrous, or obscurely pilose on the midrib 
of the pinnae beneath, not reduced at the base. Pinnae all sessile, 
lanceolate, the lower ones 5-6 in. long, an inch broad, cut about 
^ of the way down to the midrib into close oblong entire lobes 
^"l in. broad. Veins 8^9-jugate, fine, erecto-patent, distinct, 
about three joining those of the next group by their tips. Sori 
small, costular. Involucre minute, fugacious. 

This is the plant mentioned in the account of Mr, Pool's collec- 
tion as a new species nearest N. pennifferum. Miss Gilpin's spe- 
cimens are complete enough to enable me to characterize it.- 


25*. PoLTPODiUM (Phegoptebis) fragile, Baker, n. sp. 
Stipe (incomplete) slender, pale green, faintly pubescent. Frond 
oblong-deltoid, tripinnatifid, 6-9 in. long, 4-5 in. broad, bright 
green, membranous, with the veins on both sides densely ciliated. 

Pinnae sessile, lanceolate, the lower ones 2-2| in. long, |— ^ in. 

broad, cut down to a narrow wing into oblong-oblanceolate pin- 
nules, which are obtusely lobed ^-^ way down to the rachis; 
lowest pinnae not reduced. Veins erecto-patent, forked or sub- 
pinnate in the lower tertiary lobes. Sori small, round, one to 
each tertiary lobe, placed near the tip of the anterior fork of the 
vein close to the bottom of the ultimate sinuses. 

Eesembling NeopTirodiumJlaccidum in texture and cutting. 



thread-like, wide-creeping. Stipes |-| in. long, clothed with fine 
brown spreading hairs. Frond simple, coriaceous, ligulate, ob- 
tuse, cuneate at the base, 1-li in. long, 2-2^ lines broad, glabrous. 
Veins simple, erecto-patent, hidden. Sori round, superficial, 


forming a row close to the midrib in the upper half of the frond, 
confluent, mixed with copious hairs. 

91*. PoLYPoniuM (EupoLTPOnirM) Gilpin^, BaTcer^ n. sp. 
Densely tufted. Stipes very short {\'\ in. long), clothed with 
fine brown spreading hairs. Pronds simple, ligulate, obtuse, 
1-1| in, long, \ in. broad, entire or obscurely repand, moderately 
firm in texture, narrowed from the middle to the base, thinly 

beset with erecto-patent brown hairs \ line long. Veins distant, 4u 

simple, erecto-patent, thickened at the tip, and not reaching the 
edge. Sori round, superficial, | line broad, median between the 
edge and the midrib, 8-12 on a side, with usually their own breadth 
between them. 



side of the midrib, not reaching the edge. Sori round, superficial, 
terminal on the veins, nearly or quite marginal. 

Andran^aloaka, on trees. Very near P, repandulum and del' 
todoUj but distinctly stipitate, with superficial marginal sori. 

212*. P* (Etjpoltpoditjm) TORrLosrar, BaTcer^ n. sp. Stipes 

tufted, wiry, l-f in. long, clothed with fine brown spreading hairs. 
Prond lanceolate, 3-4 in. long, 1 -1^ in. broad, bipinnate, narrowed 
from the middle to both ends, moderately firm in texture, clothed 
with fine brown spreading hairs, which are most abundant on the 
rachis. Pinnae narrow, linear, erecto-patent, 30-40 -jugate, broadly 
adnate at the base, \ line broad, the upper and lower ones nearly 
entire, the rest with broad, obtuse, adnate lobes reaching nearly 
or quite to the midrib, which are almost truncate on the upper, and 
long, decurrent on the lower side. Veins immersed, simple, one 
running up each lobe. Sori round, superficial, one placed at the 
base of each lobe close to the midrib, 12-18 to the central 

On a tree at Andrangaloaka. Allied to the rare Brazilian P. 

achillecefolium^ Kaulf. 

18*. NoTOCHLJuKA STREETiji:, Bakev^ n. sp. Stipe (incom- 


^-f in. long, brown, wiry, flexuose, naked. Prond lanceolate, 

5-6 in. long, |-1 in. broad, nai rowed gradually to both ends, 

moderately firm in texture, glabrous, green, simply pinnate. 

Pinnae about 30-jugate, crowded, broadly adnate at the base, ^ 

linear, entire or very obscurely repand, the central ones |-"| in. 

long, -^-\ in. broad. Veins simple, erecto-patent, 6-7 on each 







plete) naked, castaneous, finely pilose, like the rachis. Trend 
deltoid, 3-4-pinnatifid, 5-6 in. long and broad, bright green, 
membranous ; the veins ciliated with a few long hairs, the rest of 
the surface glabrous. Pinnse few, the lowest pair much the 
largest, deltoid, distinctly petioled, 1| in. broad, produced on the 
lower side, with bipinnatifid oblong-lanceolate lowest pinnules, 
which are much larger and more compound than any of the others. 
Ultimate lobes oblong, close, -j^-- g- in. broad, reaching down about 
halfway to the midrib. Veins copiously pinnate in the ultimate 
lobes, with fine erecto-patent veinlets. Sori close or subremote, 
2 line broad, round, with the margin not at all recurved. 

Discovered by Mrs. Street. Habit aud texture of the small 
forms of Il^polep is Bergiana. 

Gymkogkamme leptophylla, Desv, 



-w A. LIXEARE, Fee. 

A. SQUAMOSUM, Sw,y var. leucolepis, Baker. Lamina of the 
barren frond |-| in. broad ; both surfaces densely scaly. Scales 
white or pale brown, large, lanceolate, densely imbricated, ciliated 
only, not fimbriated; in one specimen | in. long in the lower 
third of the frond and suddenly black in the lower half. 

Probably a distinct species ; but I have not seen the fertile 

A. soEBiEOLiUM, Linn. 

Platycekium madagascaeiekse. Baker. Miss Gilpin has 
brought the barren frond, which was wanting in Mr. Pool's col- 
lection. It is nearly a foot broad, obversely obloug, 6-8 inches 
from the border to the point of attachment, entire, glabrous, cori- 
aceous. The large strong raised veins forming irregular penta- 
gonal areolj^, the central ones 1-1^ in. long, the outer ones grow- 
ing gradually smaller. 


Lycopodium DicnOTOMUM, Sw. Exactly matching Brazilian 
specimens. New to the Old World. 



Lycopodium CLAVATUM, i. 

Selaginella molliceps, Spring. 
S. Lyallt, Spring. 

Amongst the few flowering plants of the collection are included 
female spikes of HydrosfacTiys Goudotiana, of which the inflores- 
cence was previously unknown. The flowers form dense spikes 
1-1^ in. long, \ in. thick ; and the oblong coriaceous bract is ver- 
rucose at the top and wrapped tightly round the capsule. There 
is also a new Asparagm^ of which I give a description 

AsPAiiAGrsMADAGASCARiE]N'sis,-BflA(9r,n. sp. A much-brauched 
climber, with slender, bright green, glabrous branches, the ulti- 
mate ramuli subpatent, and growing gradually shorter towards 
the top of the branch. Leaves obscurely calcarate. Phyllocladia 
usually in threes, at the top of tlie branch, rarely solitary, flat, lan- 
ceolate, bright green, glabrous, cuspidate, 3-4 lines long, erecto- 
patent, with a very distinct midrib. Pedicels axillary, geminate, 
articulated at the middle, finally | in. long. "Flower not seen. 
Berry the size of a large pea. Of known species, approaching 
only A. scandens, Thunb., of the Cape. 

Angr^cum Gilpin^. " Aphyllum (anthesi quidem), caules- 
cens, radicibus tenuibus elongatis subcompressis (?) multiflexis, pe- 
dunculo apice racemose, bracteis ovato-triangulis reflexis minutis, 
ovariis longipedicellatis, sepalis tepalisque ellipticis obtuse acutis, 
labelli lamina cochleari calceolari obtuse acuta, calcari sigmoideo 
obtuso ovarium pedicellatum non sequante, rostelli falcibus elon- 
gatis ascendentibus. 

A highly curious plant, with minute flowers, yellowish when 
dry, scarcely exceeding \ inch. It is most curious for therostel- 
lum, that points to the existence of a remarkable insect for its 
fertilization. It is most respectfully dedicated to its discoverer." 

Beicli,fiL <Sf S. Moore, 


Note on the Causes of the Numerical Increase of Parts of Plants. 

By the Eev. Geoege Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

[Read June 7, 1877]. 


In the following note I have attempted to classify the various 
methods and causes of the increase of parts of leaves and floral 
whorls, more especially with the view of limiting each of the 
various kinds to its proper cause respectively. 



I. Atavism or Reversion. 

1. Dialysis of normally '* coherent " organs. 

i. Of those coherent by organic nnion. 
ii. Of those coherent by mechanical union. 

Solution of normally "adherent" organs. 



1. PolyphyUy : 

i. by the increase in number of individual parts, either of some 

or all those of a whorl, 
ii. by the '^symmetrical increase" of whorls. 
iii. Restoration to a higher ancestral number. 

2. Pleiotaxy : 

i. By the increase of the number of whorls. 
ii. By the increase of the number of cycles. 

3. Pleiojyhylly by the production of supernumerary leaflets 

i. Accidental numerical increase. 
ii. Partial or entire restoration. 

III. Supplemental Developments. 

1. Plication, 

3, Enation, producing appendicular processes. 

IV. [Cause obscure.] 
Chorisis^ fission^ or bifurcation. 

i. of axes. ii. of axial appendages. 

V. Ateophy. 

Formation of compound foliar organs. 

I. Atavism. — Under this head I would inchide Dialysis and 
Solution (Veg. Ter. Masters, pp. 69 & 76). For, I assume, on the 
well-known principles of evolution, that all normally coherent 
organs were originally free and distinct in their ancestral condi- 
tions ; so that whenever normally united parts are developed free 
from each other, such I consider to be due to reverrion in the 
sense of atavism. 

Of cohesion T would recognize two kinds ; 

i. Organic^ when the parts emerge from tlie axis already 

coherent, as do gamopetalous corollas. 
ii. Mechanical, when the parts are at first quite free, but 

unite subsequently by their adjacent edges, becoming 
coherent ; as do the anthers of the Compositce (by muci- 
lage) and the stigmas of Asclepias, 
Of examples of £?*Wym maybe mentioned polypetalous Cam- 


j)anu7a, Convolvulus^ Prijnula, &c., as well as apocarpous pistils in 
flowers whicli are normally syncarpous. 

As examples o^ solution are polysepalous aud inferior calyces of 
apples and Umbelliferous plants associated with hypogynous petals 

and stamens. 

The immediate cause of the solution in these cases is the arrest 
of development of the receptacular tube, lu consequence of which 
the ovary remains superior and the calyx free. 

II. HxPERTnopHT. — As efFccts of a superabundance of nourish- 
ment which must De expended in the development of superuume- 
organs, I would class : 

1. Poli/phylly (Z. c. p. 358); aud of this phenomenon two varieties 
may be recognized. 

i. The increase in number of some of or all the individual 

organs of a whorl, 
ii. The "symmetrical increase " of whorls. 

2. Restoration to a higher ancestral number. 

Firsts any single organ may be doubled, trebled, or replaced 
by several. Thus two stamens often arise from the same gland 
in the place of one lateral stamen of a cruciferous flower. A 
similar phenomenon appears to occur normally in Buto)7ius. 

Secondly , of what I call the symmetrical increase of whorls, 
there are innumerable examples. In fact, any flower, say normally 
«-merous, seems capable of becoming w + 1-, w + 2-, w + &c.-inerous ; 
Elder, Jasmine, Puchsia, &c. may be mentioned. 

Thirdly, as partial or entire restorations to an ancestral num- 
ber, which is normally reduced, are leguminous flowers with two 
to five carpels. Poppies with three sepals and six petals are, aa 
I believe, reversions to an ancestral trimerous arrangement- 

The development of the stamens of Hypericum would seem to 
show that the terminal staminal papillae are themselves early ar- 
rested, but give rise to a cluster of smaller lateral papillse, each 
of which becomes a perfect stamen. 

3. Fleiotaxy (/. c. p. 371), This term applies to an increase : 
i. In the number of whorls. 

ii. In the number of cycles. 
Examples of increase of whorls is seen in the multiplication of 
the bracts of the Wheatear Carnation, in the perianth of the 
double White Lily, in double Campanulas, &c., and in Stone- 
crops with an extra staminal whorl. I would include here the 
double Dajffodil, the successive whorls of which undergo partial 
adhesion as well as partial dialysis at the same time. 






Secondlj, when flowers become double tliey may lose tlieir ver- 
ticillate character and become spiral. Thus, I counted more than 
forty petals in a double Wallflower. 

4. Pleiophylly . — As in the ease of polyphylly, the abnormal in- 
crease of the number of leaflets of foliar appendages may be either 
due to an accidental numerical excess, or to atavism, one or more 
leaflets being usually suppressed. Thus, compound leaves occa- 
sionally develop extra leaflets, as the 4-7-leafed Shamrock (TV/- 
^ folium repe7is) ; so also does OsaJis, Laburnum, &c. ; while the 

AVillow called Salix pendula multistipulata develops several sti- 
pules. Such abnormal varieties may become permanent. 

Some leaves, however, such as of the Elm, occasionally produce 
a supernumerary leaflet at the base of the blade (Z, c. p. 353, fig. 
183). This is a restoration ; for the leaf is normally oblique in 
consequence of the arrest of development of the lowermost fibro- 
vascular bundle on one side. If this be restored it produces a 
small leaflet occupying the space usually left vacant. A still 
further excess of development blends the leaflet into the main 
portion, and the leaf becomes simple and no longer oblique*. 
^ III. Supplemental Deyelopments. — Under this head I would 

include all processes of enation {I, c. p. 443) — that is, outgrowths 
from organs after they have emerged from the receptacle or axis ; 
such are spurs to corollas, which arise as saccate bulgings which 
become prolonged into spurs. Some forms of such processes, 
however, are not thus formed by the entire structure, but only by 
^fold in one epidermis. To such I apply the word plication. The 
Tudimentary form maybe seen in the " corona " of Forget-me-not, 
in Primula^ and, in a more exaggerated condition, in tliat of Nar- 
cissus. In the latter example fibro-vascular bundles pass up the 
innermost and outermost membranes, but none occur on the outer 
epidermis of the corona, or on the inner or upper epidermis of the 


IV. Chorisis, Fission, or Bifubcation. — The causes of bifur- 
cation are not clear. In some monstrous instances it may be 
simply due to injury at the apex of the organ. It may occur in 
axes, as when two cones or catkins take the place of one, or when 
the stems of ferns and the roots of Lycopodium bifurcate. Again 

* The cause of the obliquity of the Elm, Lime, &c., is, I believe, due to pe- 
culiar vernation, as I have elsewhere stated (Linn. Trans, vol. i. part 2, p. 37, 

The stipules lie obliquely across the eJges of the conduplicate leaf, 

•and thus allow one side to develop more readily than the other. 



it is frequent in foliar organs — as, abnormally in the fronds of Sco- 

lopendriuTrij or normally in the stamens of Tilia, Malva^ and some 

of the Amentacece^ and apparently also in Adoxa. In these androecia | 

the anther-lobes are separated by " fission," which is carried down 

more or less towards the base of the filament, and are unilocular. 

The words " chorisis " and " fission " are inappropriate ; for they 
express only the appearance, and not the real developmental 
process, as the stamens are not at first entire and then subse- 
quently split ; and I would, were it possible, use only " bifurca- 
cation," which simply describes the condition. Moreover, if cho- 
risis be retained, I would limit its use to bifurcation alone. 

Whenever supernumerary anthers are two-celled, such a stamen 
would not come under chorisis but hypertrophy, as in the case of 

V. Atrophy. — To this cause I attribute all incised, cut, or 
laciniated foliar organs, and thence also compound leaves, which 
represent further conditions arrived at by the total arrest of the 
parenchymatous tissue between the fibro-vascular bundles. Several 
plants furnish transitional conditions which clearly prove this, as 
Rubus fruticosuSj species of Cle?natis, Rhus TieteropTiylla^ &c. 

The development of alobed organ may easily give rise to a false 
conception ; for the lobes begin as lateral outgrowths, and might 
be considered due to hypertrophy and not atrophy ; but in nor- 
mally lobed or compound leaves lateral protuberances would not 
occur at all if the intermediate tissue kept pace with them, as is 
the case with entire leaves. 

Lastly, two or more of the preceding causes may act conjointly 
on a flower, inducing various modifications. Such is the case with 
a monstrous Primula vulgaris communicated by Miss Dowson and 
described by Dr. Masters in his paper " On some Points in the Mor- 
phology of the Primulaceae" *, and which I have also examined. 


1. By atavism, the five petals are nearly free. 

2. By chorisis, the median fibro-vascular bundle bifurcates and 
thus increases the number of lobes to ten. 

3. Solution has freed the corolla from the stamens, thereby 
disproving the theory that the corolla o^ Primula is an outgrowth 
from the androecium. 


1. The solution just mentioned separates them from the corolla 

* Now in the press for the Society's ' Transactions/ 




2. They are transformed into petals, 

3. -4rr<?5^ of lateral parenclijma between the branches of the 
veins causes several of the petaloid stamens to become lacinfated. 

4. Change of sex has occurred, by which the petaloid filament 
developed style and stigma ; and the margins and even the mid- 
ribs had become placentiferous and produced rudimentary ovules. 

Pistil, — This organ remained normal in all the flowers exa- 

Contributions to the Botany of H.M.S. ' Challenger.' 

XXXIX, The Lichens of the * Challenger ' Expedition (with a 
revision of those enumerated by Dr. J. Stirtonin Linn. Journ. 
Bot. xiv. pp. 366-375). By the Eev. J. M. Ckombie, F.L.S. 


[Bead June 7, 1877.] 

Cape Verde. 

1. SCTTONEMA sp. ? [ 


On rocks, Bird Island : very sparingly and sterile. (This is 
probably a new species, buf is not sufficiently developed to be fully 



On rocks : sparingly gathered. (There are no apothecia visible 
on the two fragments returned, so that the species is uncertain. ) 


On rocks : fertile. [N.B. There are also smaller and more 
slender states from Bird Is4land,=i2. j^atellata, Strn., sp. n.] 

4. Eamalika eigida (Pers.) l=B. scopulorum^ van tenuior^ 


On the ground : sterile. 

5. E. CUSPIDATA, var. cbassa, Del. [ = JR. polpnorpha]. 
On maritime rocks : fertile and somewhat variable. 

6. R. iifTEKMEDiA, Del.[^=B.farinacea]. 
On the ground : sterile. 

On rocks : barren. 

r = P. tiliacea^ var, $cortea] . 

In this and the following instances I give Dr. Stirton's determinations 

1^ ^ 



8. Parhelia perforata, Ach, [=P. conspersa]. 

On rocks : sterile. (There is no specimen present of P. Icevi- 
gata^ enumerated by Dr. Stirton.) 

9. Phxscia elayicans (Str.) \=Alectoria epicTirysa^^tvn,^ sp. n.]. 
On the ground : sterile. 

10. P. leuco:mela (Z.) [^ = Alectoria sulcata]. 

On the ground : sterile, mixed up with P. Jlavicans. 

11. P. adscensionis {Ach, Syn, p. 179). 

On rocks : sterile, associated with Scytonema. 

12. Heppia meiolepis, Cromh. [= Endocarpiscum aterrimum, 
Strn , sp. n., nomen ineptum, nam nihil atrum habet thallus]. 
Thallus obscure olivaceo-fuscus, squamulosus, squamulis sattenui- 
bus (latit. circiter 0*5 millim.), planiusculis, velfertilibusconvexi- 
nsculis, subsparsis ; apothecia incoloria endocarpoidea (visa solum 
epitheciopunctiformi, juniora) ; thec^e polysporae turgidse; sporse 
incolores breviter ellipsoidese, longit. 0003-0*004 millim., crassit. 
0*0020-0 0025 millim. ; paraphyses gracilescentes. lodo gelatina 


hymenialis cserulescens, dein vinoso-fulvescens. 
On rocks : sparingly seen. 

13. Lecaxora (PLACODiuii) lepidoplacxtm, -ZVyZ., sp. n. [ = 

JPlacodium elegans], '* Affinis Placodio murorum^ sed thallo 
(vitellino-aurantiaco) deplanato squamuloso-adnato, squamulis 
ambitu lobulato-incisis. Apothecia saturatiora (latit. circiter 0*5 
millim.), margine thallino integro cincta ; sporae longit. 0*008- 
0*0011 millim., crassit. 0*OO5-O-0O7 millim. Spermatia longit. 
00025-0*0030 millim., crassit. 0*0007 millim. 

Comparandum Placodium sulsolutum, Nyl. (Pyr. Or. p. 50), 
mox differt squamulis thalli minus evolutis et sporia majoribus." 

•Nyh in UtL 

On rocks : sparingly associated with the preceding species. 

14. L. (Placodium) flatorubens, Nyl. 
On rocks : apparently frequent. 

15. L. pxeacea (Aci,). 

On rocks : very sparingly {Jide Dr. Stirton). 

16. L. TINCE^■TI^'A, iVy?., sp. n, [=i. sulfusca^ van atrynea']. 
** Thallus albidus tenuis areolato-rimulosus (K + flavescens); apo- 
thecia pallida opaca (latit. circiter 0*5 millim.), margine sat tenui 
integro cincta ; sporse 8nse, ellipsoideae,longit. 0009-0011 millim., 



















crassit. 0004/-0006 millim. ; paraphjses graciles apice granuloso- 
inspersse. lodo gelatina Lymenialis caerulescens, caerulescentia 
dein subpersistens (tbecse ssepe subviolascentes), 

"Affinis videtur Lecanorce subcarnece, Nyh A L. Bogotana pal- 
lidiore distat paraphysibus gracilentis* Spermogonia non visa." 

■Nyl. in litt. 

On rocks, St. Vincent : very sparingly seen. 

17. DiEiNA EEPA]S"DA, var. {^^Lecidea teicModes^ Strn., sp. n.]. 

On rocks, the only specimen seen being sterile. This is cer- 
tainly not a Lecidea^ but a Dirina^ as is sufficiently shown by the 
characters of the thallus and the spermogones. It appears to be 
a var, of _D, repanda^ approaching to seldstosaj Bagl. (vid. Nyl- 
Pyr. Or.) ; but as no apothecia are visible on the specimen re- 
turned, this is somewhat uncertain. 

18. Peetusaeia aleianta, JSfyh^ sp. n. [=P. leioplaca]. " Thal- 
lus albidua opacus, mediocris crassitiei (1 millimetri vel multo 
quidem tenuior), ina^qualis, rimoso-diffractus K(CaCl) — ; apo- 
thecia (in verrucas tliallinis convexis insequalibus variisque, 1-3- 
hymeneis inclusa) extus supra puncto obscure ostioli demum iu- 
dicata K(CaCl) -; sporce 2'4n^, longit. 0'070-0-090 millim., 
crassit. 0033-0038 millim. lodo thecae intensive caerulescentes. 
Verrucse thallinae apothecia continentes plus minusve erainulse et 
distlnctae, interdum subconfluentes. Spermatia acicularia recta 
longit. 0-010-0-012 millim., crassit. 0^0005 millim., utroque apice 


'^Comparetur P. impallescens^ Nyl., ex insula Rodriguez. 
-A^Z. in lilt. 

On rocks : sparingly seen. 

19. Lecidea canescexs (Dcks.). 
On rocks: sterile, associated with Collemopsts pelia. (Thallus 

K+ yellowish, CaCl-.) 

20. L. EPiPASTA, 8trn.^ sp. n. (Nomen valde ineptum, nam nihil 
*' effusum " adest : melius forte dicatur L, epiplacodia, Cromb.) 

On rocks : parasitic on the thallus of Lecanorajlavorubens. 

(This species is in a certain way allied to L. parasitica ; but the 
spores are colourless, normally 3-septate, 0-018-0-022 millim. long, 
00035 millim. thick; and, what is of greater importance, the 
Spermatia are arcuate as in the section of L. aromatica^ to which 
consequently it belongs. It is there analogous to Lecidea viteU 
linaria in the section of L. parasema,) 





21. Lecidea thtrsodes, Strn., sp. n. (As the diagnosis given 
by Dr. Stirton of this species does not agree with the plant so 
named on the fragmentary specimen, I have named this latter 

as follows.) 

L. heteeobola, Cromh., sp. n. Thallus albidus tenuis vel 
tenuissimus continuus rugulosus, subrimulosus ; apothecia nigra 
prominula submarginata (latit. circiter 0*5 millim.), intus strato 
medio albido ; spora^ Snse incolores bacillares 7-septat3e, longit. 
0-048-0'078 millim., crassit.0'002-0'003 millim.; paraphyses gra- 
cilescentes, bene discretse, epithecium fuscescens, hypothecium 
cum perithecio fuscum. lodo gelatina hymenialis vix tincta, 
thecse dilute rosello-violascentes. 

Accedere videtur sporis suis ad stirpem Lecidece hacillifercey sed 

esse possit stirpis proprise distinctge. 
On rocks : very sparingly seen, 


On rocks : a small fragment. 

23. Opegeapha undtjlata, >S/rw., sp. n. (Nihil autem " un- 
dulatura " habet. Dicatur O. dialeuca, Cromb.) 

On rocks : very sparingly seen. Spores constantly 7-septate 
O-O23-0'027 millim. long, 0*(X)6-0-007 millim. thick ; hypothecium 
colourless ; perithecium black. A very distinct species of the 
genus, differing in various respects from O. albo-aira^ Nyh Enum. 
Gen, p. 131, which also, ex hb. Hooker, occurs in Cape Verde. 


1. Leptogium diaphan'um {8w.\ Ach. [=i. tremelloideSy var. 
mesotomum, Strn.]. 

On the bark of trees. 

2. L. teemelloides, -4.cA. [ = Z. marginellvm]. 
On the bark of trees : fertile and quite typical. 

3. Cladokta acuminata, * hebesceks, Nyl. " Differt a C. acu- 
minata (Ach.) squamulis crassiusculis subconvexulis. Sterilis 
modo visa. Forsan propria species." — Nyl, in litt. 

On the ground: very sparingly seen. 

4. C. FIBULA {Ach.) [=C. turgida^ et var. elegans]. 
On the ground : fertile. 

5. C. MiTEULA, Tuck. [=C. lotrytes]. 
On the ground : fertile. 













6. Eamalina complanata(5'2^.)j -4^^. [ = i2. bermudiana, Strn., 
sp. n.]. 

On branches of trees : fertile. (This of course bears no resem- 
blance whatever to Pht/scia cJirysopTitlialma.) 

7. Parhelia tinctobum, Despr, [=P. tiliacea, var. scortea]. 
On putrid trunks : sterile. 

8. P. peblata (-t.) [ = P. pJiysodes, var. labrosa]. 

On old wood : infertile. (The specimen is very much sorediata 
at the margins of the lobes.) 

9. Phtscia Leana, Tuck. [=P. speciosd]. 

On bark of trees, very sparingly. (Thallus K — . The speci- 
men is somewhat smaller than the original muscicole plant from 

10. P. OBSESSA {Mnt.)j Nyl. Syn. p. 426 [=P. stellaris]. 
On thin bark, very sparingly, 

11. Lecakoba subfusca, *stlvestbis, Nyl. in Mdnd, Lich. 
Mader, iS"o. 1. 

On thin bark, very sparingly, associated with the preceding 
species. (Spores 0008-0-011 millim. long, 0001-0007 millim. 

12. L. Bebmudensis, Nyh \_ = L. siibfusca^ var. argentatd]. 
*' Affinis i. umhrincBy sed mox differens, margine thallino apothe- 
ciorum integro, paraphysibus gracilescentibus, &c. Thallus 

K-."— iVyZ. in lift. 
On bark of trees : only a fragment seen. 

13. L. chlaboih^ella, Nyl [ = Z. varia, var. symmicta]. " Similis 
X. cJilaroterodi, Nyl. in Flora, 1876, p. 508, Cubanae, sed differt 
gelatina hymenialis iodo vinose fulvescente (prsecedente cserules- 
centia). Spermogonia non visa." — Nyl. in lift. 

On bark of trees : a very small specimen only seen. 

14. L. glaucomodes, Nyl in Flora, 1876, p. 509, * conflec- 
te:ns, Nyl, [=i;. angulosa, var. alio-pruinosa, Strn.]. *' Differt, 
L. conjlectens a glaucomodi, paraphysibus distinctis, iodo gelatina 
hymeniali vinose fulvescente, etc." — NyLin litt. 

On the bark of trees : very sparingly. 

15. Perttjsabia papillata {Ach.\ NyL [=P. leioplaca]. 

On the bark of trees : a mere fragment. 


On the bark of trees, sparingly. 



On "branches : probably not uncommon, 

24. ARTUOKiAPOLTMOBPHOiDESjiVyZ., sp.ii.l=A.inferveniens']. 
" Sat similis A. poly^norplicey Ach., sed mox differt gelatina byme- 
niali iodo persistenter cserulescente et sporis vinose rubescenti- 




16. Peethsaria ptxstulata {AcJi, [=P. melaleuca]. 
On the bark of trees: sparingly seen. 

17. Lecidea ruscoRUBESCEKs, Nyl.^ X. Andaman^ p. 10 [=i. 
caliginosa^ Strn., sp. n.]. 

On the bark of trees : sparingly seen. 

N.B. ^^ Lecidea fuscoricbescens^ Nyh Port Natal, p. 8, is to be 
separated from the present species on account of its larger and j 

more turgid spores (0-011-0'017 millim. long, O'OOT-OOIO millim. 
thick), and to be called Lecidea Natalensis^ JSTyl." — Nyh in Vitt. 

[L. ETTPORizA, Btrn.^ sp. n.] 

On the specimen returned there is nothing rightly developed, 
and nothing at all lecideine. It seems rather to be something of 
a mycological nature. 

18. L. SEMiTTSTA, &tvn.^ sp. n. 
On rocks : very fragmentary, 
(This belongs to the section of i. tracTiona, Plot., and, indeed, 

maybe merely a state of that species ; but the fragment, on which 
only two apothecia are visible, is scarcely determinable. Spores 
0-009-0-011 millim. long, 0003 millim. thick.) • 

19. L. RETERTENs, Stru.^ sp. n. 
On calcareous rocks : a mere fragment. 
(This species is apparently closely allied to L. misella. Spores 

0-006-0008 millim. long, 0-002-0-003 millim. thick.) 

20. L. t:kspeiiata, Nyl.N. Gran, p. 31 [=X. myriocarpa (DC.) 
ex Strn. in Sched.]. 

On the bark of trees, associated with Periusaria pusfulata. 

(Nylander observes in Utt. that, notwithstanding the character 
of the spores, this species is rather a Lecidea than a Lecanora, 
Spores 0012-0-018 millim. long, 0-005-0-008 millim. thick.) 

21. Grapuis Afzelit, Ach, 
On bark of trees : well fruited. 

22. G. (Lecakactis) lorata (EscJno.) [= O , punctiformis]. 





bus. Sporse oblongse S-septatse, longit. 0*016-0*023 millim., cras- 
sit. 0*006-0'007 millim. Spermatia arcuata, longit. C 
millim., crassit. O'OOOS millim." — Nyl. in litt. 



], " Differt ab -4. rubella praesertim sporls nonnihil 

' minoribus,0'023-0-030 millim. long, 0'009-0-015 millim. thick.' 
iV^Z. in Utt, 

On the bark of trees : very sparingly seen. 
^ (N.B. The specific name velafa, Strn., has long ago been given 

by Flotow to another species.) 

26. Vereucarta EtTi>ERELLA, iV^?., sp. n. " Similis V. ruderum, 
Bed sporis longe minoribus, longit. 0*014-0019 millim., crassit. 
0-009-0012 millim."— iV^yZ. in Utt. 

On calcareous rocks, very sparingly, associated with Lecidea 

27. Endococcus thalamita, JVi/L, sp. n, " Pyrenia habet in- 
coloria vel dilute fuscescentia immersa (latit. circiter 0*1 millim., 
vel minora) in thalamio Lecidece insperat(S ; thecse polysporas ; 

X sporse fusca? ellipsoidese leviter 1-septatae, longit. 0*007-0010 

millim., crassit. 0*003-0004 millim. lodo gelatina hymenialis 
vinose rubescens. Apothecia parasita occupata sine paraphysibus, 
thecis, etc."— -^Z. in Utt. 

On the bark of trees, sparingly, associated with Pertusaria 

pustulata^ Ach. 


On branches : probably not uncommon. 

Azores (Furnas). 
1. Clado]s'ia fimbriata, SJpm. \_ = G.pyxidata, var.]. 

On rocks : sterile. 

iV^/, [ = (7, sq^uamosa] 

On the ground : sterile and bi 


On rocks ? barren. 

4. Sticta pulmokacea, AcTi. 
On trees : infertile. 

5. S. BAM^CORIilS {Sw.). 

On trees: fertile. 




6. Parhelia peklata (X.). 

Ou trees : sterile. (One specimen also occurs labelled P. con- 


7, P. PERFORATA ( Wulf,), 

On bark : infertile and small. 

8. Lecidea EXDOLErCA, iVyZ. [ = X. cyanoclivoa^ Strn., sp. n.]- \ 

On bark : very sparingly seen. (The plant is entirely similar j 

to the European. Spores, 0045-0*055 millim. long, 0-0035 millim. 

thick ; paraphyses llacJcish at the apices ; hypothecium beneath 

purplish brown or subcolourless. 


1. Eamalina minusctjla, iV^Z. [=i2. atilofa, Strn., sp. n.]. 
On rocks: fertile. (Spores OOIO-O'OIS millim. long, 0004- 

0006 millim. thick.) 

2. Sticta aurata, Ach, 
On trees : sterile. (A state with the thallus somewhat paler 

than usual, but otherwise not at all like var, pallens^ Nyl.) 

3. Parhelia glabra (Schaer,), Nyl. [=:P. oUvacea^ var. sfj/gid]. - 
On rocks : fertile. Thallus CaCl +. 

4. Lecanora (Squamaria) saxtcola (Poll.). 
On rocks : a small specimen. 


5. L. (Squamaria) MELANOPHxnALMA (Sam.). [ 
On rocks : fragmentary specimens. 

6. L. (Placodixjm) subelegans, -Z%Z., sp. n. [=P. murorum^ 
var. miniatum], " Subsimilis P. elegantly sed mox differena sporis 
majoribus vel turgidioribus (longit, 0010-0'0l5 millim., crassit. 
0007-0-009 millim.). Spermatia oblonga, longit. 0'025-0-030 
millim., crassit. 00010 millim." — Nyl. in litt. 

On rocks, very sparingly. 

7. L. parella, Ach. [=Z. paUescens]. 
On rocks : quite typical. 

8. L. Tenebifpensis, NyL l=L.noseriza^ Strn.,nomen informe]. 
*' Thallus e granulis albis minntis (K — ) constans, sparsis in by 
pothallo nigro raaculiformi ; apothecia dilute luteo-pallida (latit. 
0'5 millim. vel minora), margine thallino snbcrenato cincta ; sporjo 
4-8n9e incolores ellipsoidese, longit. 0011-0'014 millim., crassit. 
007-0010 millim. ; paraphyses gracilescentes, superius et epithe- 








cium granuloso-mapersa. lodo gelatina hymenialis bene caeru- 
lescens, dein thecae violaceo-falvescentes. 

Species peculiaris comparanda cum X, Bermudensi^ sed mox 
differens thallo alio, margiue thallino apotKeciorum subcrenato- 
insequali, etc. Spermogonia non visa." — Nyl. in litf. 

On bark of trees : only a small fragment seen. (This species 
evidently has nothing in common with L. varia.) 

9. Ueceolaeia scruposa *butophila, Ach, [=Z7. scruposa]. 
On the ground, along with the barren thallus of Cladonia pyxi- 




On rocks : sterile and doubtful. 


1. Lecakoba eecubajjs, Strn, 

On rocks ; well fruited. (This species is allied to Lecanora 
hella^ Ach.). 


1. Leptogittm tremelloides {AcJ}.). 
On trees ? sparingly fertile. 

2. Paemelia peesulphueata, Nyl, "Subsimilis Farmelia 
sulphurat(je, Nees et Plot., Nyl. Syn. p. 377, sed nonnihil minor, 
thallo vix isidiosulo, subsoredioso, intus sulphureo-axireo, margi- 
nibus lobulorum passim crenulato-incisis. Apothecia et spermo- 
gonia ignota. Thallus K + ." Nyl. in Utt. 

On the bark of trees ; only a small fragment seen. Formerly 
gathered in Louisiana, TucJc.y who does not distinguish it from P. 


Along witli this is the merest fragment of another ParmeUa^ 
which externally resembles states of F. tinctorum, Despr., but 
differs from this and all other known species by its peculiar 
reaction, viz. " Medulla and eoredia K+, greenish black." The 
fragment, however, is too miserable to admit of any right dia- 
gnosis, though its unique reaction will render its identification an 
easy matter. I purpose naming it P. adepfa^ Cromb., n. sp. 

3. Geaphis ArzELii (Ach)' 
On bark of trees, very sparingly. 


4. Gbapiiis tekella, Ach., Ni/l. -ZV^. Granat. p. 5G1. 
On bark of trees, very sparingly. 

5. Glypiiis cicatricosa, f. FATiiLOSA (AcJi.), I^i/L JS'. Granat. 

p. 208. 

On bark of trees ; only a small fragment seen. (The spores 

are 0'030 millim. long. 0009 millira. thick). 

6. Chiodecton RUBROcmcTUM: (Ehrnh.)j Nyh N. Granat. 
p. 110. 

On bark ; sparingly seen. 

7. Verrucabia cmcHOK^j Ach. (=F'. prostans Mut., Nyl. 
Pyrenoc. p, 57). 

On smooth bark, very sparingly. 

8. Melaj^'otheca aciculieera, -ZVyZ. 

On branches of trees, sparingly, and with the spores rarely 

well evolute. 

Kergtjele2«'s Land. 

1. Stereocatjlon ctmosum, Cromh, 
On the ground; infertile. 

2. Cladonia corxuta (Z.), Fr. 

On the ground ; barren. 

3. NEUROPoaoN MELAXANTHUs, var. ciLiATA, -^y?. 

On rocks ; fertile. (A somewhat deformed and otherwise not 
typical state.) 

4. N, Tatlori (Rook. fil). 

On rocks; large and fertile specimens. 

5. Pankaria dichroa {Tayh). 
On rocks ; sparingly gathered. 

G. Lecaxora (Placopsis) gelida (Z.), ff lateritia, iV^?., et 
titelli:na, Bah. 

On rocks, sparingly ; fertile. 

7. L. (Placopsis) MACROPninALMA {Tayl,), 
On rocks ; fertile. 

8. L. ctphellieormis, Cromh., sp. n. Affinis Zecanor(^ jun- 
germannicB (Valil), sed thallo vix ullo, apotheciis biatorinis luteis 
concaviusculis marginatis (latit. 05 millim. vel minoribus) : 
sporse placodinse solitse, longit. 0015-0018 millim., crassit. 0008- 
0-010 millim. 

On decayed plants ; only a very few apothecia visible. 





9. Lecidea disjungenda, Crorab. in Journ. Bot. 1877. 

10. L. STEPHANODES, Sim,, sp. n. Thallus albidus vel cineraa- 
ceus (vel fcrro tinctus ochraceus, f. ferruginea)^ tenuis, subrugu- 
losus, contiiiuus : apothecia nigra superficialia (latit. circiter 1 
millim.), plana, crasse marginata margine obsolete radiatiin rimoso- 
subdiffracto ; sporse 2-8n8e incolorcs ellipsoidese simplices, longit. 
0-038-0-056 millim., crassit. 0021-0'034 millim., paraphyses dis- 

^ eretae graciles, epithecium fuscescens, hypothecium cum perithecio 

' crasse nigrum. lodo gelatina hymenialis intensive cserulescens. 

This is a very well-marked species with large spores, belonging 
to the section of i. contigua. 

On rocks ; only a fragmentary specimen seen, 

11. L. suPEiiJECTA, iV^?., sp. n. '^Parasita, apotheciis nigris 
superficialibus corrugato-plicatis (latit. 0*5 millim. vel minoribus), 
intus concoloribus : sporse Snse incolores ellipsoidese simplices, 
longit. 0009-0-011 millim., crassit. 0*006 millim. ; epithecium an-^ 
gustum subincolor, paraphyses gracilescentes, hypothecium cum 
perithecio (etiam implicato) nigro. lodo gelatina hymenialis cse- 

> rulescens, dein vinose rubens." N'yL in litt. 

Parasitic on the thallus of Z. disjungenda ; only a very few 
apothecia seen. 

12. L. GEOGEAPHICA (i). 

On rocks, associated with other lichens. 


On rocks, very sparingly, along with Z. suhjungenda, 

14, V. cokgesti'La, Strn,, sp. n. Apothecia nigra rugosa 

coarcervato-congesta, pyrenio integre nigro (latit. fere 0*7 millim.); 

^ sporas 8naB, demum infuscatae, breviter ellipsoideae, submurali- 

divissB, longit. 0-021-0025 millim., crassit. 0016-0018 millim. ; 
thecse cylindracese, paraphyses parcse mollissimse. lodo gelatina 
hymenialis non tincta, thecge autem demum vinose fulvescentes. 

Parasitic on the tballus oi Lecanora macropTithalma ; but pro- 
bably only a Sjpihcdria, 

On rocks ; very sparingly seen. 

Maeion Islaxd, 

1. Steeeocaulon ? 

On the ground ; a mere fragment, indetwminable. 



On the ground : very sparingly fertile. 

3. Nettropogon melaxanthus (Ach.). 

On rocks: barren. 

4. Peltigera poltdacttla, f. hymenina {Ach.). 

Amongst mosses on tbe ground: fertile. 


Amongst mosses, &c. : sterile. 

Inaccessible Island. 

1. Eamalina Temenensis, AcTi. 
On branches of trees : fertile. 

2. E. INTERMEDIA {Del.). 

On the branches of trees : barren. 




3. Pabmelia perforata, Ach. 

On trees : sterile, fragmentary and uncertain. 


Husn, p. 11. 

On the bark of trees; apparently common. 

Island of Tristan d'Acunha. 


On the ground : sterile. 

2. Stictina intricata, f TnouARSii (DeL). 
On trees : with young apothecia. 

3. Parmelia perforata, Ach. 
On trees : infertile. 

4. P,PERLATA(i.). 

On trees : barren, also a sorediate state. 


5. P. reyolijTELLa, -%Z., sp. n. " Est quasi P. revoluta^ Flk., 
minor, thallo albido imbricato-laciniato (laciniis latit. 1-2 milli- 
metrorum, subtus nigris, passim rhizlnis concoloribus sparsis par- 
cisque) ; medulla CaCl +• Apothecia non visa. Spermatia bifu- 
siformia, longit. 0'004-0-006 millim., crassit. O'OOOS millim- 
Nyh in lift. 

On trees ? very sparingly seen. 

6. Lecanora (Placopsis) gelida (X.). 
On rock : probably frequent. 

7. L. AcuNHANA, iVyZ., sp. n, '* Thallus albidus tenuis rugulost 





iniTpqualis continuus, passim rimosus (K — , I — ); apothecia nigra 
adnata plana (latit. 0'5-0'8 millim.), marginata, parum prominula ; 
spora? 8n3e, fuscse, ellipsoidese, 1-septatse, longit. 0010-0 012 
millim., crassit. O"006-0'007 millim. ; parapliyses fere mediocres 
clava fusca apice incrassatse; typothecium fuscum. lodogelatiua 

hymenialis intensive cserulescens. 

" Species bene distincta videtur in stirpe Lecidece dispersed 
(Mass.). Spermatia oblongo-cylindrica, longit. 0*003 millim., 
* crassit. 0*001 millim." JV^Z. in litt. 

On rocks : very sparingly seen. 

Island of Juan Fernandez. 

1. LepTOGIUM AZTJRErM {8w,)^ Ach. 

On trunks of trees : fertile. 

2. B.i:OMTCES CHILENSIS (Jl/>^^.),iV^y?. 

On the ground : fertile. (This, in all probability, is to be re- 
garded as a proper species, distinguished by the thin, whitish, 
rugulose, continuous thallus). 

3. Steheocatilon bamtjlostjm {Ach.), Nyl. 

Apparently on the ground : a slender state, fertile. 

4. Cladia aogeegata {Sw,), Nyl. 
On the ground : a young state, infertile. 

5. Sticta subtaeiabilis, Nyl, in Flora, 1867, p. 439. 
On mossy trunks of trees : infertile. 

6, S. HYPOPSILA, -3Z?^^. 

On trees : sparingly fertile. 

7. S. lineariloba (ilf^f .), -SJ^Z. 
On trees : very sparingly fertile. 

8. Thelotrema ? 

On the bark of trees : indeterminable. 

9. Urceolaria scruposa, Ach. 

On the ground : the host of the following species. 

10. Lecidea Fernandezii, Cromh. Omnino est similis L. 
Vrceolarics, Nyl. in Flora, 1873, p, 298, Norrl. Fl. L. F. no. 193, 
differt autem hypothecio et perithecio fuscis, sporisque fere mino- 
ribus, longit. 0*010-0014 millim., crassit. 0*004-0"006 millim. 
Forsan varietas X. Urceolaria, 

Parasitic on the thallus of Urceolaria scruposa. 


Sandwich Islands. 



p. 267. 

Apparently on rocks : well fruited. Haevai. 

Island of Tahiti, 


On the trunks of trees : fertile. 

2. Leptogium diaphanum (Sw.), Ach.^ Mont. 
On trees : well fruited. 

3. L. laceratuluat, Nyl,^ sp. n. " Subsimile i. lacero^ sed 
thallo minus Isevi et magis crispo, marginibus passim tenuiter 
denticulato-isidiosis vel tenuiter fibrilloso-Iaceris. Sterile mode 
visum. Fere StepTianopJioron sit ob tballum plicatulo-rugulosum 
(tamen nonnihil minus (juam in L. corrugatulo comparando)." 
Nijl. in litt. 

Amongst mosses, on trees ? infertile. 

4. Steeeocatjlon pnoxiMrM, Nyl. 
On the ground : fertile. 


On tbe trunks of trees : fertile. 

6. U. TETiLLiEEEA, Nyh, sp. n. " Differt ab U, florida (L.), 
thallo basi cortice transversim plicatulo, fibrillis ascendentibus 
(nee patentibus), apotheciis niagnis receptaculo subefibrilloso (nee 
margine ciliato), sporis nonnihil minoribus, &c." Nyl. in Utt. 

On trunks of trees ; fertile. 

L _ 


7. Stictina caepoloma (Bel), NyL 
On trees : sparingly fertile. 


8. S. capeeata, Bory^ N'yl. 

On the trunks of trees : well fruited. 

9. S. DiCHOTOMOiDES, JVyZ., Syn. p. 355. 

On trees : fertile. Alt. 4000 feet. (The specimen is not quite 
typical, but has the thallus smooth, and not scrobiculose). 

10. Paemelia latissima, i%. (=P. glaherrima, Kphb. m 
Flora, 1869, p. 233). Vid. Nyl Pyr. Or, p. 16, nota. 

On trees ? scarcely fertile, only a single young apothecium 
being visible on the specimen. 



11. Phtscia podocakpa {Bel.), Nyl. in Mora, 1869, p. 322. 
On branclies of trees : sparingly fertile. 

12. P. PODOCARPOiDEs, iV^/., sp, n. " Subsimilis P. podocarp(B, 
sedthallo (similiter K + et medulla dein croceo-ferruginascente) 
subtus nigrescente, ciliis nigris (marginalibus vix uUis) ; apothe- 
ciis fusco-nigris nudis (inpodocarpa caesio-pruinosis) ; sporis fuseis 
1-septatis (in utraque parte loculus major rotundatus et alter mi- 
nutus apicalis), longit. 0-034-0-040 millim., crassit, 0017-0021 
millim." Nyl. in litt. 

On branches of trees : well fruited, 

13. Pakkaeia bubigii^osa {Thunl,). 
On the bark of trees : fertile. 

14. P. IflGRO-CIlfCTA {Mont.). 

On branches of trees : a small specimen, but well fruited. 

15. P, PANXOSA {Sw.), Bel. 

On trees : both fertile and sterile. 

16. PERTrSAElA TELATA {Tum.), 

On branches of trees : finely fruited. 

17. Lectdea Taitexsis, Mnt. 

On trees : fertile. (This is most likely a Lecanora, tliough 
the apothecia have not always a thalline margin. Spores 4-8i}ie, 
0'036-0-070 millim. long, 0'022-0-027 millim. thick.) 

18. L. LEUCOBLEPHARA, Nyl. N. Oruu. p. 52. 
On branches : a small specimen. 

19. L. LEPTOCHEiLOiDEs, iV^?., sp. n. ** Thallus albidus, minute 
granulato-insequalis, tenuis : apothecia nigra plana marginata 
(latit. 1-2 millim. vol minora), perithecio extus albido, intussub- 
nigra (strato excipulari albo^: sporse Sua?, incolores oblonga? 1- 
septata?, longit. 0-016-0'019 millim., crassit. 0-005-0006 millim.; 
epithecium caerulescenti-nigrum, paraphyses gracilescentes, hypo- 
thecium (superius et medium) fuscum (K violaceo-purpurascens). 
lodo gelatina hymenialis vinose rubesceus, praecedente caeru- 

"A L. leptocheila. Tuck. {vii. NyL N. Gran. p. 66, et i. Antill. 
p. 14 ; Wright, X. Cul. no. 227), mox differt hypothecio alio. 

Spermogonia non visa." Nyl. in litt. 

On the thin bark of trees: only a single small specimen 


20. Geaphis assimilts, Nyl. 

On branches : two fragmentary specimens seen. 



21. Graphis stkiatula, AcTi. 

On bark : associated very sparingly with Lecidea leucohlepliara. 

Admiralty Islands. 
1. CoLLEMA (Dichodium) btrsinum {Ach,)j Nyh L, Antill. 

Siisn, p. 4. 

On trees : well fruited. 


On branches : fertile. (Spores O'OIS-O^OIS inillim. long, O'OOl- 
0-005 millim. thick.) 

3. Pyxine ? 

On bark : sterile and indeterminable. 

4, Lecanora granifera, var. leucotropa, Nyl. L. AntilL 
Husn. p. 11. 

On the bark of trees : a small specimen. (Thallus K4-, yellow ; 
spores 0-014-0-016 millim. long, 0-007-0-010 millim. thick.) 

5. OpEORAPHA SITBYULGATA, iV^Z. in FloTa, 1869, p. 71. 

F. absitay Nyl. " Differt apotheciis interdum caesio suifusis, 
sporis nonnihil turgidioribus(longit. 0'023-0'032 millim., crassit, 
0'006 millim., 7-septatulis), Thallus variat maculiformis palle- 
scens aut fuscescens. Spermogonia non visa." — NyL in litt. 

On branches : apparently frequent. 

6. Arthonia polymorphoides, Nyl. 

On thin bark of trees : sparingly gathered. (Spores 0*016- 
0-022 millim. long, O'006-O007 millim. thick.) 

7. Platyorapha steng gramma, Nyl, sp, n. " Thallus albidus 
subopacus tenuis Isevis, tenuiter nigro limitatus ; apothecia nigra 
lineari-elongata (latit. circiter 0'15 millim., longit. ssepius 1-2 
millim,), simplicia, plus minusve flexuosa, intus albida; sporaB 
8naB aciculari-fusiformes 7-9 septata), longit. 0'030-0035 millim., 
crassit. 0'004 millim., paraphyses irregulares graciles, hypothe- 
cium incolor. lodo gelatina hymenialis dilute vinose rubescena. 

Species apotheciis elongatis thallino-obductis (epithecio solo 
nudo) bene distincta, facie fere Grapkidis PavoniancB. Spermatia 
arcuata, longit. 0-018-0-023 millim., crassit. 0*0005 millim. 

On the bark of trees : probably not uncommon. 


On the bark of trees : sufficiently typical. 

9. G. DKNDROGRAMMA, NyL, sp. n. ''Affinis G. scriptof^ sed 









apothecia caeslo-pruinosa longiora dendroideo-divisa, thallodeo- 
marginata ; spor^e 8-10 loculares, longit. 0'020-0*030 millini., 
crassit. 0006-0'007 millim."— iV^Z. in litt. 

On the bark of trees : very sparingly gathered. 

10. Vebeucabia paha-meea, Nyl'-, sp. n. " Thallus macnla 
luteo-pallescente indicatus ; apothecia pyrenio integre nigro, 
parte dimidia superiore nuda convexa prominula (latit. 0*5- 
0*7 millim.); sporse Snse, fuscse vel fuscescentes, ellipsoidese vel 
oblongo-ellipsoidesD, 6-loculares vel demum loculis quibusdam 
transversim divisis (ita duplicatis), longit, 0'024-0'034 millim., 
crassit. 0"010-0-015 millim. lodo gelatina hymenialis dilute 
vinose rosello tincta. 

Accedit versus V. lihricolam, sed sporse minores et simplici- 

ores." — iV^Z. in litt. 

On the bark of trees : very sparingly gathered. 

11. V. ALBESCENS, * subocheacea, iV^Z. " Differ t prseclpue 
thallo subochracee tincto ; sporae incolores vel subincolores, seri- 
ebus 4 bi- v. triloculosis, longit. 0"012-0016 millim., crassit. 
0'008-0'009 millim. lodo gelatina hymenialis non reagens." 

On thin bark : apparently frequent. 


1. Leptogium ctakizum, Nyl. 

On trunks of trees: infertile. (This is described in 'Nyl. 
Syn.' p. 131, s. n. "i. cyanescens ;" but this was formerly em- 
ployed in *Ach. Syn.' p. 326, as a var. of i. tremelloides. 

2. Eamalina subfeaxikea, Kyh 
On branches ; fertile, 

3. Geaphis sceipta, f. pulveeulekta, Ach. 

On bark of trees : sparingly gathered. 

Kobe Kiotos, Japan. 

1. Steeeocaflo:^ peoximum, Nyl. 
On the ground : sparingly fertile. 

2. Cladokia adspeesa, Flic. 

On putrid stumps amongst mosses : fertile. 

3. Eamalina calicaeis (JSffm^. 

On trees ? : a single small barren specimen. 



:bt:v. j. m, ceombie on licheks collected 

4. TJs:yEA dasypoga, AcJi. ^ 
On brandies : infertile. 


On trunks: fertile. (The thallus does not bear the parasitic 
JIo7nodiuin hoJacinum (Schser.).) 


On the trunks of trees: fertile. (This is given aho in Hook. 
fil. & Thoms. 'Ind. Or.' no. 2003.) 

7.' Peltigeea canixa, f. ^ieaibeanacea (^c/^.). 

Amongst mosses on trees ? fertile. 

8. PnxsciA speciosa (JF"^//!). 

Amongst mosses on trees? fertile. (The specimens are en- 
tirely typical, our Europeati plant being referable to f. sore- 

9. P. OALACTOPiiYLLA, TacJc. (vid. Flora, 18G9, p. 322). 
On branches of trees : very sparingly gathered- 

10. Peetusaeta multipu:n^cta {T. Sf B,). 

On bark of trees : fertile. (Theca? 1-sporge ; spores 0*070- 
0-150 millim. long, 0'054-0-0G8 millim, thick.) 

11. G-EAPHIS SCEIPTA, ^(?^, 

On branches : sufiicientlj typical. 







Conspectus oftlie ' Challenger ' Lichens. 

Pamlly Byssacei. 
Tribe Sirosipbei. 


, sp. n. r 

Family Collem.vcei. 

Tribe CoUemei. 

Collema byrsinum, Ach. 
Leptogium laceratulum, Nyh 

sp. n. 
tremelloides, AcJi, 

azureum (Sia,). 

diaphanum (Sw.). 

cyanizum, 3^7. 

Collemopsis pelia, Sfm, sp. n. 

Family Lichenacei. 

Tribe Ba?omvcetei. 
Bseomyces chilensis (Mdt.). 

Tribe Stereocaulei. 
Stereocaulon cyraosum, Cromh 

ramulosum (Ach.). 

proximum, JVyl. 

mixtum, ^yl- 

Tribe Cladoniei. 

Cladonia fimbrlata, IJffm, 
f. costata, Flic, 

acuminata, * hebescens, 









Cladonia fibula (AcJi,). 
cornuta (£.)• 

sobolifera {DeL). 

adspersa, Flk. 

mitrula, TucJc. 

Cladia aggregata (Siv,). 

Tribe Eoccellei. 
Eoccella tinctoria, DC. 

phycopsis, Ach. 

Tribe Eamalinei. 

Kamalina rigida {Pers.'). 

complanata (Sw.), Ach. 
subfraxinea, Nyl. 
calicaris {Hffm,). 
Temenensis {Ach.), 
cuspidata, var. crassa, 

minuscula, Nyl. 

intermedia {DeL). 

Tribe tJsneei. 

Usnea microcarpa, Pers, 

dasypoga, Ach, 


ceratina, Ach, 
trullifera, JVyl., sp. n. 
Neuropogon melaxantlius 

, var. ciliata, ,^Z. 

Taylori (HooJcfil.). 

Tribe Parmeliei. 

Parinelia perforata, Ach. 

latiasima, Fee. 

tiuctorum (Despr.). 

revolutella, iV^?., n. sp 
persulpburata, Nj/l. 
subaurulenta, ^yl. 
conspersa, Ach. 
glahrsi (Sch^r.),' 

Tribe Stictei. 

Stictina intricata, f. Thouarsii 

carpoloaia (Del.), Nyl. 

Sticta pulmonacea, Ach, 


damaecoruis (Sw,), 
lineariloba (lint.). 
hypopsila, I^yl. 

caperata, Dory, -^^• 
dichotomoides, Nyl. 
aurata, Ach. 
subvariabilis, Nyl. 
Eicasolia glomulifera (Lghft.). 

Tribe Peltigerei. 

Peltigera polydactyla, f. hyme- 
nina (Ach.). 

canina, f. tnembranacea 


Tribe Physciei. 

Physcia flavicans (Sw.). 

leucomela (Sw.). 
podocarpa (Del.), Nyl. 

podocarpoideSjiV^Z., sp. n 
galactophylla, Tuch. 

speciosa (Wulf.). 
Leana, Tuch. 

adscensionis (Ach^, 

Tribe Pyxinei. 
, sp. ? 

Tribe Lecanorei. 
Pannaria rubiginosa(I%wn5.). 





Heppia meiolepis, (7ro?wJ.,sp.Li. 
Lecanora (Squamaria) saxicola, 






Lecancra (Squamana) mela- 
nophthalma (Bam,), 

(Placodium) subelegans, 

JV^Z.j sp, n. 

flavorubenSj iVy?. 


Bp. n 

(Placopsis) gelida, AcJi. 

, f. vitellina, Bab. 

, f. lateritia, -ZV^Z. 


Lecancra pyracea (Ach,), 
cyplielliformis, Cromh,^ 

n, sp. 

subfusca, var. subgranu- 

lata, ]Vj/L 


^ aylvestrls, Nyl. 
granifera, var. leucotropa. 


chlaronella, N't/I,, sp. n. 
Yincentina, iVyZ., sp. n 

glaucomodes, *coDflec- 
tens, Nyl. 

' recubans, Strn,^ sp. n. 

parella, AcJi. 

Dirina repanda, _Fr., var. 

Tribe Pertusariei. 
Pertusarla multipuncta 

pustulata, Ach. 

papilJata {AchJ), 

aleianta, iVy?., sp. n. 

Tribe Thelotremei. 
tJrceolaria scruposa, Ach, 

bryophila, Ach 

Tribe Leeideei. 

Coenogonium confervoides,iV^Z. 
Lecidea fuscorubescens, Nyl, 
beterobola, Cromh,, n. sp. 

endoleuca, Nyl. 
leptocheiloides,iV^Z.,sp. n. 
leucoblepbara, NyL 
semiusta, Strn,^ sp, n. 
revertens, Strn.^ sp. n. 
Taitensis, Hfnt. 
canescens (DcJcs.). 
epiplacodia, Oromh.^ sp. n. 

stepbanodes, Strn,, sp, n. 
distinguenda, Cr(9w J.,sp. n. 
atrobrunnea (?), JDO. 

Acunbana^ Nyl.^ sp. n. 
myriocarpa, DC. 

insperata, Nyl. 

superjecta,iVyZ., sp, n. 

Fernandezii, Croml,, sp.n. 

geograpbica (-£.). 

Tribe Grapbidei. 

Opegrapba dialeuca, Cromh,, 

sp. n. 

subvulgata, f. absita, Nyl. 
Platygrapba stenogramma, 

^?., sp. n. 

Artbonia polymorpboides, NyL, 

sp, n. 
rubella, *inferiuscula,-ZV^Z. 

Grapbis scripta, -4cA. 
, f. pulverulentaj Ach. 

tenella^ Ach. 
assimilis, Nyl, 
striatula, Ach. 


Afzelii, Ach. 

lobata (Eschtc,). 

Cbiodectou rubrocinctum 








Glyphia cicatricosa, f. favulosa J Verrucaria cinclionse, Ach. 

congestula, Strn.j sp. n. 

Melanotheca aciculifera, M/L 
Trjpethelium CTuentum(Mnt,). 

Tribe Peridiei. 


Tribe Pjrenocarpei. 
Verrucaria a^thioleola, Ach. 

ruderella, J!fj/l, sp. n. 

paramera, iV^Z., sp. n, Endococcua thalamita, iV^Z., 

albescens, *subochracea,iV. ®P- ^ 

Note on tlie Blimbing {AverrTioa Bilimli, Linn.). By E. Irwin 

Lynch, Esq. 

MiJBiE, F.L.S.) 

[Eead June 21, 1877.] 

I HATE the pleasure of bringing before the Society an instance 

of leaf-movement which I believe to have some physiological 

The leaflets of the Blimbing [AverrJioa Bilimhi^ Linn.) are de- 
pressed to nearly the position of sleep, spontaneously, from time 
to time during the day. The act takes place so slowly in succes- 
sion as very easily to escape observation, and to be properly seen 
requires the attention of some minutes. The leaflets move down 
with tolerable quickness, perhaps in three or four seconds, but 
rise again so slowly that the motion is quite imperceptible. The 
movement is not spasmodic, as in Desmodium gyrans^ but is per- 
fectly steady and continuous up to completion. One leaflet only 
of a leaf has been seen In downward motion at the same time, and 
a ^Qw only are down together. There seems not to be a strict 
order of rotation ; a leaflet being down, the next to follow may be 
the one most nearly opposite, or the one next below on the same 
side. The terminal leaflet is often active, and appears to move 
without reference to those nearest to it. A leaflet has been 
observed to make a descent three times within half an hour. 
This plant, besides having a spontaneous movement throughout 
the day (temperature and light being favourable) is subject also 
to the condition of sleep, and is sensitive to mechanical irritation. 
No plant has perhaps been recorded as having the three kinds 
of movement all evident at si^rht. JDesvxodium gijrans is subject 

to sleep, and has spontaneous movement during the day and 
night, but is not appreciably sensitive. Mimosa pudica is sen- 
sitive and subject to the condition of sleep, but is without other 



immediately evident spontaneous movement. AverrJioa appears to 
be without motion during sleep ; but Desmodium even tlien con- 
tinues gyration. 

This observation on the Blimbing has yet to be worked out, and 
is brought before the Society because the present [date of reading] 
is the last meeting for the season. The special movement was 
observed but a few days ago. It is probable that allied plants 
have something to show ; and Averrhoa itself requires considerable 
time from the slow repetition of its movements, influenced as 
they are also by light, temperature, &c. 

Contributiones ad floram Algarum aquae dulcis Promontorii Bonae 
Spei. By Paul Peedebic Eeinsch. (Communicated by Dr. 
Hooker, Pres. E.S., F.L.S.) 

[Eead April 19, 1877.] 
(Plate VI.) 

Cum speciminibus in Insula Kerguelensi selectis accepi speci- 
mina Algarum aqua? dulcis in Promontorio Bonse Spei autumno 
1874 a cl. A. Eaton collecta. Quae specimina consistebant in 
octo numeris speciminum in charta siccatorum et sex ampullulis 
vitreis cum speciminibus in spiritu vini asservatis. Numerus totus 
(sine Diatomophyeeis) specierum a me inventarum in his ad in- 
quirendum traditis speciminibus est 57 ; ab his sunt 16 Phyco- 
chromophycese et 41 Chlorophyllophycese. Secundum ordinem 
systematis adducta scrutationis summa est hsec : — 


Chroococcacese Spec. 5, gen. 3. 

Oscillariacese Spec. 4, gen. 4 (sp. n. 1). 

Nostochacese Spec. 1 (sp. n.). 

Scytonemaceae Spec. 1. 

Sirosiphoniacese Spec. 5, gen. 1. 

EivulariacesB , Nulla, 

Ch loroj^TiyllophycecB, 

Palmellaceae Spec. 3, gen. 3 (sp. n. 2). 

Protococcacese Spec, 8, gen. 6 (sp. n. 4). 

Desmidiese Spec, lo, gen. 5 (sp. n. 4), 

ZygnemacesB Spec. 2, gen. 2 (sp. n. 1). 

Confervacese Spec. 2, gen, 2, 

Chsetophoracea? Spec. 2, gen. 2 (sp. n. 1). 


ri -J 










CEdogoniaceae Spec. 2, gen. 1. 

Ulvaceae Spec. 2, gen. 2. 

Chroolepidese Spec. 1 (sp. n.). 

Chjtridiese Spec. 4, gen. 3. 

Tolvocineae, TJlotricIieie, 

Gongrosirese, Sptaero- 

pleace3e,Yauclieriacese, f ^^^^^ ^P- 

et Ehodojphycese. 

Numerus specierum novaruoi inventarum est 15, ex his 2 Phy^ 
coclxromophyceaB et 13 ChloropliYllopliyce^e. 


Chboococcu s TrRGiDus, Kutzing. Specimina bicellularia dis- 
persa inter Lynghyam ceruginosum^ var. Salt river. Specimina 
<7. chalybei^ Eabenliorst (Alg. Europ. ISTr. 1144), e Saxonia Syn. 
^Profococcum turgidum^ Kiitzing (Tab. Phyc. i. tab. 6. fig. 1, 
p. 5), et ab aliis locis Germaniae maxime consentiunt cum spe- 
ciminibus Africanis in ma^jnitudine ac colore cellularum. 

Gl(E0capsa conglomekata, Kutzing, Cellulse geminatge et 
quaternatsD in massnlas irregulares foliia Jungermanniarum ad- 
haerentes aggregatae, Haec plantula sajpe invenitur in Junger- 
manniis] specimina Africana valde consentiunt cum specimini- 
bus Europaeis. 

Overbanging rocks. Summit of Table Mountain. 

G. MAGMA, Kutzing. Indumentum cellularum obscure rubrum, 
lamellosum. G. magma repraesentat bonam spcciem a G, rupestri 
indumentis tenuioribus intense coloratis sat distinctam. Specimina 
Europaea consentiunt. Plerumque invenitur liaec plantula in ru- 
pibus umbratis ; rupes Montis Tabulae in quibus Chroolepm cres- 
cebat cum maxima verisimilitate bac Gloeocapsa sunt obtecta. 

On overhanging rocks of the summit of Table Mountain. 

Glceothece cojfELTJENs, N(£geli (Gatt. einz. Alg. tab. 1. fig. 1). 
Longit. cell. 0-0056-0*0084 millim. Massulae parvul^ gelatinosae 
Jungermanniia ac Chroolepo Montis Tabulae, sp. n., adhaerentes. 

Summit of Table Mountain. 

Hydeocoleum homceoteichfm, Kiitzing {Tab. Fhyc. i. tab. 
56. fig. 1). Diam. trichom. O'OOll millim. Trichomata tema 


usque quaterna in fascicules coalita, vaginis pellucidis subcras- 
sis (crassioribus quam in icone Kiitzingiaua}. In fasciculis sin- 
gulis inter radiculas Hiccice. 

Sp. near tlie Kloof road, not far from the town. Wet clay. 

Cheoococcus coHiEEEXs, Ncpgeli {EalenTiorsf^ Algce ISuropce, 
JVr. 446 ; Kutzing^ Tab, Phyc.'). Cellnlse quadrigeminjB, ssepe 12- 
et 16-gemin8e. Diara, cellular. 0*002S-0'0041 millim. In plantis 
aquaticis iuter Bpirogyram. 

Fountain, Government House. 

Hue observationem insero de Alga Pbycochromacea parasitica. 
In HiccicG spec, parencbymate in speciminibus paucis in ampuUula 
cum terra adbserente in spiritu vini asservatis observavi corpus - 
cula a cellulis velata, quse interdum inveniuntur in Anthocerotis 
et in BJasice parencbymate. Qua) corpuscula primo observata a 
cl. Hooker, postea Algas parasiticas Q,dJVosfoc7iaceas spectantes cog- 
nita. Evolutio pbyseumatis Nostochidis ex tricbomate singulo 
impresso in laeunis aereis in parencbymate Anthocerotis observa- 
batur paucos annos ante*. Compages parasitica) bic delineatae 
non sunt composita) ex NostocMdej imo vero ex Polycocco. Cel- 
\u\dd spbajricaj absque ordine arctissime adjacentes colore obscure 
olivaceo-viridi 0'(X)28-0'0O41 millim. diametro a peridermate di- 
stincto (in sectione transversali) circumvelatae. His compagibus 
desunt fila unicellularia ramosa, quae in Blasia pusilla colonias 
Nostocboideas parasitice nidulantes omni directione percurrunt et 
quae prolongationes e radiculis egressas in interiorem partem 
plantar versas repra^sentant. 

Chthqin-oblastus salinits, Kutzing, var. Pasciculis apicibus 
subito attenuatia, tricbomatibus spiraliter curvatis, cellulis rect- 
angularibus diametro subsequalibus, vaginis byalinis (non lamel- 
losis) quam formse typicse vagin® tenuioribus. Diam. tricbom. 
0'0028-00041 millim. Diam. fascic. 0-066-0-13 millim. Inter 

On mud. Salt river. 


Ltngbta -aERL'GixosA, Jgardh.y var. Afeicajs'a. L. tricboma- 
tibus a^rugineis rigidis prolongatis in caespitibus latissimis crasse 
membranaceis obscure serugineo-viridibus dense intertextis^ cellu- 
lis diametro 5plo-GpIo brevioribus ad genicula lineis binis punc- 

* E. V. Zancfewski, '* Zur parasitischeu Lebensweise der Nostoc ichenoides/* 
Botan. Zeitung, 1872, no, 5. 









from: the cape of aooD hope. 235 

tulatis instructis ; cellulis perdurantibus raris spliaericls ; vaginia 
hyalinis et fuscescentibus subtiliter lamellosis. Diam. tricboni. 
(c. vagin.) 0'033 millim. Diam. tricbom. intern. 0'0196 millim. 

Sab. '^ Salt river. On mud at low water," 

Caespites duo masimi tricbomatibus densissime intertextis, 
vaginis fuscescentibus et fuscis. Pulcbcrrimum Qhlorococcicm 
Africanum, sp. n., in cellulis numerosis includentes. Aliud speci- 
men ejusdem LyncfhycB siccatum eodem loco, '^ Salt river, brook 
J^ in ditcb," continet tricliomata laxius intricata colore pulcbre 

cerugineo, singulis tricbomatibus Leibleini(jd^ n. sp., obtecta. A 
forma typica ab oris marium borealium Europa^is differt tantum 
tricbomatibus crassioribus (f), vaginis crassioribus distinctius 

Speemosira maceospoeAj spec, nov, S. tricbomatibus liberis 

subcontortis, cellulis pallide serugincis subspbaericis usque ellip- 
soidicis (ante divisionem), laxe cobaerentibus, cytioplasmate sub- 
tiliter granuloso ; cellulis perdurantibus spbsericis quam ceterarum 
cellularum diameter paulo majoribus; sporis 12is-20is seriatis, 
exacte spbserlcis, laxe coba^rentibus, quam diameter ceterarum 
cellularum triplo majoribus, cjtiodermate crasso fusco, cytioplas- 
mate bomogeneo subtilissime punctulato. Diam. cellular. 0028- 
0-0041 millim. Diam. cellub perdur. O-OOil-0'0056 millim. 
Diam. sporarum 0-0084!-0'0097 millim. 

Hob, In 2iJntero7norj)7ia compressa, <f. tricTiodi in caespitulia par- 

vulis usque lineam latis. 

PreaWater pool near Salt river. 

Hsec plantula elegantissima nova inter Spermosiram et Anabai- 
nam est ponenda ; cum Anabainis cellularum ac sporarum forma 
consentit, sed differt sporis seriatis ; a SpermosiriSy quibuscum spo- 
ris seriatis consentit, differt sporarum ac cellularum forma. luter- 
dum plantulam ad Spermosiram pono donee inveniantur species 
alia) adbuc pertlnentes. 

Leibleikia MONiLiFoiiMis, spcc. nov. X. csespitulos laxos 

usque lineam longos formans, tricbomatibus rectis basi paulo dila- 



moniliformibus diametro quadruplo v. quintuplo brevioribus, cytio- 
plasmate subtiliter granuloso, cellulis summis tricbomatis in 
modo Oscillariarum articulatis, cellulis interstitialibus (sporis) in 




sphserlcis diametro ceteras cellulas sequantibus, cytiodermate sub- 
crasso aureo-fuscescente, cytioplastnate hyalino ; vaginis sub- 
crassis hyalinis subliomogeneis, superne plerumque vacuis. Diam. 
trichom. (c. vagin.) 0-0278-00306 millim. Diam. trichom. intern. 
0-0168-0*0196 millim. In Lyngby(B aeruginosse, Ag,^ var. Afri- 
caner^ tricbomatibus et in physeumate Enteromorph(S compressae. 

Salt river. In a ditch. 





australis (ora Novae Hollandise), L. virescens, et L.jlavida dif- /- 

ferunt: cellulis omnibus oscillaroideis, cellulis interstitialibus 

ScYTONEMA ELEGAXS, Kutziug^ forma. Tricbomata subcon- 
torta; vaginae sublamellosae pallide fuscae, cellulae perdurantes 
crebriores snbobovales. Diam. trichom. 0*0056-0 '0084 millim. 
Tricbomata subrecta, vaginae hyalinae subhomogeneae decolores 
cellulae perdurantes rariores. Inter alias Algas {Peniicm rupestre^ 



forma vaginis fuscis. Eamulis numerosioribus brevioribus et sin- 
gulis ramulis prolongatis, cellulis laxius positis. Inter radiculas '^ \ 
terra argillacea involutas plantularum Eiccice spec, sterilis, ^ 
Kloof road, not far from the town. 


S. PANisnroRMis, Kiitzing (Tab, Phgc, ii. tab. 36. fig. 2), vaginis 
fuscis. Specimina pauca minora in Jungermanniis. 
Summit of Table Mountain. 

S. PrLviNATFS, Kutzing. Cellulis subsphaericis majoribus, 
cellulis trichomatis prim aril pluriseriatis vaginulis internis di- 
stiuctissimis fuscis. In foliis Jungermannicd inter Chroolepum 
Montis Tabulae. 

Summit of Table Mountain. 

Yar. iNTEBMEDius {S. intermedins, Kutzing, Tab. Phyc. ii. tab. 
36. fig. 4), tricbomatibus uniseriatis vaginulis internis distinctis 


S. PrLYiNATrs, var. vaginis pellucidis decoloribus. In tricbo- 
matibus singulis inter radiculas Riccice. 
Kloof road, on wet clay. 

S. PULvnfATUS, var. cellulis oblongis apicem tricliomatum 





versus arctissiuie coanexis. Diam. trichom. 0*002i-0*0278 millim. 
Inter alias Algas at in Jungermanniis inter Chroole^um^ 
Summit of Table Mountain. 

S. PULvii^ATFS, var. Tricbomatibus inaequalibus flexuosis irre- 
gulariter ramosiasimis ramulis fasciculatis insequalibus, cellulis 
irregulariter seiuatis subangulosis intense a?rugineis, vaginis 
subhomogeneis mediocribus aureo-fulvis. Diam. trichom. 0*0278- 
0*033 millim. A forma typica vaginarum colore ac cellulis an- 
gulosis irregulariter seriatis distincta forma. Inter alias Al^as 
inter Ghroolepum Montis Tabulae. 

Summit of Table Mountain. 


S. Omteri, 'Reinsch {Alg, aq. d. Ins, Kergueh). Latifc. trichom. 
0'0168-0-0196 millim. Trichomata dispersa inter alias Algas 
(Glaeocapsam magma, Scgfonema elegans^ var., Penmm rupestre^ 
etc.) inter csespites Chroolepi Montis TabulaB. 

Overhanging rocts. Summit of Table Mountain, 
Haec species in Insula Kerguelensi inventa non variare videtur. 
Specimina Africana paulo subtiliora consentiunt cum specimini- 
bus Insulse Kerguelensis et in cellularum magnitudine et in forma 
et dispositione. 

S. ALPiNirs, Kutzing {Tab. FJiyc. ii. tab. 35. fig. 2). Var. tri- 
cbomatibus irregulariter abrupte ramosis aequaliter latis, uniseria- 
tis, cellulis pachjdermaticis arctissime connexis vaginis firmis 
fuscescentibus cinctis. Diam. trichom. 00278 millim. Inter 

Summit of Table Mountain. 

In ramificationis modo ac crassitudine trichomatum ac cellulis 
uniseriatis pachjdermatis hie Sirosi^Tion cum S, saxicoJa^ mihi 
tantummodo ex delineatione Kunzingiana noto, aliqua similitu- 
dine consentit, sed differt cellulis angustioribus, vagina crassiore. 

Chlorophyllophtce^ . 

Palmella Beebissonii, Kutzing. Familise minores irreguiares, 
cellulis sphsericis homogeneis singulis. Diam. cellular. 0*0022- 
0-0028 millim. In Chroolepi Montis Tabular filis. 

Summit of Table Mountain. 

Ex Palmellis viridibus P. Brehissonii et hotrgoides inveniuntur 
in ligneis putrescentibus bumi jacentibus et in cavernis humidia 
crescentes, cetera? Palmellcs virides in aquis stagnantibus ac in 








vltrels fenestris caldariorum occurrunt, P. iotrt/oides cellulls fere 
duplo majoribus format thallum plurimum expansum, gelatinosum, 
eetate provectiore tuberculosum. 

ScEKEDESMTTS QUADMCAUDATUSj Corda. Iiitcr Spirofj^ram. 
In the fountain at Gcvernnient House, 

Porma comTuunis major cellulis externis spinis divergentibus, et 
forma minor cellulis externis spinis ternis armatis. 

S. ACTJLEOLATus, spec. noY. S. cellulis oblongo-cyliudricis 
utroque polo obtuso-rotundatis, spinulis compluribus brevioribus 
absque ordine dispositis armato. Longit. fam. 4-cellularis 0'0196 
milUm. Latit. cellular. 0-013-0'0168 millim, Specimiua singula 
observata inter Spirogyrmn. PL YI. figs. 1 & 2. 

In the fountain at Government House. 

Propter cytiodermatis proprietatem, hunc Scenedesmum esse 
propriam speciem certissime puto. In Scenedesmis dimensiones 
ac formse cellularum observantur majore variabilitate quam m 
aliis Frotococcis, qua do causa hsec propria ad definiendas Scene- 
desmi species minore momento se offerunt, 


Staurogenia cubica, spec. nov. S. coenobio rectangular! ex " . 

stratis cellularum duobus composito, cellulis minimis subovalibus 
regulariter seriatis. LoDgit. coenobii O'OIGS millim, Latit. 
coenobii 0-013 millim. Diam. cellular. 00041 millim. In coeno- 
biis sparsis inter Spirogyram. PL VI. figs. 15 & 16. 

In the fountain at Government House. 


PoLTEDBiuM MTJTiCTTM, A. Braiin^ forma. P. cellulis triangu- 
laribus, angulis obtuso-rotundatis, marginibus lateralibus rectis. 
Latit. 0*0224 millim. In speciminibus singulis inter Spiro- 

In the fountain at Government House. 

CcELASTRTTM SCA.EIITJM, spcc. uov. C. familiis cubicis et sphse- 
ricis, cellulis sphacricis verrucis 3-is-6-is firmis truncatis regulariter 
dispositis apice ptinctulatis instructis. Diam. cellular. 0*0097 
millim. Diam. fam. 8-cellularis 0-0196 millim. Diam. fam. 16- 
cellularis 0'0333 millim. Inter Spirogyram in familiis singulis. 

In the fountain at Government House. 

C. TEBETJCOsrar, EeinscTi, ContributioneSy p. 77 {Chlorophyl.)y 
tab. xii. fig. 8. Persimile, differt verrucis tenuioribus pluribus 
irregulariter dispositis. 



Chloeococcu3I AmicAifUM, spec. nov. C, e maximis, cellulis 

singulis sphajricis colore intensive aurantiaco-fuscescente ; cytio- 
dermate extrorsum distincte subtilissime lamelloso ; cytioplas- 
mate subtiliter granuloso (plerumque cellulis filialibus ? 4-is mi- 
noribus dispersis inclusis). Diam. cellular. 0'118-0'141 millim. 
Crassit. cytioderm. 0'0028-0'0041 millim. Inter Lynghyas cdru- 
ginos(B^ var., caespites in cellulis numerosis. 
Salt river. On mud when the tide is out. 
^^ Ex omnibus hucusque cognitis Chlorococcis maxima species. 

Chlorococcum TVimmeri^ Eabenh. {Protoccoccus Wimme7n^ Hilse, 
in Eabenh. Algae Europse, Nr. 1031), proxima species (maxima 
hucusque cognita), cellulis intensive coccineo-aurantiacis (dia- 
metro 0-0504"0'0615 millim.), cytiodermate crassissimo plurila- 
melloso, in fodinis margaceis periodice aqua repletis in Silesia a 
clar. Hilse detectum, differt ab hac specie nova cellulis duplo 
minoribus, cytiodermatis structura diversa ac cytioplasmatis 
diverso colore. Cytioderma exterius cellularum componitur ex 
stratis binis distinctissime liraitatis substantia interposita hja- 
lina subtilissime lamellosa. Cytioderma exterius G. Africani ex 
strato uno componitur lamellulis subtilissimis interpositis. 

BoTRrococciJS giga:s'T£US, spec. nov. B. libere natans, thallo 

subellipsoidico inlateribus omnibus clauso, cellulis prismaticis sub- 

cuneiformibus apicibus late obtuse rotundatisarctissimese adtin- 

gentibus, cytiodermate crasso (in latere exteriore cellularum paulo 

incrassato), cytioplasmate granulis dense repleto. Longit. thalli 

0-218 millim. Latit thalli 0-163 millim. Longit. cellul. 00278 

millim. In speciminibus singulis inter Bpirogyram insignem. 

In the fountain at Government House. 

Hie Botryococcus a B. Braunii cellulis prismaticis dimensioni- 

4. bus cellularum duplo majoribus sat distincta species. 

Pediastuum: pertitsum, Kutzing. 8-clathratum. Coenobia 
singula cellulis secundum ordinem 1, 5, 10, dispositis, cellulis 
marginal ibus usque infra medium longitudinis cellulae incisis, 
cornulis rectis. Inter Spirogyram insignem. 

In the fountain at Government House. 

Palmoglcea mackococca, Kutzing. Latit. cellular. 0013- 
001G8. In massulis parvulis in Jungennanniis et in filis Ohroo- 

Inter radiculas Biccia, 


lej)i Montis Tabula?, sp. n., adhaerentibus. 



Palmoglcea chlamtdospora, De Bary^ var. minor. Latit. 
cellular. 0*0068 millim. Latit. zygosporse evolutae 00196 millim. 
A speciminibus Erlangensibus dimensionibus omnium partium 
duple plus minoribus distincta forma, sed in formac ellularum ac 
zygosporse sequalis ; zygospora quadrangularis, marginibus aut 
tantum marginibus duobus oppositis emarginatis. In specimini- 
bus singulis capulatis inter Zygnema tetrasjpermum in ampulla 

" On the summit of Table Mountain in rain-pools." 

Penium Brebissonii, Kutzing, Longit. 0-033-0-084 millim. 
Latit. 0*0168 millim. In chartae particula collectioni adita mas- 
sulae expanss3 erant compositse ex hac specie. 

Cape Plats. 

P. RUPESTREj Kutzing {TricTiodictyon riipestreyToh, Phyc. i. tab. 
26. fig. 1). Latit. cellul. 0-0112-0-013 millim. Longit. 0-0168- 
00196 millim. In massulis gelatinosis inter Jungermanhias et 
Chroolepum Montis Tabulae, sp. n. 

Summit of Table Mountain. 

CosMARiUM PARYULUM, Brehissou (Liste des Besinid, p. 183, 
tab. i. fig. 18, tab. vii. fig. 21). Porma semicellulis a fronte 
visis marginibus lateralibus emarginatis, lobulis basalibus paulo 
productis rotundatis extrorsum se adtiugentibus, margine termi- 
nali levissime inciso. Longit. 0'0305 millim. Latit. 0013 millim. 
Inter Spirogyram. 

*' Prom a fountain in the grounds of Government House," in 
speciminibus singulis. 

C HAMMERi B, INTERMEDIUM, ReiuscTi {Gen. et Spec. Nov. f 
Acta SencTcenlerg . vol. vi. 1867, p. 7, tab. iii. B, fig. 1, 2, 3, 5 ; 0. 
HOMALODERMUM, N'ordstedt, JDesmid. Arctoce. Vetensk. Ahadem. 
MrhaiidL SfocJcJiolm, 1875, p. 18, tab. vi. fig. 4). Longit. 0-0252- 
00306 millim. Latit. 0-0252-0-0278 millim. Marginis termin^lia 
latitude dimidium (et paulo minus) diametri transversalis, isthmi 
latitudo triens diametri transversalis. Sicut in specimine in 

incrassatum. PI. VI. fig. 4. 

gulo sub- 


cum C. Iiomalodermo^ Nordstedt. Forma D, octogibbosum , prius 


C. Sarnmeri. Nomen speciei antea inventse et descriptj© 



ft : 

»^ * 





LiKN Soc.JoubnBot.VolXM.PlM 











FitcL inip. 




var. TBIQUETEITM. Longit. 0'0363 millim. Latit. 0'0278 millim. 
Specimma a fronte visa in dimensionibus ac in forma maxime con- 
sentiunt cum icone Nordstedtiana ; speciminum Africanorum e 
vertice visorum anguli minus rotundati marginesque laterales in 
medio subrecti aut levissime tumidi. PL VI. figs, 5 & 6. 

"In a rain-pool on the Cape Flats, near Claremont/* schedula 
in ampullula. 

C. PUNCTULATuai, BveUsson {Liste des Besm. p. 129, N. 24, 
tab. i. fig. 16). Longit. 0-0248 millim. Latit. 0*0224 millim. 
Cellularum cytioderma verruculis punctiformibus absque ordine 
dispositis subtiliter verruculosum. Certissime species propria, 
nuUo modo C, margaritiferi^ Menegbini, forma juvenilis. Inter 
Spirogyram. PI. VI. fig, 7. 

In a fountain in the grounds of Government House. 

C PLiCATUM, JReinsch^ B, Mi^s'us {Bp. et Gen. nov.j Acta Sencken- 
herg, vol. vi. p. 6, tab. iii. C, fig. ii- 1, 2, 3. — C. sinuosum, Lundell^ 
Besmid. Suec. p. 47). Longit. 0-0393 millim., latit. 0-0224 
millim., latit. isthmi 00112 millim. Cellulee polls paulo impressis, 
cjtiodermata (speciminum vacuorum) margine subtiliter longitu- 
dinaliter sfcriato. Maxime consentit et in magnitudine et in forma 
semicellularum cum formse B (minus) speciminibus Erlangensibus 
margine terminali plerumque subrecto. 


C. PULCHEKEIMUM, Novdstedt {Desmid. Ins. Spetslerget Beerens 
Eilandy K. VetensJcap. Akad, Forhandl. Stockholm, 1872, p. 32, 
tab. vi. fig. 14). Longit. 00421 millim., latit. 00333 millim., 
latit. isthmi 0*0084 millim. Cellularum superficies in media parte 
punctulato-verruculosa, margines laterales 5-Q gibberulis verrucu- 
losis instructi, verruculse marginum indistincte radiatim disposit®, 
Cosmaria compluria a clar. Nordstedt descripta ; — Cosmarium sub- 
speciosumy pycnocJiondrum^ costatum, subreniforme^ pulcJicrnmum^ 
maxima versimilitudine mihi videntur formae cohaerentes unius 

C. puLCHEEEiMrM ? Novdst^, forma cellulis ellipticis diametro 
transversali tres quintas diametri longitudinalis eequante, semicel- 
lulis semicircularibus, marginibus sequaliter crenato-incisis intror- 
8um verruculis radialiter positis verrucosis ; isthmi latitudo quarta 


In a fountain in the ground of Grovernment House. 




EuASTEUM suBij^cisuM, spec. nov. E. e minoribus, in scia- 
grapliia rectangular! inciaura acutangula divisum j semicellulis a 
froute visis rectaugularibus, trilobulatis, lobulia basalibus subro- 
tundatis, in quoque latere gibberulo rotundato instructis, lobulo 
termlnali lato a lobulis basalibus iucisura rotundata disjunctOj 
marglne terminali subrecto, in medio levissime inciso diametrum 
transversalem cellulae suba^quante, angulis rotundatis ; semicellulis 
e latere et e vertiee visis rectangularibus, marginibus leniter 
emarginatis in quoque angulo gibberulo rotundato instructis ; 
cytiodermate laevi ; istbmi latitudo et corporis crassitudo dimi- 
dium diametri transversalis. Lon^it. 0*0224 millim., latit. 0'0l/8 
millim. In speciminibus singulis. PI. YI. fig. 12. 

Cape Flats in a ditch near Clermont. 




■ \ 

pars diametri transversalis, longit. 0*0306 millim., latit. 0*0196 

millim. PL YI. fig. 8. 

In a rain-pool on tbe Cape Elats near Clermont. 

CosxAEiuM ASPEEULUM, spec. nov. C. e minoribus, diametro , 
transversali f diametri longitudinalis, semicellulis snbtrapezicis, 
nucleo amylaceo singulo, marginibus lateralibus obtusangule sub- | 

incisis, margine terminali subrecto, lobulis basalibus rotundatis 
introrsum se adtlngentibus, extrorsum aculeolis brevioribus (sicut 
margine terminali) armatis. Longit. 0*0224 millim., latit: 0'0116 
millim. PL VI. fig. 9. 

In a rain-pool on tbe Cape Flats near Clermont. 

Cum Gosmario protumidoy Norstedt (Desmid, Spetsberg. et 
Beerens Eiland, p. 34, tab. vii. fig. 18), in forma semicellularum 
aliqua similitudine consentit, ad contra margine terminali undato- 
inciso aculeolis marginum lobulorum crassioribus subregulariter 

Cosmabium:, spec. nov. C. e minimis, diametro transversali 

duae partes diametri longitudinalis, semicellulis snbtrapezicis, basi 

se adtiugentibus, margine terminali recto, diametri transversalis 

dimidio paulo minus, angulis basalibus rotundatis, cytiodermate 

laevi ; istbmi latitudo tricns diametri transversalis. Longit. 

0*0168 millim., latit. 0*0112 millim., forma major, longit. 0*0196 

millim., latit. 00153 millim. Inter Spirogijram. PL VI. figs. 10 











Euasfrum venustum, Hantsch, paulo majus persimile, differt mar- 
gine terminali inciso, lobulis basalibus se adtingeutibus. 

Staueastefm maegaeitaceum, 'Ehrenlerg , Trigonum. Longit. 
0-0278 millim., latit. 0-0393 millim. PI. VI. figs. 13 & 14. 

In a rain-pool on tbe Cape Flats near Claremont. 

Anguli in cornulis producti sicut in speciminibus Europaeis, 
furcati aculeolati; in dimensionibus cum speciminibus trigonis 
Erlangensibus maxima consentiunt. 

S. exiguum:, sp. nov, ^S'. minimum, tarn longum quam latum, 
sinu acutangulo ; semicellulis ellipticis, margine terminali sequa- 
liter curvato, angulis acutiusculls subrotundatis, e vertice visis 
trigonis raarginibus lateralibus subrectis et leviter repandis, an- 
gulis (plerumque) alternantibus obtusis, verruculis in seriebus 
dispositis. Latitude isthmi dimidio diametri transversalis paulo 
minor. Longit. 0'0196 millim., latit. 0'0196 millim. 

In a rain-pool on the Cape Flats near Clermont. 

Hoc Staurastrum, quod speciem propriam putarem, inter ^.^w«£?- 
tulatum et formas minores S. margaritacei jacens differt a primo 
angulis gracilioribus truncatis (non rotundatis), a margaritaceo di- 
mensionibus minoribus ac angulis integris (non aculeolatis). 
Eandem speciem observavi prope Erlangam ; specimina abliocloco 

dimensionibus paululo majoribus sinu paulo profundiore et latior^. 

SpiEoGTEA iKsiGNis, Hassol {Kutzing, Tab. Phyc. v. tab. 31, 
f. 4), b, forma conjunctiva: elongata. Suringar (Observ, p. 16, 
tab. i. ; A. Baheiiliorst. Fl. Europ, Alg. ii. p. 236.). Latit. cellul. 
0*0393 millim. Longitudo 8-12plum latitudinis. 

From a fountain in the grounds of Grovernment House. 

Ampullula cum speciminibus in spiritu vini asservatis et spe- 
cimina duo siccata. 

Ztgi^ma teteaspeemum, spec. nov. Z, pallide viride, cellulis 
sterilibus et fructiferia sequalibus diametro 4plo-5plo longiori- 
bus geniculis planis (non constrictis), cjtiodermate tenui, cjtio- 
plasmate hyalino homogeneo corpuscuHs chlorophjllaceis sphae- 
ricis binis ; copulatione et scalariformi et una cellula cum late- 
rali; zygosporis evolutis subsphaericis usque subtetraedricis spo- 
rodermate tenui subtiliter punctulato fuscescente, cytioplasmate 
ex corpusculis chlorophyllaceis quaternis distinctissimig nucleolis 
singulis iustructia formato. Diam. cellular, 0'016S-0 0196 millim., 
diam. (medius) zygosporae 0'0306 millim., diam. corpusc. chloro- 

0084-00112 millim. PJ. VL figs. 17, 18, 19, 20. 




AmpuUula cum speciminibus la spiritu viai asservatis ac spe- 
cimina siccata. Fila omnia in statibua omnibus copulationis. 

Hoc Zygnema,Zygnemati Vauclierii in cellularum sterilium struc- 
tura persimile, difFert cellulis fructiferis cellulis sterilibus sequa- 
libus (nee inflatis), zygosporae structura (sporodermate non lacu- 
noso-punctato) ac dimensionibus (|) minoribus. E ceteris Zyg- 
nematihus QoiiX^Qniit in cellularum dimensionibus cum Zygn. subtili, 
Kiitzing (Tab. Phyc. v. tab. 16. fig. 1, quod certissime tantum- 
modo varietatem Zygn, FaucJierii reprsesentat). 

Conferva x^yis, Kutzing (Tab. Fhyc. iii. tab. 43. fig. 2). 
Diam. cellular. 0-0056 millim. Longitudo cellularum duplum et 
triplum latitudinis, cytioderma subcrassum. A ceteris Confervis 
tenuioribus, tenerrima, rliypopliila, glaciali^ subtili^ nubecula, ah- 
breviata, Funkii, fiaccida,^occosa,fugacissima, e quibus nonnullse 
formaj cohaerentes unius speciei, hand diflficile cognoscenda 
species cytiodermate subcrasso. In fills dispersls inter Zygnema 
tefraspermumj spec. n. 

In rain-pools at the summit of Table Mountain. 

Choreocloxium procumbens, Beinsch, forma 3 {EeinscTi^ Con- 
tributiones , ^ . 77, tab. iv. fig. A). Latit. cellular. 0-5-0-8. Fila 
pauciora subramosa et absque ordine disposita et parallela, ramulis 
brevioribus laxius aut densius positis. In plantis aquaticis inter 


In a fountain at Grovernment House. 


HooJceri crescens, diifert a plantuHs Promontorii Bonse Spei filis 
parencbymatice intertextis, ac consentit cum plantula Europsea, 
fig. B, in Contrib. delineata. 

LiMifOPiCTTON, spec. i. plantis aquaticis aflfixum, cellulis cir- 
cularibus absque ordine laxe parencbymatice cohserentibus, cytio- 
dermate subcrasso. Diam. cellular. 00084-0-0097 millim. In 
plantia aquaticis cum Choreodonio et Protodermate viridi, inter 
Spirogyram. PI. VI. fig. 21. 

In a fountain at Government House. 

Certissime nonullae plantulse in plantis aquaticis crescentes ad 
lAmnodictyon spectant. Species una hucusque cognita (i. Boe- 
menanum) cum thallodibus natantibus ex cellulis angulosis pachy- 
dermis constituta, diff'ert cellulis multo (5plo) majoribus. 

. Cladophora setiformis, Kutzing {Tab. Phyc. iv, tab. 58. 
fig. 4), var. PACHYDERMA. Pila valde elongata integerrima basi 
ramulis sparsis brevioribus, usaue nedalia (et lonaiora^. cellulis 












nodulis incrassatis pacliydermisj inferioribus diametro usque duplo 
superioribus triplo v. sextuple longioribus. Latit. cellular. 0*112- 
0'1235 millim., crassit. cjtiodermatis 0-0168-00224 millim. 

Salt Eiver near Cape Town. 

Specimina duo siccata. E Cladopliorarum numerosarum spe- 
ciebus paucioribus filis integris {Ch insignis^ setiformis^ linoides^ 
calida^ Tiyalina^ sordida^ margaritifera^ tacustriSy glohulind) hsec 

Cladophora pertinet ad Cladophoram setiformem (Cayenne, Le 
Prieur coll.). 

Chroolepus Mois'Tis Tabula, spec. nov. (7. e maximis, caes- 
pitulis dense fasciculatis usque 20 millim. altis, colore (siccatis) 
pallide rufo-virescente ; filis subintegris stricto-erectis ramis 
sparsis erectis summis paululo incrassatis, cellulis rectangularlbus 
et cylindricis diametro triplo usque quadruple longioribus, cytio- 
dermate crasso lamelloso, superficie striis subtilibus decussatis 
subtorulosa; sporangiis sessilibus lateralibus regulariter sphgericis. 
Filorum latit. (c. cytiodermate) 0'0168-0-0224 millim, Diam. 
sporaug, 0-0393-00448 millim. 

Hab. " Under overhanging rocks on the summit of Table Moun- 

In consortio Jungermanniarum minorum complurium. Hsec 
species nova Chr.flavOy Kiitzing (Tab Phycol. iv. tab. 96. fig. 1), 
proxima, in cellularum forma, cytiodermatis crassitudine ac struc- 
tura, sed differt omnium partium dimeusionibus duplo minoribus 
zoosporangiis ovalibus. 

Hah, in arboribus Chili et Peru. ' 

Protoderma tiride, Kutzing. Specimina minora ex cellulis 
angulosis constituta in fragmentis plantarum aquaticarum {Callu 
triche ?) inter Spiroggram exacte consentiunt cum speciminibus 
Germanicis ac cum speciminibus ex Insula Kerguelensi. 

In a fountain at Grovernment House. 
. (Edogonia duo in plantis aquaticis crescentia non sunt exactiuq 
determinanda propter penuriam oosporangiorum et oosporarum. 
Secundum cellularum dimensiones ac ceUuIae basalis formam, 
CEdogonium unum cellulis basalibus breviter cuneiformibus filis 
tasi attenuatis ad (Edogonium nodosum) (Edogonium alterum cel- 
lulis basalibus subc) lindricis, cellulis omnibus aequaliter latis, ad 
(Edogonium Hothii spectat. 

MicROTnAH^iox EXiGiruM, spec. nov. M. filis erectis ramosis 
et subintegris eubtilissimis indistincte articulatis, ramulis latera- 


246 P. r. REiKscn ok fkeshwateb algje. 

libus integerrimis sparsis crectia apicibus paulo incrassatis, cellulis 
Bubtilissirais, cytioplasmate pallide viridi granulis majoribus in- 
structo. Diam. fllorum 0'0011-00026 millim. In plantis aqua- 
ticis (Callitriche) inter Spirogyram. 

In a fountain at Government House. 

A Microthamnio Kutzingiano et strictissimo fills subintegria 
tenuioribus ramulis integerrimis, a M. cladophoroidi (Alg. aq. d. 
Insula? Kerguel.) filis multo tenuioribus ac modo ramificationis 

Enteromorpha comphessa, Greville^ ^. teighodes, Kutzing. 
In a fresbwater pool near Salt river. 

Pliyseumatis ramulis adhserent csespituli Spermosirce macro- 
spermce^ spec, no v. 

EnizoPHTDnjMjSpec. i?. parasiticum cellulis spbsericis aggre- 
gatis orificiis plerumque binis (interdum siugulo). Diam. cellular. 
0'0112-00013 millim. Hab. in granulis pollinis (Abietinarum ?). 

• In a rain-pool on the Cape Flats near Claremont. 

ILrc plantula parasitica orificiis binis baud dubio ad Bhi- 
zopliydium spectat. jB. transversum {Chytridium transversum, AL 
Braun) in Cldamydomonade Ptthisculo et in Gonio nidulans in 
magnitudine et forma cellularum simile, difFert cellulis evolutis 
transverse ellipticis ; B, glohosum dimensionibus multo majoribus. 

Contentus ampullulse eibibens granula pollinis numerosa e 
Phanerogamis variis, tantummodo granulum unicura observabatur 
aparasita infectus. In cytioplasmate granuli est imposita cellula 
singula spbeerica cytiodermate crasso, cytioplasmate dense gra- 
nuloso ; utrum in connexione organica cum cellulis parasiticis 
extrorsum insidentibus ? 

EnizopHYBirir, spec. B. cellulis transverse ellipticis cobse- 
rentibus, orificiis binis ant ternis subtiiissimis, cytiodermate 
crasso, radiculis nullis. Latit. cellular. 0-0056 millim., longit. 

0-0112 millim. In (Ec/cyoTzzVs in plantis aquaticis inter Spirogyram 


In a fountain at Grovernment House. 


Hsec plantula consentit cum parasita minuta non descripta in 

* Tabulis Pbycologicis ' delineata in Motigeoita geni/J!exa crc^cenie 
(Kiitzing, Tab. Pliyc. v. tab. 1. fig. 3, filum dextrum). 

Olpibium, spec. 01. epiphyticum, cellulis subspbsericis arctis- 
sime conjunctis fila breviora integra formantibus, tubulo erecto 
tenuissimo brcviore, seta singula ex tubulo orta. Diam. cellular. 








0"0084 milHm. Hab. lu Spirogyra iasigni et ia CEdogoniis ; in 

speciminibus panels observatum. 

Hoc Olpidium aliqua siuiilitudine cousentit cum Chjtridio can- 
dato iu Schizosiplionte Kerguelensi (ab Insula Kerguclensi) crcs- 
cente, sed differt cellulls regulariter spli?ericis paulo majoribus, 
collo cellulse longiore, seta cy tiodermatis crassiore. Possidere pro- 
pmquitatem genericam plantulam Kerguelensem cum plant ula 
Africana certe aflBrmare non possum. 

\ CnAKACiuM C0R0>'ATUM, spec. nov. C. cellulis (ante zoogo- 

nidiis egressis) oblongo-ellipticis basi angustissime attenuata, 
apice subito iu tubulum brevem extrorsum radialiter dilatatum 
producto, cellulis post zoogonidiis egressis cjathiformibus. Longit. 
cellular. 0-0196-0-0224 millim., latit. cellular. 0-0041 raiUim. Hab. 
lu (Edogonio in plantis aquaticis inter Spiroggram, 
In a fountain at Government House. 

CiiLOROcnrxRirM:, spec. Cellule intercellulai'es et intercellu- 

lares ? sphsericoe in parencliymate plantarum aqaaticarum {Calli- 

triche) nidulantes, cytiodermate subtenui, cjtioplasmate dense 

granuloso pallide viridi, setate provectiore processus breviores aut 

i singuli aut complures evoluti. Diam. cellular. OOlGS-0-0252 


In a fountain at Grovernment House. 

? CiiLORocnxTitiirM:, spec. Ccllulae subcylindrica> cytiodermate 
tenui, cytioplasmate viridi granulis dense positis repleto. Longit. 


0504 millim. In parencbymate plantarum 

In a fountain at Government House. 
Haec cellula dubia tantummodo in specimine singulo obscrvata 
mihi proxima videtur CMorochytrio, Status delineatus cellulaB 
(, certissime est inexplicitus. Denique adjungam obscrvationem de 

glyphis fungi in Chroolepi Montis Tabulae filis crescentibus, 
quas ejusdem generis puto, cum glypbis erysibeis Chroolepi in 
' Contributionibus ' meis, p. 96, tab. v. (Fungi) fig. 3, dellueatis et 
descriptis simul cum sporocarpio explicito. Glyphae steriles circum 
circa Chroolepi^i^ procurrcntes diametro paulo tenuiore specimi- 


6000 ped. et a Com. Tirol.). 


1. Scenedesmus acidcotafzis, Reinsch. Fam ilia 4 -cellular Is, X ~. 

2. S. aculcolaius, cellula singula maxime aucta, x 




Fig. 3. Ccelastrum verrucosumy Eeinscli. Familia sphaerica ex cellulis 16 consti- 



4. Cosmarium Hammeri, Rcinscli, var. Specimen majus, a fronte, X^ 


5. C. abnorme, Nordstedt. Specimen a fronte, x -^ 


6. C. ahiorme, var. trigonuMy x -y-. Aliud specimen, a yertice. 

7. C. jpunctulatum, Brebisson, Specimen a fronte, X ^. 

8. C. pidcherrimum, Nordst. Specimen a fronte, X — . 

9. C. asperulum, Keinsch. Specimen cum cj-tioplasmate, X — . 

10. Comiariiim, spec. nov. Specimen formal rainoris cellula in statu divi- 

sion! s, X -—. 

11. Idem, Specimen formse ma j oris, X ^. 

12. Euastru77i submcisum,'Remsch, Cellula vacua, a fronte, X — • 


13. Staurasirum margaritaceum, Ehrenberg. Specimen, a fronte X — * 


] 4. Aliud specimen, a vertice, X ^. 

15. S,exiguumy Eeinsch. Specimen a fronte, x — . 

16. Aliud specimen, a yertice, X -- 

17. Zygnema tetraspermim, Eeinsch. Fila duo in statu secundo copulatio- 

nis, zygospore modice evolutse ; cum cystiodermate distincto limitato 
simpliciter striato ; limina cellularum copulatarum cystioplasmate 

perfecte vacua, X —• 

18. Z, Utra^fermum, Ultimus status cellularum fill copulatione lateral! 

zygosporis in lumine processuum copulativorum subevolutis cytioder- 

mate distincto limitatis, X — • 

19. Z. tetraspermim, Fili sterilis pars, X ^^ 

20. Z. tetraspermum, Zygospora evoluta magis aucta, nucleis ehloroptyl- 

laceis sphairicis regulariter positis, X ^ 

21. Lymnodictyon, spec, nov., Eeinsch. Specimen majus ex cellulis cytio- 

plasmate repletisconstitutum, X — . 

On the Peculiarities and Distribution of Eubiace^ in Tropical 

Africa. By W. P. Hierk, M.A., F.L.S., &c, 

[Read June 21, 1877.] 
(Plates VII. & VIII.) 

Pbeliminaet Eemaeks. 
The only general account of the Eubiace£e of Tropical Africa that 
nas hitherto appeared, professing to deal with the general bear- 







ings of the Order in this region and comparing tlie more remark- 
able points here with those in other parts of the world, is to be 
found in the fifth volume of the Memoirs of the Society of Natural 
History of Paris, from the pen of Mons. A. Eichard. This is a 
memoir on RubiacesR, and contains a general description of the 
family for the whole world and the characters of the genera which 
compose it. The paper was read before the Royal Academy of 
Sciences of Paris on July 7, 1829, and was printed in the year 1829 

*^ or not later thanl830,but was not actually published until the year 

1834 ; on pages 116-118 he gives a special account of the geo- 
graphical distribution and general characters with the predominant 
genera of Rubiacese in the middle or intertropical region of Africa. 
Only a small proportion, however, of the species which are now 
known to occur in Tropical Africa appear to have been known to 
Richard. The genera of Eubiaceae, as well for Tropical Africa as 
for the rest of the world, have been latterly set in order and de- 
scribed in the first part of the second volume of Bentham and 
Hooker's * Genera Plantarum,' published in the year 1873. The 
new genera, described for the first time therein, have been all cre- 

V dited to Sir J. D. Hooker, with the exception of two genera, 

which have been taken up from Welwitsch's manuscripts. This 

. work has been for the most part folloAved by me for the purposes 

of classification ; the few departures that I have felt obliged to 

make from this main guide to the Order are not necessary to 

detail in this place. 

Having recently drawn up descriptions of the plants of this 
Order for the third volume of the ' Flora of Tropical Africa,' this 
portion of the volume having already been printed off*, I propose 
to lay before the Society a general sketch of the principal results, 
and to give at the same time some particulars which the plan of 
the * Flora ' does neither require nor allow. 

There are described in the ' Flora ' 478 species arranged under 
80 genera, besides a species of Vaillaniia and a few species which 
are either imperfectly known or only incidentally mentioned. To 
this number must also be added one old aud two new species 
(which are herein described and figured), but which I was not 
acquainted with in time to include them in the volume, aud also 
a considerable number of new species collected by Welwitsch in 
Lower Guinea, most of which, though seen by me, it has been 
found impossible to include. When these additions have been 
made, it will result that the species of Eubiace® already in our 


collections amount to no less a number than 550. The materials 
that have served for the base of my investigations as illustrative 
of and supplementary to the information derivable from botanical 
books, were the herbaria of Kew and of the British Museum, the 
collection of Afzelius, made at Sierra Leone and belonging to the 
University of IJpsala, and the greater part of the Eubiace£e col- 
lected by Dr. Peters in Mozambique, kindly lent from the Berlin 
herbarium for the purpose of the 'Plora.' The specimens available 
from these sources are the results of the labours of above a hundred 

collectors, and the sum of the number of species gathered by each 
of the collectors amounts to above thirteen hundred. The largest 
number of species collected by any one person is 175, that is, ^V 
of the whole number of species hitherto known to occur in Tropical 
Africa, all of these species having been obtained in Upper Gruinea 
by G-ustav Maun. 

On comparing the number of species belonging to Eubiaceae 
with the numbers already ascertained to belong to other large 
natural Orders, it appears that in Tropical Africa Eubiaceae is the 
Order of flowering plants second in size, it being rather more 
numerous in species than Compositse and exceeded only by Le- 
guminosse. It must, however, be borne in mind that when the 
specimens of Composite gathered by Welwitsch in Angola have 
been determined, they will perhaps augment the number of species 
of the latter Order so as to outnumber Eubiaceae. At the same 
tmie, from my acquaintance with these natural Orders in Tropical 
Africa, I should expect that the results of future collections to be 
made in this region will be likely to add more species to Eubiace» 
than to Compositae ; indeed this expectation is confirmed by the 
fact that three additional species of Eubiaceje require to be in- 
cluded m these pages, whereas I should at this time have not even 
one such species to add if I were writing similar notes on Com- 
positae. The variations evidenced in the organs of our Eubiacete 
are very numerous, and though often by no means conspicuous, 
yet are dependent on such characters that it seems impossible to 
disregard their specific importance; and in this manner the 
number of species, many of them apparently quite local, is quickly 
increased. Dr. Sehweinfurth, in his book of travels in the interior 
of Africa, speaks of " the endless varieties of the Eubiace* " (vol. 
1. p. 506, English edition), and there is no doubt but that many 
more species remain to be discovered in that country. 

The number of Gramineae in Tropical Africa has not been as- 












certained, and is difBcult to estimate, but I believe that it will not 
exceed that of Eubiaeeae. 

General G-eggkaphical Distribution or Kubiace^. 

On comparing the number of species of Eubiacese in Tropical 
Africa with that in other important or isolated regions, the fol- 
lowing interesting summaries and estimates may be given, 

"We find that in the Cape Plora there are about lOG species ; 
* see Harv. & Sond. PI. Cap. vol. iii. (18G4-18G5). In the ' Flora 

Orientalis' there are about 182 species; see Boiss. Fl.Orient.vol. iii. 
(1875). In Algeria, Mumby gives in his ' Catalogus ' (1859) 39 
species, which include 21 species of the critical genus Galium. 

In Spain, Wilkoram and Lange (1870) give 78 species, of which 
53 are Galia ; in Britain there are 14-17 species, of which 10-13 
are Galia ; and in the whole of Europe 171 species (Nyman, 1865), 

110 being Galia and 43 Asperulce. 

In the Deccan peninsula of India, Wight and Amott (1834) 
give 155 species, including some obscure or doubtfully native 
species ; in Ceylon, Dr. Thwaites (1864) gives 129 species. 
^ In British India it may be estimated that there are about 550 


In Dutch India it appears that there are also about 550 species. 

In Australia, Mr. Bentham (1860) gives 110 species. 

In New Zealand, Sir J. D. Ilooher gives (1864) 31 species, 24 

belonging to the genus Coprosma. 

In the British West Indies, Grisebach (1864) gives 173 species. 

In Brazil there may be estimated about 1100-1200 species ; for 
this estimate I am indebted to Dr. Miiller, of Geneva, who is at 
present engaged upon part of the Order for the ' Flora Brasiliensis.' 

„„4 +u« «^,r.,i>^noa tt-liprft Filices have more 

Mauri tiu 

than double the number of species as compared with any Natural 
Order of Flowering Plants, Eubiacea? occupies the fourth place 
among the latter, while CompositsB holds the sixth place. In the 

belong to Eubiacese. 


There is, of course, great probability that the standard of spe- 
cific value varies much in the diflferent books from which, and with 
the difi-erent authors from whom, the above numbers are taken, 
and therefore any conclusions deduced from their comparison 
must be held subject to this consideration. In my own work the 
standard has been intended to be kept high, so that plants have 

«W5, and Ruhia. 

The ovary is 2-3.celled in Siphomeris and in one species of 
Rutidea, and by exception the same increase in the usual number 
of cells is said to occur in Pentas, Tricalysia, and Pentanisia, and 
it is 2-4-celled in Cephaelis. It is 3-celled in BicJiardia, 4-celled 
in Morelia and Morinda, and very rarely so in one species of 
Pavetta, 3-5-celled in Stipularia, Vangueria.Fadogia, and Cuviera, 
4-5-celled in TTrophyllum and Salicea, 5-celled in Temnopteryx, 
Pentalonclia, and AncylmitJios, 5-7-celled in Triainolems. 10-12- 



been regarded as conspecific unless some good botanical character 

or marked difference in general aspect fairly separated them ; it 

is quite possible that some of my species will subsequently 

require division, and, on the other hand, when fuller material is 

available, some of my specific distinctions will perhaps be found to 
be bridged over. 

Oeganic Pecultaetties. 

In order that it may be easy to form an opinion as to the com- 
parative value of the various characters, I here give a general ^ I 
view of the more conspicuous differences which Tropical African 
Eubiacese, whether in the tribes, genera, or species, present in each 
of the organs and in some of the morphological or physiological 

1, As to the Flowers, 

The flowers, at least within our geographical range, with the 
sole exception of the common Levant weed Vaillantia hispida, 
appear to be uniformly hermaphrodite ; even though the genus 
Psychotria has, in the New World, some species with polygamo- 
dioBcious flowers, none of our species possess this peculiarity. 

2. Frequency of Dimorphism. 
Dimorphism occurs commonly or at least in some species in | 

the genera Pentas, Virecta, Otomeria, and Dirichletia, all of which { 

belong to the tribe Hedyotidese, also in Penta?iisia ; perhaps a ' 

like condition exists in some species of Tricalysia and probably 
also in pther genera. 

3. Differences in the Pistil. 
The ovary is usually 2-celled, but in many genera deviations, 

either occasional or characteristic, occur ; it is only l-celled in 

Gardenia, but incomplete partitions are found in this genus, due 

to the production of 2 or more parietal placentas ; it is also some- 







colled in Lasianthus, The number of lobes or teeth of the style 
or stigma usually agrees with the number of cells, whether com- 
plete or incomplete, in the ovary. The style is usually of mode- 
rate lengthjthat is, about as along as the corolla or shortly exserted ; 
and the upper or stigmatic portion is usually oblong, fusiform, 
linear, clavate, or often subcapitate. There, are, however, globose, 
mitriform,or calyptriform stigmas in Cantliium^Vangueria^ Fadogia^ 
Cuvi€ra,audAnci/lani7ios, and they are much dilated in Macrosphyra 
and in one doubtful species of OxyantJius ; and the style is far 
exserted in Tarenna^ Macrosphyra^ and Pavetta. 

The ovules are numerous or several (2 or more) in each cell of 
the ovary throughout the first great series of the Order, comprising 
half the number of our genera, while in the other series, compri- 
sing the remaining half of the genera, the ovules are always soli- 
tary. Their insertion varies considerably in different genera, and 
is important for the purposes of classification. They are pendulous 
in the genera Adina, Zygoon, Galiniera, and Guettarda, and in the 
tribes Alberte^ and Vangueriese. They are ascending in the 
genera Uncaria, Hymenodictyon^ Corynanthe, and HeJcistocarpa^ 
and in the tribe G-alie^, while they are erect in the genera 
Morinda, Sijpliovieris, and Anthospermum^ as well as in tlie tribe 
Psychotrie^. They are peltately attached in the genera Crosso- 
pteryx, Dictyandra, Leptactina, Tarenna^ and Mitracarpum, as well 
as in nearly the whole of the tribe Ixorese. The ovules are ana- 
tropous in most of the genera, but are amphitropous in the tribes 
Ixorese (except Morinda) and Spermacoceae and in the genus 

The placentas are fleshy in several genera of the tribes Mus- 
saendese and Gardenie^, and the ovules are immersed in or im- 
pressed on them in Bandia, Amaralia, &c. The disk at the top 
of the ovary is not usually important in its characters ; it varies 
from the form of an elevated hemisphere, sometimes lobed, to a 
mere ring, which is sometimes almost obsolete ; in Virecta multi- 
flora the disk consists of two narrow cones. 

4. Differences in the Fruit. 
Corresponding with numerous, several, or solitary ovules in the 
ovary, so the fruit has numerous, several, few, or solitary seeds ; 
the number of seeds, however, is often far fewer than that of the 
ovules, and occasionally, as, for instance, in OxyantJius macrophyU 
lus, we find solitary seeds to result in the fruit after numerous 


ovules In the flower. Monosperinous fruits are also common in 
the case of the genera with 2-cened and solitarj-ovuled ovaries. 

Tiie fruit is a syncarpium in Sarcoceplialus and Morinda, baccate 
and indehiscent in the tribes Mussaeudeae, Hameliese, and Grar- 



meris, and SpermacoceBe. It consists of pyrenes in the tribes 
G-uettardete, Vangueriete, Ixoreae, and PsychotriesB ; and it is cap- 
sular in the tribes Cinchonese and Hedyotideae and in some genera 
of Kaucleea?, being septicidal in the genera AJina, Uncaria, Oto- 4 

meria, aud Rekistocarpa, and loculicidal in Ht/menodictyon, Gory- 
nanthe, Crossoptcryx, Fentas, and Virecta; it bursts irregularly 
at the apex in Argostemma, and dehisces variously in Oldenlandia. 
In the genus Virecta one valve of the capsule is deciduous, whilst 
the other valve is persistent. 

The fruit splits up from the base in Siplwmeris and Hypode- 
matium ; the latter genus differs only by this peculiarity from 
Spermacoce, the fruit of which is dicoccous, splitting down the 
middle from the apex. In the genus SipJiomeris the epicarp is 
membranous and bursts in a valvate manner from the base, and 
each of the compressed pyrenes hangs from the apex of a filiform 
exterior column, and the general appearance of the fruit much 
resembles that of Umbelliferte. 

In Guettarda the endocarp is very hard and woody and more 
or less lobed ; in Triainolepis the pyrenes are bony. 

The form of the fruit is commonly globular ; it is pisiform in 
several genera of Mussaendea>, Gardenieje, and Ixorese ; it is large 
in Amaralia and some species of Handia and Gardenia, fusiform 
or pyriform in MacrospTiyra and in some species of Oxyanthus and 
Mitriostigma. It is more or less didymous or dimidiate in Can- 
tliium and Mitracarpum and in the tribe Galie^. 

The fruit is more or less ribbed longitudinally in the genera 
Fentas, Otomeria, DiricTiletia, Musscenda, Bertiera, Oxyantlus, 
many species of FsycTiotria, and Cephaelis. 

The seeds usually afford valuable characters for the determi- 
nation of genera, but not so good for the higher divisions of the 
Order. In Oldenlandia Pel tospermum, however, the seeds are 
orbicular and discoid, whereas in the other species of the genus 
they are angular. The seeds are furnished at both ends with 
wings (being extensions of the testa) in the genera Adina, Mitra- 
gyne, and Uncaria, and in the tribe Cinchonese ; in Uncaria the 
wings are produced as capillary appendages, In Hymenodictyon 
pnd Corynanthe the wings are undivided at one end and bipartite 



r^ \ 





at the other, while iu Crossojyteryx the peltate seeds have cut 
membranous "wings. Numerous small angular seeds occur in 
PentaSy Virecta^ and Otomeria^ and in the tribe Hameliese ; they 
are more usually globose in Mussaendese and Gardeniece, but the 
exceptions are too frequent for this distinction to be taken alone 
for a diagnostic character. 

The seeds are convex on the back and concave with a central 

depression on the face in the genera Ixora and Pavetta ; they are 

i* marked on the face with a longitudinal furrow, which is entered 

by the placenta, iu Cojfca. In Psycliotria they are in most cases 
longitudinally ribbed or furrowed on the back, and they are marked 
on the ventral face with a diagonally placed depressed cross in 

the genus Mitracarpum. 

A small aril occurs only in the genus Galiniera. 

The testa is more or less fibrous or fibrous-sulcate in the genera 
Oxijantlnis^ Mitriostigma, Pouclietia^ and PolyspTiceria, 

Albumen is always present in the seeds except in the ease of 
the genus GueUarda\ it is usually uniform, but is distinctly 
ruminated in the genera Enterospermim, Galiniem, Polysph(E7na^ 
• Butidea^ and Grumilea. 

5. Diferences in tie Androecium, 

There is very little variation in tte structure of the audroeciura 
in EubiacejB ; the typical form of the anthers is oblong or linear, 
and though a few genera, especially in the tribes Xaucleeae and 
Spermacoceee, exhibit a more ovate or lanceolate or shortly oblong 
form, yet as this matter is one that is seen only by degrees, it 
does not afford good distinguishing characters ; in the tribe Galieae, 
especially in the genus Galium, however, the anthers are short. 

In the genus Argostemma the anthers are connivent and dehisce 
by lateral pores at the apex. In Dictyandra the cells of the 
anthers are divided into small compartments by a few longitudi- 
nal and by many transverse septa, and are therefore termed 


In several species of Tricalysia the connective is produced 
beyond the anther- cells into apiculate appendages ; in our species 
of the genus Gaillonia two of the anthers are subsessile, while the 
remaining anthers are furnished with short but distinct filaments. 
In Spermacoce the number of stamens is rarely reduced to 3 or 

even to 2. 


The corolla is regular, or very nearly so, in all of our species ; 


it varies in form from rotate, as in Argostemma^ to long, slender, 
and narrowly salver-shaped, as in Oxyanthus ; it is subrotate in 
Khabdostigma and Cuviera, and rather less so, having a short 
funnel-shaped tube, in Lamprothamnus ; it is calyptriform in 
CepTiaelis clausa. The tube is curved in some species o^ Psychofria^ 
especially in the section Chasalia. The lobes are crisped in 



gueria, and Cuviera, and eacb lobe is furnished at the apex with a 
quasi-dorsal horn in some species of Fadogia and Psychotria, and 
with an elongated club-shaped appendix at the back near the apex in 
CorynantJie. The lobes are reduced to 3 in number in a few spe- 
cies of Spermacoce. The aestivation is valvate in the genera Adina, 
Mitragyne, Uncaria, Hymenodictyon, and Corynanthe, and in the 
tribes Hedyotidese, Muss^ndese, Vangueriese, Morindese, Psycho- 
trieae, Psederiese, Anthospermese, and Galieae ; it is reduplicative- 



fully so in Lepipogon ; and it is dextrosely contorted, as seen from 
the axis of the flower, in the genera Crossopteryx and Bertiera, 
and in the tribes Gardenieae, Albertese, and Ixore^. 

7. Differences in the Calyx. 

There is perhaps greater variation in the calyx than in any other 
organ ; and the calyx furnishes good characters in some cases for 
the discrimination of genera, but more usually for that of species ; 
it is, however, of but little value for higher groups. 

The tubes of the contiguous calyces cohere in the genus Sarco- 
cephalm, and become confluent in fruit in Morinda. In all the 
genera the calyx is inferior ; but in many the tube is extended 
above the ovary. The tube is ribbed, at least in fruit, in Pentas, 
Otomeria, and some other genera ; more or less compressed in 
Stipularia, &c. 

The limb is developed into a large, dilated, oblique, reticu- 
lated lamina in Dirichletia ; it is unequally lobed in Pentas, 
Virecfa, Otomeria, Temnopteryx, Stipularia, Pentanisia, Antho- 


One lobe 

is frequently much enlarged as a conspicuous coloured lamina in 

Musscen d 

clavate appendage between the several calyx-teeth, which is soou 
torn up from its attachment as the corolla grows to its full length. 
The limb is furnished inside at the base with some fleshy setse in the 
genera Dictyandra and Leptactina ; in some species of Tricalysia 









it is split down two opposite sides ; and in a species of each of the 
genera Randia and Cephaelis the limb is spathaceous. The lobes 
are more or less accrescent or foliaceous in Temnocalyx, Penta- 
loncJia^ Heinsia^ Dictyandra^ Leptactina^ Amaralia, Pentanisia^ 
Cuviera^ AntJiospermum, and Oaillonia^ and in some species of the 
genera Sandia, Gardenia, Fadogia, and Psilanthus, The limb of 
the calyx is, in some genera, reduced to little more than a slightly 
lobed ring. 

The aestivation of the calyx is various, but most frequently open ; 
the principal exceptions are as follows : — In the genus Lampro- 
thamnus and in a species oiPavetta the calyx-lobes are imbricated 
in aestivation ; in the latter case, however, they are occasionally 
contorted. The aestivation is contorted in the same direction as 
in the corolla (homotropous) in the genera Dictyandra^ LeptacHna^ 
and in two species of the genus Tarenna (T. nitidulay var. Afzelii, 

and T, congensis) ; it is contorted in the reverse direction (hete- 
rotropous) in the genus Amaralia, 

8. Differences in tlie Inflorescence and Bracts. 

There is considerable variation in the inflorescence. The pri- 
mary division of the tribe Gardenieae depends upon the nature of 
the inflorescence, that is to say, whether it is terminal or axillary ; 
among the former division of the tribe, however, are some genera 
with the inflorescence terminating in abbreviated, lateral branches. 
Again, the genera of the tribe Mussaende® are classified on the 
same principle ; and one genus of this latter tribe is remarkable 
for having its inflorescence enclosed in one or two campanulateor 
connate bracts. The tribe Naucleea? is characterized by flowers 
confluent or collected in compact heads ; and some of the genera 
of this tribe are mutually distinguished by the presence or ab- 
sence of paleaceous bracteoles between the several flowers. The 
structure of the inflorescence also determines to a great extent the 
classification of the genera of the tribe Psychotrieae ; and invo- 
lucrate flowers occur in two of the genera of this tribe. 

The inflorescence is corymbose in numerous genera ; it is capi- 
tate in several, as, for instance, in addition to those already 
alluded to, Sahicea, Cephaelis, Trichostachjs, Spermacoce, Hypode- 
matium, Octodon, Bichardia, and Mitracarpum, as well as in a 
section oi Psycliotria and in certain species of other genera ; in 
Butidea thecapitulaare arranged in brachiate terminal panicles ; 
it is spicate fla Hymenodictyon, Otomeria, Oaillonia, and in some 
species of Bertiera (in one species of the last genus the spikes are 


ecorploid); it is fasciculate or clustered in tlie axils of the leaves 
ia Temnopteryx^ Fentalonclia, Morelia^ Lasianthiis^ and other 
genera ; and solitary flowers occur in some species of JRandia^ 
Gardenia^ Psilanthus^ Anthospermum^ and Diodia, 

Precocious flowers occur in Zygoon, Feretia, and occasionally 
in Tricalysia. In many genera the flowers are small and incon- 
spicuous, as in Oldenlandia, IleTcistocarpa, PauridiantJia, most spe- 
cies 0^ Spermacoce, &c. ; but large and handsome flowers occur in 
Musscenda, Ileiiisia, Dictyandra, Leptactina^ Bandia (^ EucUnia)^ 
Gardenia, Oxyanthis, Amaraliay Ixora, Pavetta^ and Coffea. 

Tetramerous and pentamerous flowers are by far the commonest, 
but hexamerous flowers are by no means uncommon in certain 
genera, as, for instance, Tricalysia and Coffea ; octomerous flowers 
occur in one species of Bandia, and as many as eleven divisions in 
the corolla occur in one species of Gardenia. The flowers are 
fragrant in many species, as, for example, in Gardenia, Crosso^ 
])teryx, &c. ; an opposite condition, in w^hich tlie flowers have a 
very disagreeable smell, occurs in Cantliium fodtidiim. The colour 
of the flower is various, and white flow^ers are not at all rare. 

The bracts are involucrate in Sahicea, Sfipularia, and CepJiaelis; 
in Hymenodictyon thej are foliaceous, reticulated, marcescent, and 
long-stalked, and form a very conspicuous addition to the flowers. 
The bracteoles are connate at the base and become calyculate in 
Tricalysia, PolyspJiceria, Laniprothamnus and Coffea ; one lobe of 
the epicalyx often becoming foliaceous in one species of Tricalysia. 
Numerous iiliform bracteoles surround'the flowers in Octodon ; 
and bracteoles are altogether absent from Galium. The position 
of the bracteoles in Pavettah useful in separating this genus 
from its near ally Ixora. ' 

9. Differences in the Leaves and Stiptiles. 
The variation in the foliage is limited by the condition that the 
leaves are uniformly opposite or verticillate and quite entire ; 
the only exception within the range of our flora that has come 
under notice is that a barren shoot of Bandia mallei/era (Schwein- 
furth, no. 1877) had alternate leaves. In the majority of genera 
the leaves are opposite ; in some cases the intcrnode between con- 
tiguous pairs of opposite leaves is so abbreviated as to give the 
appearance of quaternate leaves; examples of this occur in Aryo- 
stemma and in Vangiieria ietrapliylla. Ternate leaves occur rarely 
in Sarcoceplialus Bttsseggeri and Bandia, more frequently in Oar- 
denia, and regularly so in Pavetfa ternifoUa. Quaternate leavi 





occur in our species of Adina and in some species of Gardenia ; 
and there are whorls of tliree to five leaves in the genus Fadogia. 
Leaves, more rounded in figure and smaller in size than the rest 
• of the leaves on the plant, occur at the base of the branches in 
the genera Cremaspora and Folyspli<Bria. A few species, especi- 
ally in the genus Psycliotria^ have punctate leaves. 

The stipules are either persistent or deciduous ; they are un- 
divided in the majority of genera, and are often connate at the 
base, so as to be intrapetiolar ; they are geminate in some species 
of Musscenda 2indi in two out of the three s^ocie^ of Heinsia \ 
they are 2-4-cuspidate in some species of Oldenlandia, Psychotria^ 
and AntTiospermum^ and in Triainolepis ] they are 2-x-setose in 
Yirecta setigera^ in Otomeria^ Diricliletia^ in some species oi Olden- 
landia and in Diodia^ Spermacoce^ Octodon, and Gaillonia; they 
are multipartite in Penfas, and multifid in Temnopteryx, The 
stipules are glumaceous in Leptactina senegamhica^ Bandia ma- 
orantha^ and Macrospliyra ; and tbey sheathe the stem in TricTio- 
stacliys vaginalis. In the tribe Galiese either the stipules are to 
be considered foliaceous and like the leaves, or the leaves are to 
be regarded as verticillate and the stipules as wanting. 

10. Differences in Hal it and Stature* 
Except the tribe Galiese, which is but sparingly represented in 
Tropical A^frica, and except also the tribe Spermacocea?, the prevail- 
ing habit of Eubiacese consists of shrubs, often small, sometimes 
scandent, and occasionally arborescent. The tribe of HedyotideaD, 
ho»vever, is made up almost wholly of herbs, thougli some species 
of Pentas and the genus Dirichletia are undershrubs or more or 
less busliy. Moreover the genera Temnopteryx^ Pentaloncha^ and 
Geoplnla consist of herbs, the last-named genus consisting of 
small, slender, creeping, rooting plants. 

Several genera and species are climbing-shrubs, as Rutidea^ Si- 
\ phomeris^ Sabicea^ &c., and a few are spinous, as TTncaria, Bandia 

dumetorum^ some species ofCanfliimn, and some states of Gardenia 
' Thunhergia. Anthospermum is heath-like, and -S/br^Z/a sometimes 

produces aerial roots. 

A few species constitute trees, such as the species of Belono-^ 

pliora, Mitragyne, Corynanthe, &c. Dr. Schweinfurth remarks 
that in If iamniam-land the large, elira-stemmed Eubiaceae, by their 
regularity of growth and symmetry of leaf, appear to imitate and, 
in a measure, supply the absence of arborescent ferns. 
Clinging prickles occur only in some species of Galie©. 



Economic xsv Superstitious Uses. 

Edible fruits are supplied by the genus SarcocepTialus and bj 
species of Tangueria and OxyantTius. SarcocepTialus Riisseggeri 
produces a gum ; and, according to Dr. Scliweinfurth, from the 
wood of the latter plant, which is called " damma," little four- 
legged stools are made and employed in Xiamniam-land on occa- 

sions when the augury is consulted. 


is employed at Sierra Leone in the case of sAvelled legs. The bark 
of Crossopteryx is employed as a febrifuge ; for an account of the 
medicinal virtues of this plant, see Winterbottom, ^Account of 
Sierra Leone,' vol. ii. pp. 45, 46, 243-253 (1803). 

In Niamniam-land and Monbuttu-land, and in other interior 
parts of Africa explored by Schweinfurth, the sap of Randia maU 
leifera, locally called " blippo," is employed to dye the human 
body with black marks in stripes or elaborate patterns. A red 
dye is derived from JJi^ophyllum rubens by the natives in the 
island of Fernando Po ; and madder, Buhia tinctorum^ is culti- 
vated in Abyssinia for economic purposes. 

A resinous secretion issues from Gardenia resinijlua. The 
wood of Mitragyne africana is good for carving, and in the country 
of the Niger is used for writing-tablets. The timber is good of 
CorynantJie and Gardenia Jbvis-fonantis. Lances in Bongo-land 
are made from Randia dumetorum, the wood of which is very hard, 
80 much so that it has been designated by the name of ebony : 
see the figure given in Petherick's ' Travels in Central Africa,' 
vol. i. p. 164 (1869). The last-named species and Morelia are 
said to be used as fish-poisons. Gardenia Thunhergia forms 
capital fences, which are sufficient to resist the inroads of elephants, 
according to Colonel Grant; and a decoction of its root, boiled 
in Sorghum flour, is used by the native doctors at Madi to cure 

The following note with regard to Gardenia Jovis-fonantis is 
taken from Wei witsch, * Apontamentos,* p. 579 (1859). This 
little tree enjoys a great reputation among the natives of Angola 
because it is regarded as a preventive against thunderbolts ; and 
they usually, on this account, put branches of it on the top of their 
dwellings. The name which the natives give to it is ^'N-day^^ or 
^'TInday\^^ and its wood, which borders a little upon yellow, is of 





a very fine grain, very compact, heavy, and of extraordinary 
strength ; and it is perhaps on account of the latter quality that 
the Xegroes attribute to it the preventive virtue referred to. 
It rarely exceeds 7 or, at the most, 9 feet in height ; its trunk, 
however, comes up to 1-^-2 feet in circumference, offering thus 
) suflBcient diameter to render this precious wood useful for all 

works of turnery, such as in Europe are usually made with box- 
wood. Dr. Welwitsch further explains that this plant is remark- 
V able for the large number of lobes into which the various parts of 

the flower are divided; and on this account he proposed the ge- 
neric name Decameria ; the specific name Jovis-tonantis he selected 
m allusion to the supposed influence in time of thunder. 

Mungo Park, in his * Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa,' 
has the following passage: — " On the first attack of a fever, when 
the patient complains of a cold, he is frequently placed in a sort of 
vapour-bath. This is done by spreading branches of the Nauclea 
orientalis upon hot wood embers, and laying the patient upon 
them wrapped up in a large cotton cloth. Water is then sprinkled 
I upon the branches, which, descending to the hot embers, soon 

^ covers the patient with a cloud of vapour, in which he is allowed 

to remain until the embers are almost extinguished. This 
practice comm.only produces a profuse perspiration, and wonder- 
fully relieves the sufferer." 

Nauclea orientalis is a name which has been long known to 
science as an East-Indian plant, but which unfortunately had, 
even by Mungo Park's time, been employed to designate two 
different species which now are placed in two different genera, 
neither of which is Nauclea, though both belong to the tribe 
Naucleese. It is therefore uncertain what species or genus Mungo 
Park took his plant to be ; but it is nearly certain that he was 
treating of either Sarcocephalus esculentus or Mitragyne africana : 
and inasmuch as I have seen a specimen of the former species 
collected by Mungo Park and now in the department of botany 
at the British Museum, and as I have seen no such specimen of 
the latter species, I conclude that it is most likely that Sarcoce- 
plalm esculentus afforded the febrifuge spoken of by Mungo Park. 
Tlie medicinal qualities of this same species are alluded to by T. 
Winterbottom in his ^Account of the Native Africans in the 
Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone,* vol. ii. p. 45, under the name of 

Nauclea samhucina. 






Coffee * is indigenous, as well as cultivated, in Tropical Africa ; 
Coffea arabica is native in Abyssinia, and, according to Welwitsch, 
in Angola. Colonel Grant (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxix. p. 87) 
states that near the Victoria Nyanza lake at Witchroo it grows 
wild and certainly never introduced; he adds that the inhabitants 
do not use the berry in decoction, but chew the undeveloped 
beans to soothe and allay hunger and thirst : he saw it in flower 
and fruit ; but as specimens do not exist in his collection, I think 
that some little doubt must remain as to the scientific determina- 
tidn of the plant. Other species produce coffee, as C liherica 
(Liberian coffee), G. stenqpJi^Ua (the highland coffee of Sierra 
Leone), C. racemosa^ and others ; also Feretia apodantJiera in 
Abyssinia, a species of Tricalysia in Angola, and Sandia genipce- 
flora (the wild coffee of Fernando Po) produce fruits which can be 
used as substitutes for coffee, 

New Species of Aeeican Eubiaceje. 

The two following species, of which I now add technical cha- 
racters, are recent additions of material to the Eubiacese of Tro- 
pical Africa. 

Pentas pabtifolia, Siern^ sp. n. Herba suffruticosa puberula 
ramis sulcato-striatis, foliis lineari-ovalibus vel lanceolatis oppositis 
vel (ramulis abbreviatis lateralibus efformatis) fasciculato-approx- 
imatis,apice vel obtusis vel subacutis vel mucronulatis, basi in petio- 
him brevem attenuatis, |-|-pollicaribus, subtus subpallidioribus, 
margine anguste revolutis, venis lateralibus utrinsecus 3-4 incon- 
spicuis, stipulis e basi brevi truncata 3 2-setoso-cuspidatis, flori- 
bus pentameris |-pollicaribus subsessilibus in densas pedunculatas 
vel subsessiles terminales cymas aggregatis, calycis longo lobo 
ovali-oblongo foliaceo ^^-poUicari, parvis lobis subulatis, corollse 
tubo apice subinfundibulari gracili faucibus barbatis, antheris in- 
clusis, stylo exserto gracili apice bilobo, fructibus ^-poUicaribus. 

Habitat in insula "Mombassa" dicta ad AfricsB bram Zangue- 
barlcam; specimina a cl. J. M. Hildebrandt, no. 1994, mense 
Martio, anni 1876, lecta et in herbario Musei Britannici a me visa. 
{Tide Tab. YII.) 

This differs from all previously known species o^ Fentashy the 
narrow shape and small size of the leaves. 


linn. " Trans 





' u 



Teichostachts yaoestalis, Hiern^ sp. n. T. reptans, caulis 

apice vel ramulis pubentibus, foliis ovalibus apice cuspidato-acu- 
minatis basi obtuse angustatia petiolatis utrinquc pilis crispis 
sparsis subtus subpallidioribus 3|-4 pollices longis 2-2^ pollices 
latis, venis lateralibus utrinsecus 7-8 gracilibus, petiolo pubente 


poll., stipulis |-f poll, bifidis, inferne connato-vaginantibus 

apice caudato-acuminatis extus pubentibus, floribus albidis pen- 
tameris |- poll, subsessilibus in capitula hemispliserica pollicaria 
dense aggregatis, pedunculo communi poUicari stipulaceo-bractea- 
tis, bracteolis inter flores linearibus ciliatis calyces subsequantibus, 
calyce | poll, limbo profunde lobato pubente lobis lineari-lanceo- 

latis ^—^ poll./ coroUae tubo cylindrico faucibus dense barbatis 
lobis patentibus ^ poll, apice mucronato-cornutis, antheris exsertis 
glabris lineari-oblongis filamenta subaequantibus, disco globoso 

Mop an 


Herba 8-12-pollicaris in fruticum umbra crescens. (Vide 
Tab. VIII.) 


Tabulae Yiew of Tegpical Afeican Exjbiace^. 

The subjoined is a systematic list of tbe tribes, genera, and species 
of Eubiaccse in Tropical Africa, with the distribution of the species 
in the six districts into which the geographical region is divided, 
and with the geographical range of the species which extend 

Botanical Name. 

Tribe I. Naucleeae. 

1. Sarcocephalus, w4/V. 

1. S. esculentas, Afz 

2. S. Husseggeri, Kf/ , 

2. Adina, Saliah, 

1. A. microcepUala, n)u 

3. MiTRAGYNE, Korth. 

1. M. africana, Z^orM , 

2. M. inacrophjlla, Hn... 

4. UxcARiA, Schreb, 

1. U. africana, G, Bon ,., 







Tribe II. Cinchoneae. 

5. ITtmenodictyon. Wall. 

1. H. Kurria, ZfocA^^ 

2. n. biafranum, //;i I » 

? Comoro Islands, 




Botanical Name. 



• ■ • 


1. C. paniculata, Welw. , 

7. Orossopteryx, Fenzl. 
1. C. KotBchyana, Feiii^l, 

Tribe III. Hedyotide^e. 

8. Argostemma, WalL 
1. A. pumilum, Benn..,., 

9. Pentas, Bth, 

1. P. ScLimperiana, Vatke. 

2. P. ocoidentalis, B. et H.f. 

3. P. caniea, ^z'A 

4. P. iDurpurea, Oliv 

5. P. arvensis, ZTW' 

6. P. parriflora, ^i'A 

1 10. ViKECTA, Afz. 

1. V. multiflora, SiU 

2. V. procumbens, 8m, 

3. V. angustifolia, -ffh 

4. V. setigera, Hn 

11. Otombria, Bth, 

1. O. guineensis, Bth 

2. O. madiensis, Oliv 

3. O. dilatata, Hn 

4. O. lanceolata, Hn 

12. DiRICHLETiA, Kl. 

1. D. pubescens, ^i 

2. D. glabra, X/ , 

3. D. glaucescens, ^w...., 
13. Oldenlandia, Plum. 

1. O. peltospermum, Hn, 

2. O. Bojeri, i/w 

3. O. globosa, Hn 

4. O. decumbens, J7n. ... 

5. O. lasiocarpa, ^«. ... 
0. O. rigida, Aw 

7. O. Schimperi, T. And. 

8. O. obtusiloba, ^n. . . . 

9. O. senegalensis, Hn. 

10. O. noctiflora, Hn 

11. O. graiidiflora, ^n. ... 

12. O. abyssiuica, Hn. ... 

13. O. strutuosa, Hii 

O fl 



o s 


External Range. 












caffra, E.etZ... 
yirgata, ZfC.?.. 

effiisa, OHv 

Heynei, Miq. ., 
parviflora, Oliv 
flosculosa, H?i.. 
monanthos, Hn 

csespitosa, Hn, 



?]S'ipal, North-west Hima- 
layas, to Burmah, and 
mountains of the Deccan 
peninsula of India. 

Tropical Arabia and Comoro 


Madagascar and Comoro 

Natal and Madagascar. 

Upper Eg>-pt, Arabia, Siuai, 
Beloocliistan, and Scinde. 

Cape de Verde, India and 

? East India. 
Cape districts and Natal, 

also ? Madagascar. 

India, Natal, and ? Mada- 






Botanical Name. 

: Upper 
: Guinea. 





: Lower 
• Guinea. 

: ^ South 

■ • Central. 


External Range. 

13. Oldknlandia (continued). 
22. 0. tenuissima. II?i 

A common Tropical weed. 

Cape flora aud Madagas- 
car, Syria. 

India, Madagascar, Mauri- 
tius, &c. 

Natal, Seychelles, and Co- 
moro Islands. 

Upper Egypt and Armenia. 

23. 0. lancifolia, Schwf, ... 

24. O. corymbosa, L 


« « • 4 * • 

• ♦ t - • • 


4 * * A A A 


25. 0. caDensis, L: f. 

26. 0. trinerria, Eetz 

27. O. macrophylla, DC, ... 

28. 0. waiiensis, Hn 


29. 0. hedvotoides, Boiss 

14. Hekistocarpa, Hk. /. ^ 
1. H. minutiflora, Hk.f.,,, 

Tribe IV. Mussaendeae. 

15. Muss.t:nda, Bay. 

1. M. Afzelii, (r. Don 

2. M. Isertiana, DC. 

3. M. polita, Hn 







* * ■ w w ■ 

4. M. steuocarija, Hn 

5. M. arcuata, PoeV 



» Mauritiu8 and Madagascar. 

6. M. tenuiflora, Z7^ 

7. M. erytlirophylla,^.^2J T. 

8. M. elegans, S, et T. 

9. M. ? heinsioides, ^;j, ... 




10. M.? platyphylla, iJw. ... 



11. M. grandiflora, ^;'A 

12. M. luteola, Del 


16. Pauridiantha, Hk. f, 

1. P. canthiifolia, ^^./... 

17. Urophyllum, Wall. 

1. U. hirtellum, ^^A 

2. U. callicarpoides, Hn,,.. 

3. XT. insulare, Hn 



4. U. rubens. £th 

5. V.Ahelii.Hn 

6. U. paucinerve, Hn. 

7. U. mieranthum, Hn. ... 

8. U. viridiflorum, Schwf. 
18, Sabicea, Aubl. 

1. S. ferruginea, Bth, 

2. S. calycina, Bth 

3. S. pilosa, ^?z 


4, S, Vogelii, ^^'A 

5. S. capitellata, Bth. 

6, S. venosa, i?^A 

7. S. ? segregata, /Tn. 

8. S. ? caulifiora, JETn. 

9. S. ? geantha, ^« 


19. Temnopteryi, Hk. /, 
1. T. sericea, Hk.f, 

1 1 i 




Botanical Name. 







^ c8 



External Range 




20. Pentaloncha, Hk. /. 

1. P. huinilis, Bk. f. 

21. STIPULARIA,i?frt?£t;. 

1. S. africana, Beauv. 

2. S. elliptica, Sclmf, 

3. S. gabonica, Hn, , . 

t * « t * * 

Tribe V. Hamelieae. 

22. Heinsia, BC. 

1. H. jasminiflora, DC. . 

2. H. densiflora, Sn 

5. H. bengiielensis, Welw. 

23. Bertiera, AubL 

1. B. aitbiopica, Hn 

2. B. subsessilis, H^i 

3. B. montana, ir?i 

4. B. africana, A. Rich, . 

6. B. raacrocarpa, Bth. , 

6. B. bracteolata, Hn 

7. B. laxa, Bth 

8. B. breyiflora, iZ'?i 

Tribe YI. Gardenieas. 

24. Dictyandra, Welw. 

1. D. arborescens, Welw,,., 

2. D. involucrata, ^7j 

26. Leptactixa, -ff^. /. 

1. L. Mannii, Hk, f, 

2. L. densiflora, iZX:. /. ... 

3. L. 8enegambica,^A-. /,... 

4. L. heinsioides, Sn 

26. Taren'na, Gcertn. 

1. T. angolensiSj JJ>? 

2. T. niossambicensis, Hn, 

3. T. nilotica, Hn 

4. T. conferta,^« 

5. T. nitidulaj-ffw 

6. T. congonsis, Hn, 

7. T. paUidula,^?? ^."^ 

8. T. tetramera, jff;i. , 

9. T. grand! flora, Hn , 

10. T. nigrescens, S/i 

27. E.vterospermum, Hn, 

1. E. littorale, iZ« , 

28. E AXDiA, Houst 

1. E. dumetorum, La?n, ,,. 

2. E. acuminata, i?M 

3. E. genipteflora, Z>C. 

4. E. rubens, ^« 

5 E. pallens, Hn 

6. E. gambica, Sw- 

7. E. ? caudata, Hn, , . 





jL I 






» * » 

? Inhambane. 

East Indies and Hongkong. 










Botanical K"ame. 



u <3 


External Range. 




if .9 

o :i 


28. Eandia {continued.) 



9. R. macrantba, i) C, 



10. R. macrocarpa, iZ/2 


11. R. malleifera, B, et H.f. 





12. R. ootomera, B. et H. /. 


13 R. Miiiisa.\ Schwf, 


29. Gardfnia, Ellis, 

1. G. Thimbergia, Z. /. ... 







South of the tropic. 

2, G. JoviB-tonantis, Hn, 
3 G- resiniflua. Hu, 

A d ■ A • ' 



V ^p ^P ^B ^F 










5. G. nitida. HJc 

6. G. Vo^elii, Ilk.f. ' 

7 Cit ATfi n (ran \ fp JTn 


Seychelles Islands. 

8 G Annse P Wr .. 






11. G. urcelliforiiiis. JTii. 





12. Gr, fernandensis, ^72. ,..' 



13 ft 9 7flTicriiftlinripn H^i 



30. Macrosphyra, TTX*. Z". 





^^ 1 

1. M. longistyla, ^A*. /. ... 



31. OXYAXTUUS, i)C. j 


1. ? Sinitliii Kn 


1 1 



2.0. tubiflorus,DC. . 


3. 0. ? sulcatus, ^11 











R \% nnrfcT^iin riAHQi G i\J 

Vfa \J % U liClXLllUCliOlr!>| JL(* «** 

# ' 




9. O. CTTacilis ILn 









12 O mn,f^rAnTivlliici f^Jlft^'f. 


32. MiTRiosTiGMA, Hochst. 



1. M. ? Bubpunciatum, lln. 

, « 


2, M. Barteri, iZ^.y. 


33. Amaralia, Welw, 


1. A. bigonia-fiora, Welw... 





34. MoREHA, -4. Bich. 

1. M. Benegalensis, ^. 2?/^^. 




35. ZvGooN, Hn. 



36. Qaliniera, De/. 




1 (t i>nflfAniflpQ gipi. 




37. Empooona, Hk.f, 
1 T? ir;*.tii 77"Z' /* 

• « * • * 




38. Feretia, DeL 


I Iv QT^TfcfiQTi f liai*n iiPL 



2. F. ? canthioides, £^w . .J 





Botanical Xame. 







39. PouciiETiA, A. Bich. 

1. P. africana,7)C 

2. P. parviflora, i>/'^ 

40. Tricalysia, ^. J?ic^. 

1. T. Sonderiana, /^?; 

2. T, ovalifulia, Z^?^ 

3. T. buxifolia, //« 

4. T. syrnmnthern, //?^. ... 

5. T. braeteata, Hn, 

6. T. congest a, ^;; 

7. T. coriacea, Il7i 

8. T, '^jassixi, Hn 

T. reticulata. Hn 

10. T. pallens, i7« 

T. gaboiiica, TT?? 

12. T. okelensis, /r;2 

T. biafrana, /Z); 

T. micrantba, i7w 

T. niicrophylla, Mn 

T. niamni'amcnsis, Schf. 

17. T. djurensis, Sckyf. 

18. T. jasminiflora. BxtHf, 

19. T. crassifolia, B. et H. f. 

20. T. Kirkii, i7M 

21. T. angoleusis, A. Rich. 








C* . 







C n3 

External Range, 







Tribe YII. Guettardese 

41. GUETTAKDA, Osh, 

1 . G. speciosa, L 






Tribe \^II. Alberteae. 

42. Ckemarpora, iJ/A. 

1. 0. africana, 5;*^ 

2. C. ? Thomsoni, Zr» 

43. Polysph.eria, HA\f, 

1. P. multiflora, //« 

2. P. lanceolata, Hn 

3. P. parvifolia, Hn 

4. P. JSchweiufurthii, //"«. 

44. Eelonoi'hora, i/A\/. 

1. B. coffeoides, Hk.f, . 

45. Aulacocalyx, ffi'./. 

1. A.jasrainiflora, ir^\/.. 

46. Lamprotiiamm's, Hn. 

1. L. zan^uebaricus, Zr«. . 


1. E. Kirkii, //7r./. 


Madagascar, Seychelles, and 
Comoro Islands ; also 
East Indies to the Pacific 
Islands and Australia. 

Tribe IX. Vanguerieae. 

48. Pentani5;ia, Harv. 

I. P. Schweinfurthii, Hn 










Botanical Name. 


o g 




^ ,;zio :?; 




49. Cantiiium, Zaw. 
1. C. glaucum, ^;^ 

C. Thonningii, £th, ... 

C, setiflorum, Hn 

C. nitens, Hn 

C. neglect um, Jn 

6. C.Schimperianiiin,^.5A 

7. C Vatkeanum, Hn. ... 
C. anomocarpum, DC. 

C, acutiflorum, Hn 

C. caudatiflorum, Hn... 

C. horizontale, J>i 

C. discolor, 2?;'A 

C. olieocarpum, Hn. ... 
C. zanzibiiricuni, Kl. ... 

C. gracile, H?i 

C. Heudelotii, i^;? 

C. polycarpum, Schwf, 
C. glabriflorum, Hn. ... 
C. Cornelia, Ch. et SchL 

C. hispidum, £fh 

C. setosiim, iZ";; 

C. subcordatum, DC. ... 

C. congense, Hn 

C. rubens, Hn 

C. foetidum, Hn 

C. Afzelianum, J;* 

C. Barteri, Hn 

C. nervosum, Hn 

C, Mannii, Hn 

C. lividum, Hn 

0. Tenosum, Hn 

32. C. ?multifIoruni, Hn. ... 

33. C. bibracteatum, Hn. ... 

34. C. crassum, Hn 

35. C. ▼angueroides, Hn. ... 
3G. C. lancifiorum, Hn 

50. Vanguehia, Comm. 
1. V. infausta, Burch. ... 

V. edulis, Vakl 

V. abj-ssinica, A. Rich... 
V. seregaIensis,^.eiJiy./ 
V. canthioides, 5?*^. ... 
V. euonymoides, Schwf. 
V. umbellulata, Hn. ... 

V. concolor, Hn 

V. membranacea, Hn.... 

V. Telutina, Hn 

V. pauciflora, Schwf. .. 
V. tetraphvlla, iScAw/., 
61. FiDociA, Schwf. 

1. P. leucophloea, Hi 

2. F. Zeyheri, Sond 












External Range, 










Madagascar, Sevchelles, 
and Comoro Islands. 


1 South of the tropic, 
J Madagascar. 

#? I TransvaaL 



Botanical Name. 















* • 


* * * district. 

External Range. 

51. Fadogix (con^imu'd), 

3. F. agrestis, Schvf. 

4. F. Cicukowskii, Sc/nvf. .. 
O. F. lilaberrima, Schv^f. ... 








G. F. stonophylla, Welw,.,, 

7. F. fuehsioides, Welw, ... 

8. F. ancvlantha, Schwf, ... 


9. F. lacfiflora, Wclw 

52. Cuviiiu.v, DC. 

2. C. subulinora, -S;'^ 

4. C. trilocularis, //w 

53. Ancylaxtiios, Da^f. 

1. A. rubiginosa, Le^f, ... 


3. A. cincrascens, Wehv,,,. 

^^ ^"^ ■ ^ W ^ w • 

4. A. cistifulius, Welw. ... 


» ^P ^V ^P w 

54. Cratekispeumi'M, Bth. 

1. C. lauriaum, UIIl 

2. C. cerinanthum, Hn. ... 

3. C. brachvnematura, //;?. 

4. 0. Scbweinfurthii, //>^ . 






5. C. montanum, Hn. 

Tribe X. Ixoreae. 
55. TxoRA, i. 

1. I. radiata, H?i 










4. I. Thomsoni, Hn, 



7. I. bracliysiphon. //?;. ... 

8. I. guliveen.sis, Bth. 

0. I. foliosa, //>? 





13. I. modcsta, //?i 

5G. Pavetta, L. 

1. P. brachycaljx, Hn, ... 

2. P. Mannii, Hn 

4. P. bidentata, Hn 

6. P. owaricnsis, Beau v. ... 
8. P. crebrifolia, H)t 

9. P. macroseoala, Hn, ...1 


^^~ ^r ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^m-^^m ^r ^- ^^^ ^B ^^^p ^^^^ ^^^^ ^b^^^^ ^^^^ ^B ^^^^ ^m ^^^ ^^^h ^p ^^ ^m ^m ^^ 









F I- 






Botanical Name 

14. P. 



56. Pavetta {continued), 

10. P. neurocarpii, Bth. ... 

11. P. subeana, //)2 

12. P. gracilis, i:/ 

P. abyssinica, Fres 

Oliveriana, Z??? 

15. P. mollis, Afz 

P. dolicbosepala, Hn, ... 
P. hispida, Hn 

18. P. genipaifolia, Schum. . 

19. P. Baconia, //?? 

P. llookeriana, Hn 

P. ternifolia, Hn 

22. P. gardiiiiaifulia, Hochst 
P. canescens, DC\ 

24, P. rigida, Hn 

25. P. gracilipes, Hn 

57. COFFEA. 

1. C. arabica, L 

2. C. liberica, 7?«Z^ 

3. C. stenophylla, G, Don 

4. C. Zangucbariae, Lour. 
6. C. brevipes, ^7i 

C. melanocarpa, Welw. 

C. liypoglauca, JVelw..., 
8. C. ? microcarpa, DC, ... 
?. C. Afzelii, //w 

C. subcordata, Hn 

C. mpestris, Hn 

12. C. jasmiiiioides, Wclw.., 

13. C. racemosa, Lour 

58. PsiLANTiirs, 7/^'./. 

1. P. Maimii, i^X:. /. 

2. P.? ebracteolatus, Hn... 

3. P.? tetramcrus, Hn. ... 


1. R. rufipilis, ^n 

2. R. parriHora, -DC. 

3. R. oleuotricha, Hn. .;.... 

4. R, ferruginea, Hn 

5- R. hispida, Hn 

6. R. Smithii./Tw 

7. R. decor ticata, Hn 

8. R. metnbranacea, Hn..,. 

9. R. glabra, Hn 

10. R. fuscescens, Hn 




Tribe XI. Morindeae. 

60. MoRi5DA, Vaill. 

1. M. citrifolia, L. 

2. M. longiflora, G. 









o 3 







Externa Bange. 

? Arabia. 




bid- World Tropics. 



. Botanical Name. 


x: as 






ha -S 






External Range. 

Tribe XII. Psychotrieae. 


1. P. pauridiantha, Hn, ... 

2. P. brachyantha, Hn. ... 

3. P. setacea, Hn 




4. P. Mannii, Hn 

5. P. foliosa, ^w , 

7. P. cornuta, Hn 

8. P. humilis, Hn 

9. P. bifaria, Hn 

10. P. umbellata, Thonn, ... 

11. P. monticola, Hn ' 

12. P. calva, ^w 

13. P. leptophylla, //"« 

14. P. Doniana, Bth 

15. P. koTiguensis, Hn 

16. P. subpunctata, Hn, ... 

17. P. brunnea, Schwf. 

18. P. longevagiiialis, Schwf. 

19. P. gabonica, ^« 


20. P. arborea, i^72 

21. P. sciadephora, Hn 

22. P. punctata, Vafke 

23. P. obtusifolia, Poir. . 



24. P. zambesiana, /^w 

25. P. Kolly, Sckum 





26. P. Beuthamiana, //tz. ... 

27. P. owarieusis, Jfcss 

28. P. Brassii, if» 

29. P. Afzelii, Hn 

30. P. cristata, Hn 

31, P. abrupta, Hn 

32. P. auetuclada, Hn, 

33. P. Kirkii, ^;? 


34. P. recurva, Hn 



35. P. subobliqua, Hn. 

36. P. pumila, /f« 

37. P. nigropuuctata, H71..,. 






39. P. globosa, Hn 

40. P. insidens, ^/i 

41. P. subherbacea, H}U ... 

42. P. infundibularis, ^w... 

43. P. subnuda, Hn 

44. P. longistyli.s Hn. 

45. P. bidentata, ^w 

46. P. Vogeliana, Btk. 

47. P. latistipula, Bth 

48. P. Schweinfurthii,Z^»... 

49. P. lucens, i/», ... 











Botanical Name. 










61. PsYCHOTRFA (conttnued). 
50. P. reptans, £tk 

P. miicrouata, Hn 

P. stictopbylla, H71 

P. obscura, Bfk 

P. crispa, Hn 

P. trachystyla, Hn 

P. Soyauxii, H71 

T.Yirens, H71 

P. Ansellii, Hn 

P. zanguebarica, Hn. ... 

P. umbraticola, Hn 

P. nubica, Del, 

62. Grumilea, Gcerfn. 
1. G-. ps3'chotrioides, DC, . 

Gr. succulenta, Hti 

G. Kirkii, Hn 

G. macrocarpa, Hyz, ... 

G. venosa, IIu 

G. micrantha, Hn 

G. sphaerocarpa, Hn. ... 

G. articulata, H71 

G. sulphurea, Hn 

63. Triain'olepis,^^'./. 

1. T. africana, m-. /. 

2. T. Hildebrandtii, Vatke 

64. Geophit.a, J9. Bon. 
1. G. reniformis, (?) D.Don 

G. hirsuta, Bfk 

G. lancistipula, Hn 

G. uniflora, Hn 

G. Afzelii, ZTn 

G. obrallata, F. Didr.... 

G. involucrata, Schwf... 

65. CErjiAKus, Sw, 

1. C. peduncularis, S^alisb. 
C. suaveolens, Schwf, ... 

C. comuta, H7i 

C. fugcescens, Hn 

C. rubescens, Hn 

0. clausa, Hn 

C. spalhacea, Hn 


C. latifolia, //;* 

C. congensis, Hn 

66. Trichostachvs, /T/t,/, 

1. T. longifolia, /r» 

2. T. petiolata, ^7> 

3. T. aurea, Hn 

_4. T. ciliata, ^w 

67. Lasiantul's, t/aci. 

1. L. africamis, /Tw 























c : 

s ^ 










External Run^c. 



? America and India. 



Botanical Xame. 

Tribe XIII. Paederieae 

68. SiPiioMEuis, 7?o;. 

1. S. foetens, ^;^ , 

Tribe XIV. Anthospermeae. 


1. A. pachyrrhizuin,Zr«.... 

2. A, mnricatum J Hoc kst.., 

3. A. asperuloides, Hk.f., 

U c3 





Tribe XV. Spermacoceae. 

70. DioDiA, Gron, 

1. D. Kirkii,^;2 

2. D . r ubr icosa, Hn 

3. D. arenosa ?, Z^C*. 

4. D. raaritima, Thonn. .. 

5. D. brevlseta, ^2*^ 

6. D. vaginalis, Bth 

71. Gailloxia, a. Bich, 

1. G.caljcoptera,JaM6.e^>S)> 

72. Spermacoce, DHL 

1. S. tenuissima, Hn. ... 

2. S. filiformis, iJ/i; 

3. S. pbyteuma, Schwf, .. 

4. S. compressa, Af^ 

5. S. ?pilosa, DC 

6. S. senensis, Hn 

7. S. stricta, L.f,? .... 

8. S. hebecarpa, OUv. . 

9. S. leucadea, Hochst,, 

10. S. stachydea ?, DC. . 

11. S. radiata, 5/c5 

12. S. ramisparsa, rokl. 

13. S. Euellia?, i>C. ..., 

14. S. dibrachiata, OUv. 

15. S. Kotscliyana, OUv 

10. S. com pacta, HocJist, ... 
17. S. globosa, S,€t T. 

73. Hypodematium, A. Rich. 

1. H.spha;rostigmaj-4.7?/cA. 

74. OcToDoN, Thonn. 

1. O. fiUfuliuui, S.etT. ... 

2. O. setosuin, Hn 

75. KiCHAnDiA, Hoiist. 

1. R. scabra, Z 


1. M. scabrum, Zucc 


* t * * 








External Range, 

? Brazil. 

Tropical America. 
Madagascar and Tropical 

Arabia Petra?a. 


Old-World tropics. 

A common tropical weed. 
Madagascar and Delagoa 


Cape de Verde Islands. 


Tropical America. 
Cape de Vei-de Islands, 







Botanical JJ'ame. 


Tribe XVI. Galie®. 

77. KuBiA, Tourn. 

1. R. cordifolia, X 

2. R. discolor, Tiircz, . 

78. Galium, Z. 

1. Q-. biafrae, /r;j 

2. rotundifoliuin, L, . 


3. GI-. Aparine, i. 

4. G. MoUugo, L 

5. G. simense, Hochst. 
C. G. Decaisnei, Boiss. 
[Yaillantia hispida, L, 




h c3 


79. Eexzonia, Schum. 

1. B, corymboBa, Schian,. 

80. LEPipoGON,j5er^. / 

1. L. oboratum, Bert.f, , 

« « 

Pentas paryiflora, ^?2 

Ixora coccinea, L 

Trichostachys vaginalis,^«. 




S3 -^ 

External Range 

South Africa and Asia. 

Natal, Cape de Verde Is- 
lands, Europe, &c. 

Widely spread over the 
world and reaching the 
Arctic regions. 

Widely distributed over 

The Levant and Persia. 

The Levant.] 


East Indie? 

The three last-named species have been added subsequently to 
the priuting of the corresponding portion of the ' Flora of Tropi- 
cal Africa.' Of the above enumerated 482 species, 238 occur in 
Tpper Guinea, but not in the other districts of Tropical Africa, 
6 in the North Central district only, G2 in Nile-land, 28 in Lower 
Guinea only, 7 in the South Central district only, and 55 only in 
the Mozambique district. 

In comparing the numbers deducible from the tabular view, it 
must be borne in mind that the two central districts have been 
but very imperfectly explored, and that the greater part of Wel- 
witsch's Angolan collection remains to be added, so that the num- 
ber of species given as known to occur in Lower Guinea must be 


The following genera are endemic:— Ct?ry;m«/7i^, Crossoptert/Xj 

Virecta, Otomeria ?, H€kistoca)^a 


Ileinsia. Dictyandra, LeptacUna, Mi 











rr CC 




^ g 











(M^ GO 


Oi O (M ^ CO O 



^ 03 

cq o cuo o ^ o 



t4 « 

Tfi CI O O 00 CO 
<M CO iC 

tH (X t-0- 
CO rt^ t-» 

Oi-iQO ^1 










O GO 01 I-- C^ 












C -* O m .-t CO 
'^ CO <-. 00 

0^ ir: CM vr: 






o 8i a 

, ci a. § 



C .= 


t: o ^ c3 







I ^ 

s^ u 













fl &H_^ 

KCO<;>hhSa^a^-*5 cm o 

CO C» O d 










t-CO (M 












■ ' 


Poueletia, BeJonopJiora, Aulacocalyx, ZaTpprofJiamnus, Maldo- 
stigma, Fsilanthus, Trichostachys, SypodemaUimi, Octodon, and 


In addition to these, IG genera are confined to Africa and Afri- 


genera extend to Asia, the Indian Archipelago, AustraL'a, or the 
Pacific islands, but do not reach either the West Indies or 
America; and 18 other genera have representatives in the New 

\ W 

eubiacej5 occuebtistg elsewheee as well as vs 

Tropical Africa. 

The following species of our flora have a distribution outside 
the limits of Tropical Africa ; there are altogether 49 such species, 
which may be grouped according to the parts of the world to 
which they respectively extend. In the following lists the names 
of some species will occur more than once in the event of the 
species being found in different parts of the world. 

1. South Africa. 
Oldenlandia decumbens . . . Natal. . 

O. caffra Cape and Natal. 

I O. Heynei Natal. 

O. capensis Cape. 

O. macrophylla Natal. 

Enterospermum littorale .. ? luhambane, Mozambique. 

Gardenia Thunbergia Cape and Natal. 

Tricalysia Sonderiana Natal. 

Vangueria infausta Cape, Natal, and Transvaal. 

Fadogia Zeyheri Transvaal. 

Spermacoce stricta (var.) .. Natal and Kafirland. 

S. Kuelliffi Delagoa Bay. 

Eubia cordifolia Caflfraria and Natal. 

Galium rotundifolium ... Cape and Natal. 

G. Aparine Cape, «fec. 

Lepipogon obovatum Inhambane, Mozambique. 

2'. Mascarene Islands, including Madagascar and the 

Comoro Islands. 

TJnearia africana ? Comoro Islands. 

Pentas carnea Comoro Islands. 

Oldenlandia Bojeri Madagascar and Comoro Islands. 

O. decumbens Madagascar. 





Oldenlaadia caffra ? Madagascar. 

O. Heynei ? Madagascar, &c. 

O. corymbosa Comoro Islands. 

0. capensis Madagascar. 

O. triuervia Madagascar, Mauritius, and Sey- 

O. macrophylla Seychelles and Comoro Islands. 

Mussaenda arcuata . . Mauritius and Madagascar. 

Gardenia An nae Seychelles. , 

G-uettarda speciosa ..' Madagascar, Seychelles, and Co- 
moro Islands. 

Cunthium bibracteatum ... Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoro 


Vangueria infatista Madagascar, &c. 

V. edulis Madagascar, &c. 

Ixora odorata Madagascar. 

Morinda citriiblia Seychelles. 

Psychotria obtusifolia ... Madagascar. 
Triainolepis Hildebrandtii North-west Madagasc 

Diodia breviseta Madagascar. 

Spermacoce stricta Mauritius (teste Bake 

rit. p. 159). 

S. ramisparsa Mauritius and Madag 

S. Euelliae Madagascar. 

3. North Africa^ Madeira^ Canary, and Cape de Verde Islands. 

Oldenlandia Schimperi . . . Upper Egypt. 

O. strumosa Cape de Verde Islands. 

O. corymbosa Cape de Verde Islands. 

0. hedy otoides Upper Egypt. 

Spermacoce globosa Cape de Verde Islands. 

Mitracarpum scabrum ... Cape de Verde Islands. 

Galium rotundifolium Cape de Verde Islands. 

G. Aparine North Africa, Madeira, and Ca- 
nary Islands. 
Vaillantia hispida North Africa and Canary Islands . 

In addition to these, P. B. Webb, in ' Spicilegia Gorgonea,' 
page 132, gives from the Cape de Verde Islands, Sedyotis (Ol- 
denlandia) Burmannia, E. Br. in Wall. Cat. n. 868 ; R. (Olden- 
landia) virgata^ Willd. ; and H, (Kohantia) stricta^ Sm. 






The only species of our flora which extends to the Arctic regions 
is Galium Aparine ; G, Mollugo^ var. (G^. erectum), extends to many 
parts of Europe, 

4. South Europe^ Asia Minor^ Armenia, Persia^ Arabia^ 

SelucJiistan^ and Scinde, 

Pentas carnea Tropical Arabia. 

Oldenlandia Schimperi Arabia Petrsea, Beluchistaa, 

and Scinde, 

O. capensis .,. Syria Qesic Boissier, Fl. Or. 

iii, p. 11), 

O. hedyotoides , Armenia, 

Coffea arabica .„ ? Tropical Arabia. 

Gaillonia calycoptera Arabia Petraea. 

Galium rotundifolium The Levant and Armenia (^feste 

Boissier, FL Or. iii. p. 49), 

Gr. Aparine Widely spread, 

G. MoUugo Widely spread. 

G. Decaisnei.. The Levant and Persia, 

^ Vaillantia hispida South Europe, the Levant, and 


5. Eastern and Tropical Asia^ China, Pacijic Islands, 

and Australia, 

Argostemma pumilum PNipal, North-west Himalayas 

to Burma, and mountains of 
the Deccan peninsula of India. 

Oldenlandia Heynei East Indies. 

O. corymbosa Widely spread, 

O, trinervia East Indies, 

Eandia dumetorum East Indies and Hongkong. 

Guettarda speciosa East Indies and Australia. 

? Ixora coccinea East Indies. 

*• Morinda citrifolia ! . Tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, 

and Queensland. 

Geophila reniformis ? East Indies and Pacific Islands. 

Spermacoce stricta East Indies and Hongkong. 

S. ramisparsa India- 

Kubiacordifolia Widely spread in Asia. 

Galium rotundifolium Commonamong the hills of India. 

G. Aparine Himalay 



The Indian species, Ixora coccinea, which is often cultivated, 
has been sent to the British Museum hj the Eev. A. Eobb from 
Old Calabar, without any note stating that it was cultivated there 
or had been introduced into Africa. 

6. Tropical America. 

Oldenlandia corymbosa ... Widely spread. 

Geophila reniformis ? Widely spread. 

Diodia arenosa ? Brazil . 

D. maritima Cuba, Guatemala, &c. 

D. breviseta West Indies, Guyana, and 


Spermacoce raraisparsa Brazil. 

Eichardia scabra AVidely spread. 


Of the 482 species which have been described in the third 
volume of * The Flora of Tropical Africa ' or added in these notes, 
250 are new or not previously described ; and of the 81 genera 
amongst which the species are distributed, 3 genera are new. 



Plate VII. 

Penfas parvifoHa, Hiem. 
Fig. 1. An expanded flower, enlarged two diameters. 

2. Corolla, laid open, showing the interior with the included stamens. 

3. Diagram showing the valvate sestivation of the corolla. 

4. Vertical section of the pistil and calyx, enlarged five diameters. 

5. Horizontal section of the ovary, enlarged also five diameters. 

Plate VIII. 

f - 

TricJwstachys vaginalis, Hiem, 
Fig. 1 . A flower-bud, enlarged four diameters. 

2. Diagram showing the induplicate-valvate aestivation of the corolla. 

3. An expanded flower, enlarged four diameters. 

4. CoroUa laid open, with yertical section of the ovary, enlarged also four 


5. Stamens, front and side views, enlarged eight diameters. 



Linn. Soc. Jour. Box. Vol,. XVI. Pl, VII 



D Blair del etlitK 

Mmtem Bro« /irrrp 


Linn. Soc .Jour. Bot . Vol.XVI. Pl.VIII 

DHlair ddctUth. 

&£nlein Bros. imp 



Eroin Vol. IX. the Zoological and Botanical portions of the 
Journal have been published separately , and each consists of Eight 


The price of each separate number, whether Zoological or 

Botanical, is 2^. to the public, and Is. Gd. to Fellows. 

Each volume of eight numbers, when subscribed for and paid 

in advance, will be charged 125. to the public, and 95. to Fellows. 

A-is'T Candidate for admission as a Fellow must be proposed on a 
written Certificate, to be signed by three or more Fellows, from 
their personal acquaintance with him, or knowledge of his charac- 
ter or writings. 

Fellows, on their election, pay an Admission Fee of £6, and 
are thenceforth liable to an Annual Contribution of £3, which may 
be compounded for at any time by one payment of £30 in lieu 
of all future contributions. 

Fellows residing abroad, and not compounding, are required to 
provide such security for the payment of their Annual Contribu- 
tions as shall be satisfactory to the Council. 

The Fellows are entitled to v^qqiyq, gratis^ all Volumes, or Parts 
of Volumes, of the Transactions and Journal, that may be pub- 
lished after they shall have paid the Admission Fee ; and they 
may be supplied with any of the Society's publications at a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent, under the common selling prices. 

The 1st Series of the Transactions is now completed in 30 vols. 
Sets of the first twenty volumes will be supplied to the Fellows 
at the reduced price of £20 ; or of the first twenty-five volumes, 
with the General Index to the whole, for £30. Any Fellow pur- 
chasing, at one time, ten or more volumes, may obtain those 
from the Isfc to the 20th at £1 per volume, from the 21st to 
the 25th at £2 per volume; and single volumes, or parts, to 
complete sets, maybe obtained at the original prices. The price 
of the Index to Vols. 1-25 is 8.s. to the public, and Qs. to Fellows ; 
of the Index to Vols. 26-30, Is. to the public, and 3^. to Fellows. 

Members are requested to apply at the Apartments of the 
Society, to Mr. Kippist, Librarian, for such volumes as they may 
be entitled to, or be desirous to purchase : but no volume can be 
delivered ffmtis to a Fellow whose yearly Contributions are in 
arrear, nor can any be delivered unless applied for within five 
years from the time of publication. — Of the 2nd Series, of the 
Transactions, Vol. 1, Parts I.-IV., Zoology and Botany, are 
now ready for delivery. A few copies of the several papers 
contained in the later volumes (from Vol. 26 onwards) have been 
printed off for separate sale ; and most of them may still be had. 

The Library is open to the Fellows and their friends daily, 
between the hours of 10 and ^t, and on Meeting-days at 7 p.m. 

With certain restrictions, Fellows are allowed to borrow Books 
from the Library. 



'- -'^i- 

■H - 






days, when till 4 p.m. only. 

r ^ ' 

Communications intended to be made to the Society may be addressed to tm 
President, or to the Secretary, at the Society's Apartments, Burlington Hoiwe 
Piccadilly, London. 

■ r 

-" J 

'-- ■' ' 

^-l ', t. ^ 

■ t 


^-' - ^^■ 


_ ^' 


- f h ^. 

'-^■■i :'^^:-:' 

"- L 

K J- - 

-:.- ' 


J ^ > 

' X 

J. ' <: 

. J- 



: i 






I'riee 24 



■ L 






h ■ 

Vol. XYI. 


No. 93 


[ 1 

i i 






F ^ 

Spicilegium Florse Maroccanae. By Johk Ball, Esq., E.E.S., 

r.L.S.— Part I. containing Introductory observations 
and descrintion of Genera and Species, Eanunculaceae 










SEP 1 8 1996 

_ t' 



t _ 

GARDEN LiDiin«(> 



-" ^ 



* 1 




Y 4 



T X 

' ■, h 







I *■ 



■ h" 

t , H 



■^ . - . 



, . I -.-. 

■.:f■^ . 

^ r I 

^ ' 

.. -^ 


■^ ^s*; '■ ■ ,v- .^ -^ 

■:i/ : .- ^ - . 

- ^ 


■^ / 


■i ^u '' r 



'- 4 I 

1 , _ 


V - 

- _ " J^ 
J _ P _. - - 

,;■;■'■-■" ■ 

i _ 

L i 


K >■ 


. ' -^^ . 


Spicilegium Florae Maroccanse. 
Bj JoHx Ball, Esq., F.E.S., P.L.S. 


[Ilead March 1, 1877.] 
(Plates IX.-XXVIII.) 

Ijs^teodtjctort Obsekyations. 

The territory of Marocco extends from the Straits of Gibraltar, 
with the neighbouring part of the Mediterranean at its northern 
extremity, to the great desert on the southern side of the Great 
Atlas, and from the frontier of Algeria to the Atlantic coast of 
Northern Africa. Of this extensive region, about equal in extent 
to Spain, it may be truly said that none other so easy of access is 
so little known to geographers. 

Although the chief ports are within a few days' journey from 
London or Marseilles, and are freely open to Europeans, so little 
is known of the interior that the maps, all founded on native in- 
formation, which profess to represent the direction of the moun- 
tain-ranges and the course of the chief rivers, are hopelessly at 
variance, and of the best of them it may be said that the little 
positive knowledge we possess show^s that even in its main features 
it is very wide of the truth.^ 

The causes of our ignorance of the country are easily stated. 
The traditional policy of the government has been hostile to the 
admission of strangers into its terrritory ; and as regards the 
natives of Christian States the diflRculties have been aggravated 
by the fanatical character of a great part of the native population. 
But a still more serious, and probably a more enduring, obstacle 
to exploration arises from the fact that fully two thirds of the 
entire country is inhabited by independent tribes, who recognize 
no external authority, even when they accord a nominal supre- 
macy to the Sultan of Marocco. These tribes, descendants of the 
original Berber population of IS'orthern Africa, which has never 
heen subjugated by any of the foreign rulers who have held the 
coast and the open country, occupy nearly all the mountain region 
Possessing, it would seem, many of the rude virtues common to 
such populations, they are constantly engaged in internal^ petty 
warfare, and always disposed to regard strangers not of their own 

tribe as lawful prey. 

Even in the parts of Marocco where the natives have approached 
the limits of European civilization, access to mountain districts is 



all but impossible to strangers. The fine peaks of the Beni 
Hassan, within sight of the rock of Gibraltar and easy reach of 
Tangier and Tetnan, have never been approached by a traveller ; 
and Sir John Drummond Hay, whose knowledge of the people 
and influence amongst them surpass that of any other European, 
pronounced against the feasibility of the excursion which we 
earnestly desired to make in that direction. 

As a necessary consequence of what has been stated, our know- 
ledge of the Flora of Marocco has been extremely limited, and, in 
spite of what has been done during the last few years, is still most 
imperfect ; and the time is yet distant when it will be possible to 
give more than a rude outline of the relations between the vege- 
table population and those of the surrounding regions. 

The earliest notice that I have found of botanical research into 
the Marocco Flora is in the ' Istoria Botanica' of Zanoni (Cura- 
tor of the Botanic Garden at Bologna), published in 1675. He 
had received plants and seeds from Tangier from a Mr. Alexander 
Balaam, who appears to have been a merchant trading with 
Tangier during some part of the time when that town was held 
by the Portuguese and the English. The next contribution, and 
' amore considerable one, is contained in a list published (1696) in 
the 19th vol. of the ' Philosophical Transactions' (p. 239 etseq.), \ 

but drawn up in 1673 by Mr. Spotswood, a surgeon who lived there 
during the English occupation, and gathered plants which he gave 
to the same Mr. Balaam and to Dr. Morison at Oxford There 
is some difficulty in identifying many of the species named ; and I 
have not thought it worth w^hile to cite the plants contained in 
Mr. Spotswood's list. 

After the evacuation of Tangier by the English, under circum- 
stances little creditable to our national honour, communication 
between Europe and Marocco became more unfrequent than ever, 
and, excepting some occasional negotiation' for the release of 
Christian captives, seems to have almost ceased.' At the latter 
end of the last century relations between some European powers 
and the Marocco Government became more frequent and almost 
amicable, so that travelling in the country seems to have been 
easier than it has been in more recent times. A French botanist, 

M. Broussonnet. who also viaitpd thp nnnnT-D- Tslnnflfl and some 


years of the century. 




dor and Tangier, visited several of the ports on the Atlantic coast. 



MB. J. ball's spicilegtum flob^ makoccan^. 283 

aud made at least one journey into tte interior, in which he 
reached Fez and Mequinez. Broussonnet sent specimens to the 
chief botanists of his day — to Willdenow at Berlin, to Desfon- 
taines at Paris, to Gouan at Montpellier, and to Cavanilles at 
Madrid. Most of the latter were published by that excellent 
botanist in the'Anales de Ciencias Naturales,' a now scarce peri- 
odical which secured for Spain a temporary place in the republic 
of science, which she did not long retain. A few of Broussonnet'a 
plants were also published by Willdenow in his edition of the 
* Species Plantarum ;' and a few others are referred to in Desfon- 
taines's * Flora Atlantica;' but the greater part of his collections, 



The results of the latter's study of that 
collection form a portion of the materials, which we hope soon to 
see published. "Unfortunately Broussonnet seems to have been 
somewhat careless respecting the localities whence his specimens 
came, and to have sometimes intermixed those from the Canary 
Islands, Soutli Marocco, Tangier, and Spain. Several undoubted 
errors that have been detected throw doubt on the authenticity 
of his localities when unconfirmed by other authorities. 

About the time of Broussonnet's visits to Marocco Mr, Schous- 
boe was appointed as Danish consular agent at Mogador, and 
subsequently at Tangier. He was an active and intelligent ob- 
server, who sludied carefully the vegetation of both the 
districts above named. Besides this he collected a few plants 
in the course of a journey in which he reached the city of 
Marocco, and another which led him to Yez and Mequinez. He 
was the author of the first attempt at a llora of Marocco, the 
first portion of which, including the Linnean classes from Monan- 
dria to Enneandria, with a few new species of other classes, was 
published in Danish and in German in 1801. Unfortunately, the 
work remained unfinished. Although Schousboe lived for many 
years afterwards chiefly at Tangier, and added very largely to his 
collections, I am not aware that he worked at the continuation of 
the work, which, in the German edition, bears the title " Beob- 
achtungen uber das Gewachsreich in Marokko." Schousboe s 
herbarium is preserved at Copenhagen ; but the large collection 
of his duplicates passed not long ago into the possession of M. 
Cosson, who has liberally given sets of them to the Kew Herba- 
rium and to myself. _ ^ . ... .t.„ Ai.i.xi5u;i:.„. 



284 MB. J. ball's sptcilegium t-lq-rm maeoccak^. 


Durand, visited Marocco, reacted Fez and Mequinez, and, so far 
as I know, alone of European travellers traversed some part of 
the great forest of Mamora, respecting which many a strange 
story circulates among the natives of Marocco. 

In 1809 was published the first edition of the work which gives 
by far the fullest account of Marocco that has yet appeared, 
•An Accountof the Empire of Marocco,' by James Grrey Jackson. 
Mr. Jackson lived for the greater part of sixteen years in South 
Marocco ; he became familiar with the language and manners of 
the people, and must have acquired more of their confidence than 
any previous European visitor, as he not only travelled by several 
routes through the lower country near the coast, but was allowed 
to join a military force proceeding over the Atlas from Marocco 
to Tarudant. 

Mr. Jackson does not, however, seem to have ventured on 
entering the city of Tarudant ; nor, though he approached Wad- 
noon, did he actually visit that place. 

Though not a naturalist, Jackson was a very intelligent obser- 
ver ; and on some points, especially regarding the curious cactoid 



ing to botanists. 




able time at Tangier in 1825, and seems to have explored very 
carefully the district within convenient reach of that city. Salz- 
mann does not appear to have had much scientific knowledge ; 
but he was a sharp-eyed collector, and often detected differences 
between plants found by him and allied species, with which they 
Lad been confounded by other botanists. Several of these were 
published by the late M. A, P. Decandolle, then at the zenith of 
his scientific fame and authority, who had shortly before com- 
menced the publication of that colossal work, the ' Prodromus 
Systematis Naturalist Others remained unpublished, except for 
the manuscript name attached to them by Salzmann. As, how- 
ever, his collections were sold, and were sufficiently numerous to 
supply the demands of the chief botanists of his time, this has 
been, I think, justly regarded as equivalent to publication, and 
as constituting a title to priority over names subsequently given 

by other botanists. 

Very complete sets of Salzmann's Tangier plants were con- 











j tained in the herbarium of Mr. Bentbam (presented by bini to 

■ the national collection at Kew), and in that of my late lamented 

i friend M. Jacques Gay (purcbased by Dr. Hooker, and also 

,, given to the Kew Herbarium); so that I have bad the opportu- 

nity of examining original specimens of nearly all Salzmann'a 

In 1827 my excellent friend the late Philip Barker Webb spent 

tbree weeks at Tangier, and then visited Tetuan. where he was 

able to ascend two of the neighbouring mountains, and to discover 

ftinongst other novelties a new genus of Cruciferse, for which, up 

r , _ to the present time, no other locality is known. His collections, 

preserved along with the remainder of his great herbarium at Flo- 
rence, have been examined by M. Cosson and by myself 

During the years between 1840 and 1870 many botanists touched 
at Tangier, including my friend M. Boissier, with the late M. 
Beuter, Dr. Lagrange, M. Blanche, M. Mares, and M. Jourdan. 
Several of the plants collected by MM. Boissier and Eeuter were 
described by them in a little volume styled ' Pugillus Plantarum 
Novarnm Africae borealis Hispaniseque australis.' In that work 
the criteria for the admission of new species, so justly maintained 
in the great works on which M. Boissier's fame depends, were 

?^ somewhat unduly relaxed. 

In 1859 the late Eev. E. T. Lowe contributed to the * Proceed- 
' ings ' of this Society a list of plants observed by him in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Mogador ; and most of these are pre- 
served in the herbarium bequeathed by him to the Eoyal Gardens 
at Kew» 

In June 1851 I made an attempt to reach the higher summits 
of the Lesser Atlas in the neighbourhood of Tetuan ; but, owing 
to the disturbed condition of the district, I was limited to the 
immediate neighbourhood of the city, which, however, offers many 
species of interest not found about Tangier. 

In 1869 my indefatigable friend, Mr. George Maw, was some- 
what more successful than myself, and was permitted to ascend 
part of the Beni Hosmar, previously visited by Webb. 

In 1867, chiefly through the influence and with the aid of M. 
Cosson, whose intimate acquaintance with the flora of Northern 
Africa is unrivalled by any competitor, the successful botanical 
traveller Mr. Balansa was despatched to Mogador, with the object 
of attempting to investigate the flora of the Great Atlas range as 
far as circumstances would permit. Although receiving every 



286 ikIK. J. ball's SPICILEGIUM FLOnm MAHOCCATf^. 

assistance from the Prencli diplomatic agents in Marocco, his 

progress was impeded at every step ; and after about a fortnight ^ | 

he was forced to abandon the attempt and return to Mogador. 

He nevertheless was able to collect a large number of the new 

and remarkable species which characterize the skirts of the great 

mountain-range and the lower mountains that diverge from the 

main chain. 

The short time at his disposal enabled M. Balansa to collect so 
few duplicates that many of the new species subsequently de- 
scribed by M. Cosson are not to be found in the principal her- 
baria of Europe, and several of these, as well as the other plants 
of his journey, are preserved only in the magnificent herbarium 
of M. Cosson. 

Along with other materials scarcely to be found outside that 
herbarium, I should mention a collection made by M. AVarion, in 
the medical service of the French army, a good observer and col- 
lector, who gathered many plants on the eastern frontier of 
Marocco, adjoining the French province of Oran. 

Early in the year 1871 Dr. Hooker, who had long felt a desire 
to explore the range of the Great Atlas, applied to Earl Granville, 
then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to use the influence of 
the English Government at the court of Marocco to obtain the 
necessary permission of the Sultan. The information received 
from Sir John Drummond Hay, our minister at the court of Ma- 
rocco, was so far favourable that Dr. Hooker determined to leave 
England in the spring of that year ; and I was fortunate enough 
to be able to accompany him, along with our mutual friend Mr. 
George Maw, who, as well as myself, had already made an attempt 
to visit the extremity of the chain of the Lesser Atlas of Marocco 
in the neighbourhood of Tetuan. 

We received before starting valuable information and aid from 
our excellent friend M. Cosson, who was kind enough to prepare 
a manuscript list of all the plants then known or believed to in- 
habit the Marocco territory, as far as his unequalled means of in- 
formation would go. 

In our subsequent course we were under deep obligations to 
onr active and energetic representative in Marocco already named, 
and to all the British consular agents on the coast, and especially- 
to the late Mr. Carstensen, then Vice-consul at Mogador, through 
whose hospitality and active assistance our stay was rendered 
agreeable, and our journey into the interior materially expedited. 





T , 





i ¥ 


MR. J. Ball's spicilegittm: flor^ MAROcciL:^^^. 287 

After three days passed at Tangier, during which we made an 
excursion to Cape Spartel, and thence along the Atlantic coast 
to the so-called Cave of Hercules, we started for Tetuan, which 
we reached early on the 12th of April. On the following day 
we ascended the highest of the picturesque mountains that enclose 
the verdant valley of Tetuan, called Beni Hosmar, the same which 
had been visited more than forty years before by the late Mr. 
. Webb. Although the season was not yet sufficiently advanced 
we collected nearly all the species found by our predecessor, with 
several others of much interest. After another day well spent on 
i the rocky ground in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, we 

started on the 15lh to ride along the coast to Ceuta, thei-eby 
adding some additional species to our rapidly growing collections. 
The botanical exploration of the coast between Ceuta and Tan- 
gier, on the seaward slopes of the Angera Mountains, would be of 
great interest ; and until this has been effected it will not be pos- 
sible to say whether Rhododendron ponticum, HeliantJiemum last* 
anthum, and several other remarkable species now known on the 
northern side of the Straits of Gibraltar are really absent from 
the southern shores. The country, however, is considered too 
unsafe, especially for travellers starting from Ceuta, and we tra- 
versed the Straits in the felucca, by which the garrison and popu- 
lation of Ceuta keep up communication with Algeciras. Two 
days' unexpected detention on the Spanish side M^as not ill em- 
ployed in a survey of the spring vegetation of the hills above 
Algeciras and the rock of Gibraltar. Eeturning to Tangier 
we were detained two days more, which were employed in 
putting in order and further increasing our collections. Mr. 
Maw, who had returned direct from Tetuan to Tangier, made in 
the interval two fruitful excursions to some swampy brackish 
lakes about 14 miles S.S.W. of the latter city. 

Having at length received the necessary letter from the Sultan 
to the Governor of Mogador, we left Tangier on the 20th of April 
in the French steamer * Yerite,' bound for the Atlantic ports of 
Marocco and the Canary Islands. On the following day we lay 
off Eabat, but, owing to the heavy swell, were unable to land. On 
the following day, however, we landed at Casa Blanca, or Dar el 
.Beida, a place not mentioned by any of the botanists who have 
visited the coast Having made a tolerably large collection on 
the bare hills near Casa Blanca, and been hospitably received by 
Mr. Dunuis. the British vice-consul, we continued our voyage to 


288 ME. J. ball's SPICILEGIFM florae KAROCCA:N"iE. 


Mogador, not having any favoni 
Mazagan or Saffi. We reached 
and after attending to the requisite arrangements for our journey 
we visited the curious neighbourhood of that town. The vegeta- 
tion of the neighbourhood, and especially that of the low rocky 
island which forms the port, had suffered severely from the perio- 
dical visitation of locusts which had lately passed over the district; 
"but we were able to secure most of the interesting species found 
by our predecessors ; and on the 29th we started for the interior, 
making a slight detour by keeping southward near the coast for 
some five or six miles, and thereby making fuller acquaintance with 
the Argan forest, and then across the country till we rejoined our 
tents and baggage outside the walls of the extensive castle of 
the Governor of Shedma. During most of the day we had tra- 
versed the northern part of Haha, a very large province that ex- 
tends along the coast from Mogador to Agadir and to the skirts 
of the Atlas chain. It is needless to say that on this, as on each 
succeeding day of our ride to Marocco, we encountered many in- 
teresting plants, some altogether new to us, some known only 
from dried specimens, and several hitherto undescribed. On the 
evening of the 30th we reached Ain Oumast, a spring where tra- 
vellers necessarily encamp, as for many miles eastward the country 
is an arid stony desert, closely resembling in aspect, as well as in 
its vegetation, some parts of the Sahara. 

On the 1st of May we encamped at Sheshaoua, a veritable oasis, 
where in the shade of fruit-trees we were surprised to find many 
common European species. The soil surrounding it appears to 
contain much gypsum, and produced an unusual proportion of 

A long ride on the following day took us to Misra ben Kara, a 
place near the banks of a considerable stream that flows north- 
ward from the Great Atlas; and on the following day a short but 
hot ride across the glowing plain took us to the ancient capital of 

While detained in Marocco Mr. Maw made an interesting ex- 
cursion to the nearest of some rocky hills of metamorphic rock 
that rise a few miles N.W. of the city. He brought back a new 
species o{ BoerJiavia, ForsakJilia tenacissimaj Andropogon lanigeTf 
and several other species not hitherto seen by us. 

On the 8th of May, after encountering various tokens of un- 
friendly disposition on the part of some of the native authorities, 







ue turned our faces towards tlie chain of the Great Atlas, which 
rises in full view of the city. Early on the following day we 
reached Tassereraont, and there began to make acquaintance with 
the special flora of the Great Atlas, gathering several of the spe- 
cies first seen by M. Balansa, as well as some others which he had 
not met. Being unable to continue our course towards the high 
range immediately south of Tasseremont, we turned S.W., and en- 
camped on the same evening near a place called Ourika, at the 
opening of a valley to which we have given the same name. This 
valley appears to penetrate deeply the main chain of the Atlas, 
which rose patched with snow in the background. We natu- 
rally desired to ascend its course, and started on the 10th of May 
for that purpose. The scenery and the vegetation were full of in- 
terest ; and it was with much annoyance that, at the pressing in- 
stance of our escort, who alleged an insurrection among the people 
of the upper valley, we were forced to return to a village near 
the opening. On the following day we skirted the base of the 
mountains through a district called Eeraya, and encamped near to 
a stream descending from themain chain. Itnow became clear that 
there existed an organized plan on the part of our escort, in con- 
cert with the native chiefs, to prevent us from accomplishing our 
design of penetrating to the interior of the Great Atlas chain. 
The firmness of Dr. Hooter prevailed, however, over the reluctance 
of the escort ; and the circumstance that we were able to secure 
the cooperation of a native Berber Sheik, finally enabled us to do 
a good deal more than the latter originally contemplated On the 
following day we crossed a low range dividing the stream last men- 
tioned from a parallel one which flows through the valley, which, 
from the name of the tribe inhabiting it, we called Ait Mesan . 

On the following day the friendly Sheik undertook to conduct 
us to the snow ; and, as we had seen no snow save m patches on 

* To the best of mj belief the Ait Mesan valley, as well as the paraM and 

nameless one in whiei we camped on the 11th of May, -/"•'^"^'^^.^^if " J^^ 
., ^ A A ; n „1 V tbe labels for all Dr. Hooker s plants 

district known as Keraya ; ana accoruiiig.j- l,u- — 

collected in both valleys bear the latter name. As there '^^P^^^'^^^^^ 
- . . . -. : . J «^^ -loT^a flmrrectlv named Alt Aiesan, 

reserved the name Kerayi 


the valley first reached by us anu .u.^.^s-- '- explanation 

and departing from it. I have menhoned this, as ^'^'^°''^ ^ , 

botanists miglt hereafter suppose that plants gathered at the ame t,me and 
, , ^ %^ , :,„_„ir„„™„frr,m two distinct locabtiea. 




the highest part of the chain, this was taken to mean the ascent 
of at least one of the higher summits. On the 13fch we followed 
a steep and difficult track, amid a vegetation mainly new to us, 

where it was tantalizing to be content with a specimen or two 
that could be snatched while pressing onward^and some time 
after midday reached the last village, called Arround, standing at 
nearly 7000 feet above the sea-level, a short distance beyond a 
barrier partly composed of rock and partly of ancient moraine, the 
only undoubted moraine seen by us in the Atlas. Here the 
scenery assumed a singularly stern character. The floor of the 
valley extends for some way nearly level, and then slopes gradu- 
ally upward, enclosed on every side but one by steep and rugged 
peaks, nearly bare of snow. But in the hollows and recesses of the 
valley, at no great height above the village, snow lay in various 
directions ; and towards one snow-bed our guide, in accordance 
with his promise, led us. Although many plants were not yet in 
flower, we found at every step something of engrossing interest 
among the novelties that which most struck us being the curious 
Chrysanthemum with scarious involucre, which I have called Ghry- 
santhemurn Catananche. Our return to our camp in the lower valley 
in great part by night, and in almost pitch darkness, was difficult 
and even somewhat dangerous. 

Our object now was to persuade the Sheik to let us sleep at the 
village of Arround, whence we felt that we could in one way or 
other attain the higher region, and thus accomplish in some 
measure the main object of our journey. After some negotiation 
this plan was arranged; and on the 15th of May, before the sun | 

had well risen, we started from Arround with a very threatening ^ 

sky, determined to ascend as far as might be possible. Fortu- 
nately the Sheik did not insist on accompanying us, but appointed 
two guides with injunctions not to let us go beyond a small stone 
hut at the base of the ascent to the pass of Tagherot. It should 
have been stated that on our first visit two days before, we ascer- 
tained that a somewhat frequented track leads from the head of 
Ait Mesan to the upper part of the Sous valley on the opposite 
side of the main chain. The weather had become cold and rainy 
when we reached the hut above referred to. Here our guides en- 
deavoured to make us understand that it was too dangerous to go 
further ; and we made no show of resistance, but encouraged them 
to make a fire in the hut while we collected plants round about. 
As soon as they were thus engaged we started up the track, which _ 






throughout a steep ascent of over 3000 feet is well engineered, 
sometimes in regular zigzags, such as are seen in Switzerland or 

J Tyrol. It is needless to saj that every step in our ascent was of 

engrossing interest ; but the weather grew steadily worse, as the 
rain became sleet, and then snow. *We were overtaken by our 
guides, w^ho used every means of threat and entreaty to induce 

f us to return : for a time we silenced them by some silver coins ; 

but they were in a pitiable state as we approached the summit. 

Except on some ledges of rock it was no longer possible to get at 

plants ; and the snow driven by a violent wiud made it impos- 

"^ sible to see more than a few feet. Mr. Maw alone reached the 

actual crest of the ridge, but could see nothing. I, as well as Dr. 
Hooker, was a little lower down; and when Mr, Maw returned we 
readily consented to forego the barren honour of touching the 
summit, which is, by our observations, about 11,500 feet above 



On the following day we returned to our camp, the valley above 
Arround being deep in snow, and no more botanizing being there 
practicable. The following day was needed to arrange and pack 
our collections ; and on the 18th we reached a place called Sektana, 
near the base of the main range, of which it commands a very fine 
I > - view. On the next morning Mr. Maw left us, to return to England, 

i taking with him two of our escort ; while we proceeded westward 

' by a place called Gurguri, and, after crossing the wide stony bed of a 

torrent called Oued en Fisk, reached Amsmiz, the largest place we 
had yet seen on the skirts of the Atlas. Here, after some trouble, 
we succeeded in making another excursion into the interior of the 
range; and from a village near the head of the valley, where we 
slept, we were able on the 23rd of May to ascend the highest sum- 
mit near its head, called Djebel Tezah. The chain has here di- 
minished considerably in height ; for while the Tagherotpass is as 
^ nearly as possible 11,500 feet in height, the summit of Djebel 

Tezah only attains to about 11,000 feet. Thence we were able to 
see across the great valley of Sous, and for the first time beheld 
the parallel range, or An ti- Atlas, some 60 miles distant, which, at a 
rough estimate, can scarcely attain the height of lOfiOO feet. 

Eeturning to Amsmiz, our course lay through the sloping plain 
at the foot of the mountains to Mzouda ; and on the 26th we passed 
Keira (where M. Balansa had found a friendly reception), and en- 
camped near the village of Seksaoua. Two days, on one of which 
we ascended a neighbouring mountain to the height of some 


4600 feet above the sea, were very productive in species not before 
seen, and one or two of them altogether new. We next went to 
Milbain, nsssiner on the wav ImintenonL where the main track 


widely spread tropical Celasfrus, which, when found in the south 
of Spain, was taken to be a new species and called C. europceus^ 
but which Professor Oliver has shown to be the C. senegaJensis 
of Lamarck. We had already gathered this plant near the foot 
of the Grreat Atlas ; but until then it was not known to grow any- 
where between Senegal and the south of Spain. 



We also landed at Mazaga 





^ ^ 

was outside the Kasbah or Castle of the Grovernor of Mzouda, 
then engaged in local war with the Governor of Haha. This 
affiiir caused us, in compliance with an urgent letter forwarded . 

by courier from Mr. Carstensen, to alter our route and proceed ^ 

northward, to a place called Mskala, on the border of the provinces 
of Haha and Shedma. Here the Governor of the latter province 
was encamped with a considerable force of his retainers, watching 
the progress of the petty war pending between the neighbouring 
tribes. On the next evening we met Mr. Carstensen by appoint- 
ment at the Kasbah of the Governor of Shedma; and instead of 
returning direct to Mogador, we proceeded together on the 1st of 
June through a pleasant country to Ain el Hadjar, a place where 
numerous springs break out from the foot of the Djebel Hadid, or 
Iron Mountain, a long, flat-topped ridge that rises near the coast 
some 15 miles north of Mogador. Although the heat was by no 
means oppressive, the season was rather far advanced for seeing 
the vegetation to full advantage; but we passed a not unprofitable 
day upon the mountain, the chief drawback on our enjoyment 
being the extraordinary number and variety of spiny and prickly 
buslies which cover its slope. One of these, which escaped the ' 

M. Balansa when he visited the mountain, is the 

r J " 









H - 

J - 


^ British steamer enabled us to take our passage homeward. We 
were able to spend a great part of one day at Saffi, w^here we em- 'u 

barked cargo, and, among other plants of interest, were enabled to 
add to the short list of Canary-Island plants that extend to the 

African coast the curious flesliy Zygophyllum Fontanesiij figured 




mh. j. ball's spicilegium tloe-e maeoccax^. 293 

short walk along the shore near that town, and add two or three 
species to our list of the coast-flora. 

On reaching Tangier Dr. Hooker's engagements forced him to 
proceed at once to Gibraltar, and thence return to England. I 
was enabled to spend one day at Tangier, and after an absence of 
not quite two months found the aspect of the vegetation wonder- 
fully altered, since the appearance of a large number of species not 
before seen gave the neighbourhood an aspect of complete novelty. 
The flowers of the Cisti had disappeared; but in their place were 
many Composite and Labiatse and other summer-flowering species. 
^ The most conspicuous was the magnificent Salvia JicoZor, which at- 

tains a height of 7 or 8 feet, each of its numerous branches bearing 
the conspicuous white-and-blue flowers to which it owes its name. 
During the period of our stay in the interior we had arranged, 
through the kind assistance of Mr. Carstensen, to send two natives 
to collect plants near Agadir, about 80 miles south of Mogador, near 
- to Cape Guer, where the Great Atlas range finally subsides into 
the Atlantic Ocean. The result, which seemed to show that the 
character of the vegetation does not vary much along this part of 
the coast, yet sufficed to prove that with due perseverance some- 
thing might be accomplished towards extending our knowledge of 
the Marocco flora through native collectors. 



M. Beaumier. Frencli Consul at Mogad 

on his own side neither trouble nor expense to effect his object, 
has caused two native collectors to travel into the interior for 
several successive seasons. One of these, a very intelligent Jew, 
a native of Akka, a place on tlie southern side of the Great Atlas 
between the rivers Sous and Noun, has been chiefly employed in 
the region, utterly inaccessible to European travellers, between the 
oasis of Akka and the neighbourhood of the Atlantic coast. The 
other, a Schleuh by birth, and a native of the mountains, has been 
mainly engaged in making collections in a district nearly adjoining 
the portion of the Great Atlas which we were able to explore. 
The collections first sent home were in indifferent condition, and 
the specimens incomplete ; but M. Cosson's perseverance over- 
came all difficulties, and the collections lately received would do 
credit to a professed naturalist. 

When I consulted my excellent friend M. Cosson on the sub- 
ject of the present publication, he was good enough to suggest 
that we should jointly bring out a work which might bear to the 




The following is a tabular view of the Marocco flora, showing : 
1. The whole number of species belonging toeacb Natural Order 
found in Marocco ; 2. The number of these which are cosmo- 
politan or extend in the Old "World beyond the Mediterranean 
region ; 3. Species of the Mediterranean region including Macaro- 
nesia ; 4. Mediterranean excluding Macaronesia ; 5. Confined to 
Western Mediterranean region excluding Macaronesia; 6. Species 




• # 



future Plora of Maroccothe same relation that Desfontaine's ' Flora 
Atlantica' will hold to the, I trust, not distant Flora of Algeria. | 

I may at once say that I have no claim whatever to approach 
M. Cosson's extensive and accurate knowledge of the flora of 
North Africa and South-western Europe, and I feel that it would 
be a high honour to be associated with him in such a work as that 
suggested ; but seeing that circumstances have placed me in posses- 
sion of a considerable mass of materials that must go towards its 
production, I have thought it better without further delay to pre- | 

sent it to this Society under the title '* Spicilegium Florae Maroc- 
canse," accompanied by lithographed plates illustrating some of 
the new species described, presented to the Society jointly by Dr. 

Hooker and myself. 

I trust that M. Cosson will carry out his intention of speedily 
publishing in a compendious form the rich materials for the Flora 
of Marocco, most of which are in his exclusive possession, and thus 
preparing the way for a more complete work. 

In the following descriptive catalogue I have, as a rule, avoided 
referring to plants not yet published by M. Cosson, excepting 
where this was necessary to name or illustrate specimens collected 
by us or other recent travellers, although, through his liberality, 
I am in possession of many species not enumerated in the follow- 
ing pages. 

Although I feel that the time has not yet come for attempting 
a general survey of the Marocco flora, and the materials for dis- 
cussing the subject must remain further incomplete until the 
publication of the long expected Flora of Algeria, it would be in- 
expedient to close these introductory remarks without a brief view 
of the geographical relations of the Marocco species to those of the 
surrounding regions. For this purpose I have enumerated in 
tabular form the Natural Orders indigenous to Marocco under 
headings that show the distribution of the species hereafter enu- 





exclusively confined to Algeria and Marocco; 7. Species confined 
to the Iberian peninsula and Marocco ; 8. Species known only in 
Macaronesia and Marocco : 9. Species peculiar to Marocco 



Natural Order. 



Papaveracese . 
Crucif era3 .... 
Capparidese . 
Eesedacese .... 


Violariece .... 


Hypericineee . 
MahacesB .... 


Zygophyllese . 
Geraniaceae , 


Celastrineae , 



Acerineae .... 
Coriareae .... 
Leguminosae . 


Saxif ragese 

Crassulaceae . 
D rose race se . 

Alyrtaceae .... 


Onagrarieae . 

Umbelliferae . 


Rubiaceae .... 


Dipsaceae .... 
























o o 

05 ■ — ' 



* * * 


* * • 


* * « 


* « « 


* • 





• • * 


• ■ • 







03 ^ 

fc be 




« ■ 


« * ■ 



• • • 

■ 4 * 
t • • 


« ■ • 


* • 

■ « * 









CO Ci 










■ • « 





« * ■ 




■ « ■ 








hi ^ 

0; -^ 


to U 

<U H 











» « * 












4 « * 


• * « 

* ■ ■ 



» • • 




,2 2 






* 4 


* * * 




31 45 


• « * 



* • * 


« # 4 

4 « • 









6 74 


ME. J, ball's spicilegium tloe^ maeoccanjg. 

Natural Order. 

Br ouglit forward 

Composite : 

Corymbiferai 1 

Cynaracete V 208 .. 

Cichoriaceae J 





Plumbagineae , . 


Oleacese , 


Gentianeai .. 




Orobanchese ... 
Acanthacese ... 
Verbenaceoe ... 



Plantaginese ... 
Nyctagineee ... 







Cy tiueae 

Urticaceae .... 


Salicineae .... 
Gnetacete ..... 
Coni ferae ...., 























































• • • 



« • 




# * * 






« » « 




4 « « 

1381 J359 


^ o 

t2 3 






« * A 


* * B 







• • « 


* ■ • 



« • * 



• • a 




Q£ gj 
03 U 





« 4 * 






* * « 





212 297 


ex 03 














■ « • 







* • « 
















f « 4 





• • » 


t « 





^ . 





# * 4 


• • » 





• « 


• • * 












« * « 



« V • 




# * * 





















14 il61 


MB. J. ball's spicilegium floe^ marocoan^. 




Natural Order. 







o o 

OQ — I 


Brought forward 

Dioscorete , 


Juncaginece , 













# * 

1381 1359 

Dicotyledonea . . 









4 f • 








1338 349 
289 j 118 






' a 


O ; 




region i: 

region e 











1> tt 

■ J 




|a i 





S bo 


























« * * 





■ 4 * 
















• « A 


* * • 

« * 







* • * 

« t • 




• * 4 



» ># 


* • • 

* « « 





■ 4 • 


■ « • 










! * # 4 




254 350 




208 280 













It is obvious to all who have considered the subject, that a mere 
enumeration of the species known to exist in a given region gives 
of itself but little information as to the character of its flora: 
nevertheless the statistical method, to which somewhat too much 
importance has, in my opinion, been attributed, does lead towards 
some probable conclusions, and gives indications which maj not 
be unimportant. 

Taken as a whole, the figures In the preceding Table show verj 
distinctly that the Marocco flora is altogether a portion of that 
great Mediterranean flora which, with local peculiarities, extends 
from the Indus to the Atlantic Islands. Excluding all the species 
Widely spread beyond those limits either through the tropics 
or the temperate zone, we have remaining 1160 species, of 
which 820 are common to some considerable portions of the 


Of the remaining 340 species about one 

half, or 1G5, are peculiar to Marocco. Next come 96 common to 
Spain and Marocco, nearly all of these being, as far as we know 
confined to the neighbourhood of Tangier and Tetuan. A much 
smaller proportion, only 64, are common to Algeria and Marocco 






and only 15 species are confined to the Macaronesian Islands, 

under which name I include Madeira along with the Canary 
Islands. This proportion will doubtless be somewhat increased 

when we know more of the coast vegetation between Agadir and 

Wadnoun ; but the figures tend to show that the separation of 

those islands must da.te from a period even geologically speaking 


"With a view to exhibit further the characteristics of the 

Marocco flora it may be convenient to give a summary of the 


results of the foregoing Table, showing the absolute number W 

of species or subspecies of each of the principal Natural Orders, 
and the percentage which they bear to the total number of Pha- 
nerogamic species, this being 1627. 

Total number Percentage 
of species. proportion. * 

Dicotyledones 1338 82*2 

Monocotyledones 289 17'8 

CompositsB 208 12-8 I 

Leguminosae 189 11*6 

G-raminesB 184 8'2 

Umbellifer^ 86 5-3 ^ 

Labiatse 81 5*0 

Qruciferse 73 4'5 

CaryophyllesB 69 4 2 

Scrophularinese 61 3'7 


LiliacesB 43 2'6 

Bpraginese 35 2*2 

Eanunculacese 33 2'0 I 

EubiacesB *. 30 1*8 

Cistinese 28 1"7 

Cyperacese 25 1'5 

Euphorbiacese ........ 24 1*5 

It will be seen that the proportion of Compositse, Leguminosse, 
and Liliacese is unusually large, whilst that of Graminese and 
Eanunculacese is exceptionally small. Still more characteristic 
of the Marocco flora is the small proportion borne by some natu- 
ral orders that usually take a prominent place among the vege- 
table population in mountain countries in the north temperate 
zone. Thus we have of Eosacea) but 16 species, of Saxifragese' 5 
opecies, of Primulacese 7 species, of G-entianeae 8 species, and of 




n _ 









MR. J. ball's SPICTLEOIUM FLOE-S) makoocan^. 299 

Cyperacese only 25 species; and very few of these belong to sub- 
alpine or alpine types. 

In my opinion, however, the general numerical results obtained 
from tabular statements, such as those I have already given, are 
very likely to mislead unless critically controlled. The bounda- 
ries of states are determined by historical accidents, and, to a 
slight extent only, by physical geography ; and it often happens 
that in general summaries the characteristics of what form natu- 
ral divisions of the earth's surface are masked by these being 
thrown in along with others wherein different conditions predo- 

Bearing in mind that the entire of Marocco in a botanical 
sense forms part of the Mediterranean region, it includes within 
its boundaries several provinces, partly corresponding to geogra- 
phical limits, which exhibit well-marked features, and are distin- 
guished by a considerable number of species not common to other 


Speaking broadly, and excluding the wide-spread species, which 
belong to two types — 1st, those widely spread through the cooler 
temperate zone, either Old World or extending to the 'New 
World, and, 2nd, tropical species which extend more or less 
widely into the warmer temperate regions — there are within the 
Marocco territory five elements, of which four correspond more 
or less closely to geographical limits. 

The Mediterranean flora, including within that term species 
confined to that region and widely spread throughout it, forms 
what may be considered as the substratum extendiug throughout 
the whole territory, excepting only the higher range of the Great 
Atlas. Overlying, so to say, this substratum, we find in the 
northern extremity of Marocco a strong infusion of another 
element, which is now generally denominated the Peninsular 
flora. This is recognizable, even to the unscientific observer, by 
the number of conspicuous flowering shrubs, including, along 
with more wide-spread species of those genera, several showy 
species of Cistus and Erica, with numerous herbaceous plants, 
such as the curious DrosopTiyllum Itisitanicum. We do not know 
the limits of this province along the coast between Tetuan and 
the Algerian frontier; but it does not seem to extend more than 
30 or 40 miles southward from Tangier and Cape Spartel, and in 
point of fact nearly all the 96 species set down as common 






800 MB. J. ball's spicilegitjm tlok^ maroccan^. 

bourhood of Tangier and Tetuan, and are not seen in the central 
or sonthern provinces of Marocco. 

The Algerian flora, so far as it offers special characteristics to 
distinguish it from the general Mediterranean type, owes its in- 
dividuality mainly to species endemic in the mountain region of 
the Lesser Atlas, or on the high plateaux that present such a pecu- 
liar feature in the geography of Southern Algeria. 

It is highly probable that most of these extend into Eastern and 
Central Marocco ; but in the limited region known to us these cha- 
racteristic species of the Algerian flora are for the most part 
wanting, and even in the Great Atlas but a small number of them "^| 

have yet been seen. f 

Although several of the species characteristic of the Desert 
flora extend beyond their original boundary, and a few of them 
are found even in the south-east of Spain, there are few better- 
marked botanical provinces than that of the desert regions of 
Western Asia and Northern Africa. Considering the wide portion of 
the earth's surface occupied by tbe hot stony or sandy plains that 
extend with unimportant interruptions nearly from the banks of the 
Lower Indus to the Atlantic coast of Southern Marocco, the gene- 
ral uniformity of its scanty vegetable population is a fact very re- 
markable in botanical geography. Unfortunately our knowledge 
of the true desert-region of Southern Marocco, namely that which 
extends along the Southern side of the Great Atlas chain, is ex- 
tremely limited ; but when the collections recently received by 
M. Cosson from his collector are fully enumerated, it will be seen 
that many species of this peculiar type extend to within a few 
leagues of the Atlantic coast. But even in the low country, 
on the northern side of the Great Atlas, traversed by us there are 
some considerable tracts closely approximating in their physical 
conditions to the northern skirts of the Sahara. Many of the 
characteristic desert-species there reappear, although they are 
separated by lofty mountain-ranges from what may be considered 
their natural home. 

The least-important element that goes to make up the Marocco 
flora, if we measure it by the number of representative species, 
but in some respects one of the most interesting, is that revealed 
by the presence of a small number of species common to the Ma- f 

roccan and the Macaronesian * floras. Of these all but one are d 

* I have ventured to use the name Macaronesia in a rather wider sense than , 

?ome preceding writers, including under it Madeira with its dependent islets, 




MB. J. ball's spicileoium flor.e maroccanje. 301 


Canary-Island species, the remaining one being common only to 
Madeira and Western Marocco. It is true that the short list of 
fifteen species might be somewhat extended if we added certain 
species peculiar to Marocco but closely allied to Canary-Island 
endemic species. Such a list would include three cactoid Euphor- 
bias, a Sonchus (S. acidtis, nearly allied to S, pinnatus), a Senecio 
of the Kleinia group, and Monanthes atlantica^ nearly allied to its 
Canary-Island congeners. 

It must be remarked, however, that the types to which these last- 
mentioned species belong are rather generally "West-African than 
\ specially Macaronesian, as all are common to the Cape de Verde 

Islands, if not to a wider region. Of the fifteen Macaronesian 
species found in the coast region of South Marocco, I think it is 
safe to say that the facts rather tend to show the accidental dif- 
fusion of a few Macaronesian species on the adjacent coast of 
Africa than to indicate the existence of a direct connexion be- 
tween the continent and those islands within a geological period 
at all recent. 

There remains to be considered the flora of the Great Atlas, 
the only one of the constituent portions of the general Marocco 
flora that seems to be confined within the boundaries of the em- 
pire. I am tempted to enter into some detail in discussing this 
part of my subject ; but when I recollect what a large mass of 
additional unpublished matter is already in the possession of my 
friend M, Cosson, I feel that it would be unsatisfactory to attempt 
any such detailed discussion at the present time; and I hope to 
be able to resume the subject to greater advantage on a future 

In the mean time it is allowable to point out some cliaracter- 
istic features of the Great-Atlas flora, as far as this is known to 
me from our collections. Dividing the mountain region into two 
zones, an upper and a lower one, and fixing the limit between 
them at about 1500 metres above the sea-level, I find in each of 
these a considerable number of endemic species, amounting in 
regard to the upper zone to about one fourth of the whole number 
of species. But there is little indication of that multiplication of 
specific forms that is so characteristic of the mountain-floras of 

along with the Canary-Island archipelago. Though the flora of Madeira be 
more limited than that of the Canaries, it is impossible to regard it as oihor 
than a detached member of that grou]?. 

302 ME. J. ball's spicilegiijm tlor^ maroccan^. 

Southern Spain, Grreece, and Asia Minor. On tlie arenaceous and 
porphyritic rocks of the Ait Mesan valley we found to a great ex- 
tent the same endemic species afterwards gathered on the schistose 
and calcareous rocks of Djebel Tezah, at least 30 miles distant. 

Another fact worth noticing is, that, among a considerable num- 
ber of new specific forms, no new generic type has yet been found 
in the Great Atlas. 

But in my opinion the most singular point about the Great- 
Atlas flora is the presence of a large number of the common 
species of Central Europe, both annual and perennial, coupled 
with the fact that many of these are not species that have proved i^; 

their power of adapting themselves to different climatal condi- 
tions, and that many of them have no nearer habitat than the 
mountains of Central or Southern Spain, while others must be 
sought at a still greater distance. , 

The conclusion to which I am led by a consideration of the facts 
is the same that I have derived from rather long observation of 
the mountain-vegetation of Central and Southern Europe — namely, 
that it is impossible to explain the facts without admitting that 
a large portion of our present flora is relatively very ancient, 
and that the species had assumed their present characters at least* 
as early as the Miocene epoch. ^-^ 

I ought not to omit mentioning that two years after our visit 
two German naturalists, MM. Eein and Eritsch, were able to 
make a short expedition in the Great Atlas, nearly following our 
footsteps. They were not exclusively engaged in collecting plants ; 
but they have deposited at Kew specimens of most, if not all, the 
plants found by them. Having been able to examine these, I 
have enumerated their t^pecimens in the following catalogue. 

In determining the specimens of our collections I have been 
materially assisted, in regard to the Orchide^, by my friend Prof. 
H. G. Eeichenbach. The friendly aid and assistance of Professor 
Oliver and Mr. J. G. Baker have been frequently invoked by me ; 
and to the latter I am especially indebted for his thorough know- 
ledge of the Liliacese and Amaryllideae of the Mediterranean , 
region, which he kindly contributed for my benefit. To Mr- 
Bentham, it is needless to say that in any case of doubt or diffi- 
culty I never applied in vain. The resources of his unequalled 
knowledge are always at the service of the younger and less-gifted 
workers in the field of science ; and I cannot better close than by 
expressing the sense of affectionate regard with which I acknow- 
ledge his guidance. 





Ordines naturales plantarum secundum normam CandoUeanam 
a celebb. Bentham et Hooker reformatam enumeravi; generum 
definitiones a Bentham et Hooker in opera classico ^ Grenera 
Plantarum ' stabilitas quatenua profuerunt fere semper secutus 

Nomina trivialia specierum antiquiora, nisi plane erronea, 
semper prsetuli. Auctorem speciei, qui primus eam ab affinibus 
distinxit et publici juris fecit, esse duxi, et prius citavi. Auctores 
caeteros parce citavi, opus tamen cyclopsedicum Candolleanum 
' Prodromus Systematis Universalis,' necnon Kunthianum ' Enu- 
meratio Plantarum,' semper adduxi. 

Pormas istas plantarum a speciebus affinibus notis evidentibus 
et satis stabilibus dignoscendas cujus tamen differentiae tales sint 
ut una pro alterius prole habenda esse videatur, sicut subspecies 
enumeravi, et typis diversis eorum nomina a ca)teris distinxi. 



nalis— ditionem Tingitanam et Tetuanensem necnom regionem 
litoralem inter hancet fines Algerienses amplectens; 2. Marocco 
occidentals— vel regio litoralis et sublitoralis Atlantica, ab urbi 
El Araisch usque Agadir; 3. Marocco centralis, botanicis fere 
ignotus, inter zonam sublitoralem et convallem fluminis Moulouya ; 
4. Marocco orientalis, regio vix nota inter flumen 


antis Mai 


radicibus usque flumen Oum er bia. His addenda erit regio vasta 
desertorum, Sahara Maroccana dicta, ab Atlante Majore meridiem 
versus se protendens, quae tamen species nullas operi nostro sub- 

Locorum natalium plantarum quibus adest stgnum (!) testis 
ipse sum. Idem signum, dum sequitur nomina abbreviata, plantas 
indicat quarum specimina vidi et scrutavi. Horum sequitur brevis 
elenchus : 

Webb, Herb. — Philippus Barker "Webb. Stirpes circa Tingi- 
dem et Tetuan anno 1827 lectse, in Herbario Florentino as^ 

Salzm. Exdcc. — Salzmann. Plantae in ditione Tingitana anno 
1825 lectse quarum series venales duse in Herbario Kewensi 

Lowe. — E. T. Lowe. Plantse in agro Mogadorensi anno 1859 
lectse, quarum catalogum in Actis Soc. Linnseanse Londinensia 
edidit. Harum exemplaria fere omnium in Herbario Kewensi 

SeJisb. spec. — Plantse olim a Scbousboe lectse, ex ejus lierbario 
duplicatae, a eel. Cosson benevole communicatee. 

Balansa spec. — Plantse a cl. Balansa anno 1867 lectse, quarum 
perpaucse venales in Herbario Kewensi vel in cseteris herbariis 

-D. H. — Plantse quas in itinere Maroccano amicissimus 
3 Josephus Dalton Hooker solus les^it. 

Coll. Indig. — Plantse mense Majo 1871 a duobus indigenis in 
ditione Agadir lectse, quarum exemplaria in herbario meo ac in 
Kewensi extant. 

JR. et Fr. 


* ■ 

rum specimina in Herbario Kewensi conservantur. 


* '"-1 

ME, J. ball's spicilegium flor^ maroccan^. 303 


Eanunctjlace-53 (Juss. Oen. 231). 

Clematis (Z. Gen. 696). 

C. Flammula (li., DC. Pr, i. 2). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger. (Salzm. sp, in herb. nost.)l Tetuan (1861) ! 

Mar. merid. — Ourika ! Amsmiz! 

Ar, Geog, Regio Mediterranea exclusa Macaronesla. 

C. ciRRHosA (Z., DC. Pr, i. 9). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! {Blackmore) ! 

Mar. oecid. — Mogador {Lowe) ! 

Mar. merid. — Visa pr. Ourika ! 

Ar, Geog. Regio Mediterranea calidior (exclusa Macaronesia). 

C. Baleaxica (Rich, Joufn. Phys. 1779, 127; DC. Prod. i. 9),= 
polymorplia {Viv. FL Cars. p. 9), inclusa forma foliis minus profunda 
divisis C semitriloba {Lag. Cat, Matr. 17). 

Mar. occid. — Agadir (Coll Indig. 1871) ! 

Ar. Geog. Insul. Mediterranese (Baleares, Corsica, Sieilia). Marocco 

A plerisque botanicis cum prjecedente conjuucta, sed formal intermedia 
vix inveniendje. Confer Boissier in FL Or. i. 2. Mihi videtur me- 
lius ad subspeciem reducenda. Specimina ex monte supra Agadir a 
_-i r^ 1 ^ ;««fn «fi 'iT'iT si(*^\ liisiim C. semitrilobam 



Thalictrum (L 

T. GLAUCUM (Desf. Cat. H. Par. ed. 2, p. 126 ; DC. Pr. i. 15). 

Mar. merid. — Mesfioua ! 

Ar. Geog. Penins. Iberica. Africa boreali-occidentalis. In Italia erronee 


Akemone (L. Gen. 694.). 

A. PALMATA (L., DC. Pr. i. 19). . 

Mar. sept.-Tanger, m monte Djebel Kebir ! Tetuan, in monte Bern 

Hosmar, usque 400 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Penins. Iberica. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

Adonis (L. Gen. 698). 

A, AUTUMNALis (L., DC. Pr. i. 23). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger ! {Salzm. Exsicc.)l 

Mar, merid.— Prov. Haha ! . / i »* 

Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omms (exclusa Macaro- 

nesia). . . . . * 

c. • i. ^U/x^iim iimiornm rostro uncinate referunt A. 

Specimma nostra carpellorum jumorum ruoww 

304 ME. J. ball's spicilegium flor^ maboccax^. 

bceticam (Coss. Not. Crit. Plant. d'Esp. ii. 25), qu« mihi videtur 
var. A, autumnalis. 

Adonis ^stivalis (L., DC, Pr, i. 24). 

Mar. merid. — Shedma! Amsmiz ! Sektana! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media (vix indigena?). Regie Mediterranea (Eu- 

ropa, Oriens, Africa borealis). Mont. Himalaya. 
Variat in reg. nostra petalis sanguineis vel citrinis. 


A. MiCROCARPA {DC. SysL i. 223, DC. Pr. i. 24), = A. Cupamana, 
Giiss. Syn. Fl. Sic. ii. 36),=A. intermedia {Webb, Phyt. Can. i. 12). 
Mar. merid. — Sektana ! 

Ar. Geog. Penins. Iberica ; Sicilia. Afr. borealis. Macaronesia. 
Petala in. spec, nostris citrina. 

,var.A. DENTATA=A. dentBtSi^DelFLEg.IlL 17; DC.Pr. 


Mar. merid. — Sheshaoua ! 

Ar, Geog, Syria; Arabia; Persia. Africa borealis in reg. Saharensi. 

In hoc genere species pluriraae extricatu difScillim^ et forsan non satis 


EANuifcuLus (i. Gen. 699). 







R. AQUATiLis (L., DC. Pr. i. 26). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger ! Inter Tetuan et Ceuta ! 

Mar. merid. — Amsmiz ! 

Ar. Geog. In reg. temperata et frigida hemisph. borealis (Europa, Asia, i 

Africa, Macaronesia, et America). Rarius occurrit in Asia subtropica. 

R. Baudotii {Godr. Monog. p. 14, fig. 4), = Batrachium marinum (Fr. 
Nov. Fl. Suec. Mant. iii. 51). 

Inter specimina nostra Tingitana video examplaria quae verisimiliter 
hue spectant. Ilabuerim pro varietate speciei polymorphse (B. aqua- 
tilis) sed auctoritate tantorum virorum devinctus banc in numerura 
subspecierum enumerare malui. 

Ar. Geog. Gallia; Insul. Britannicae. Batavia. Ditio Tingitana. 

R. FiCARiA {L., B. et H. Gen. PI. i. 6.),=Ficaria ranunculoides (Mnch. 
Meth. 215 ; DC. Pr. i. 44). 

Mar. sept.— Inter Tanger et Tetuan ! In monte Beni Hosmar prope 
Tetiian ! 

Ar. Geog. Europa borealis et media et Mediterranea. Marocco septen- 

, var, INTERMEDIUS, Tiob. 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Kebir prope Tanger ! ^ 

R, calth^foUus (Jordan, Obs. vi. 2), = Ficaria calthafolia {Reich. 
Fl. Exc. ii. 718), a planta Linnseana statura et floribus duplo majori- 
bus facile dignoscendus, foliis profunde cordatis, lobis incumbentibus 



ME. J. ball's SPICILEGITJM floe^ maeoccan^. 305 

adeo ut primo intuitu peltata videntur, nobis non obvia fuit in itinera 
Maroccano. Varietas supra m em orata gaudet floribus aliquid majori* 
bus, foliis paullo profundius cordatis^ sed typo Linnjeano multo propior 
est quam R, calth^efolio^ Jord. 



Ranunculus bullatus (L., DC. Pr. i. 27). 

Mar, sept. — Tanger ! folia tantum visa. 

Mar. occid, — Mogador (Brouss, sec* Boisster), 

At. Geog, Regio Mediterranea australior e Creta usque in Lusitaniam. 

4. R. CH^ROPHVLLos (L., DC, Pr. i, 2/), var. y flabellatus, DC. 

I cit.='R. flabellatus (Desf. FL AtL i. 438, tab. 114). 
Mar. sept. — Valde frequens in regione coUina circa Tanger I et Tetuan ! 
et in monte Beni Hosmar, usque 800 m. ! Variat caule simplici 
vel ranioso (usque 12-floro), foliis radicalibus integris ternatis vel 

Ar. Geog, Species per regionem Mediterranean! (exclusa Macaronesia) 
et montes Himalaya diffusa, 

R. leucothrix {Ball, Journ. Bot. 1873, 296). 

Inter priorem et R. oxyspermum (Steph, in Willd. Sp. PI. ii. 1328, DC, 

Pr. i. 28) coUocandus ; it. cha^rophyllo propior et sicut subspecies enu- 

merandus. Differt imprimis grumis cylindricis, nee ovatis, indumento 

I ex pilis longis \allosis inferne patulis supeme adpressis, nee brevi ad- 

presso sericeo, pedicellis fructiferis rigidioribus subiacrassatis,foliorum 
tripartitorum segmento medio longiore ssepe tripartite calyce fruc- 
tifero persistente reflexo. 

Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis (Distr. Rerava) circ. 1000 m. ! 

Petala subemarcida quam in typo minora ; carpella immatura fere 
omnia abortiva. 

A R. chterophyllo facie valde diversus, et forsan pro specie omnino dis- 
tincta habuerim, si specimina meliora adfuissent. Calyx sub anthesi 
reflexus est in hoc genere nota specifica gravis momeuti- 

R. spiCATUS (Desf. FL AtL i. 438, tab. 115 ; DC Pr. i. 29). 

Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Hosmar prope Tetuan circ. 900 m. ! 

Ar. Geog. Africa borealis. Lusitania ? 

In speciminibus nostris spicft fructifera quam in spec. Algeriensibus 

paullo brevior. 

, var. R. BLEPH ARiCABPOS,=R. blepharicarpos {Boiss, EL 5). 
Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris, Djebel Tezah circ. 

2600 m. ! 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Marocco meridionalia. Speciminibus 


A^ W¥ UVAV&IOIMUO C& kX\JlJy^ A\,V-l/l*» vi."»-*-J 

R. GRAMiNEUS (I/., DC. Pr. i. 32). 
Mar. sept. 



306 MR. J. ball's spicilegium floum maeoccan^. 


Ar, Geog. Europa occidentalis et australis, nullibi frequens. Marocco 
septentrionalis. Extra Europam non prius detectus ? 

Ranunculus atlanticus (Ball^ Journ* Bot. 1873, p. 296). i 

Subspecies R. acris (L., DC, Pr. i. 36) sed formse intermedise nondutn 
observatae ? 

Inter subspecies et varietates R. acris distinguitur imprimis statura 

maxima 3-5-pedali, corolla (pro grege) maxima, rhizomate crasso ^1 

horizontali fibras validas emittente, foliis magnis pentagonis profunda 

3- vel Sfidis, segmentis incisis, indumento sericeo-piloso adpresso, 

praesertim in foliorura pagina infcriove (folia igitur bicoloria). Carpella 

parva nnmerosa rostrata, rostro subrectolongiusculo. % 

Mar. merid. — Frequens in convallibus septentrionalibus Atlantis Majoris 

Urika ! Reraya ! Ait Mesan ! Amsmiz ! a 1000 m. ad 1900 m, 
Huie proximus est R. Friesianus, Jord. Obs. vi. p. 17, = R' nemorivagus, 

Jord. Diagn. i, p. 74. 
In regione Mediterranea R. acris est fere semper planta montana, et vix 
in zonam olivetornm se -protendit. R. atlanticus noster non fugit 
loca calidiora. 

R. palustris (L.J DC. Pr. i. 41), var. macrophyllus,= R. macro- 

phyllus {Desf. FLAtL u 437),=R. viUosus {Salzm. Exsiccnon DC.)- 
Mar. sept.— Tanger ! {Salzm. Exsicc.)\ Prope Cap. Spartel I Tetuan 

1851 ! In monte Beni Hosmar ! 
Ar. Geog. Africa borealis. Forma? seu varietates arete affines proveniunt 

in Lusitauia (Brot. Fl. Lus. sub R. adscendente), in Hispania {Boiss. 

Voy.), in Sardinia {Moris. FL Sard.), in Corsica {DC. fl. fr. sub R. 

corsico) et in Oriente {Boiss. FL Or.), 
Planta Fontanesiana differt ab oriental! foliis minus profunde divisis, 
pedunculis fructiferis crassioribus, Ab his paululum differt planta 
Europae australis foliorum lobo medio longiore, rostro apice subrecur- 

R. procerus {Moris^ FL Sard. \. 45 ; Icon. tab. 2}? 

Mar. sept. — Tanger {fVebb Herb.) ! 

Ar. Geog. Sardinia. Ager Tingitanus. 

A R. palustriy cui simillimus, diflfert carpellis etiam junioribus tubercu- 

loso-setigeris. De differentia specifica dubitavit ipse beatus Moris ; 

nobis videtur ad subspeciem reducendus. 

R. BULBOSUS (L., DC. Prod. i. 41), var. NEAroLiTANUS,=R. Nea- 

politanus {Ten. SglL p. 272). 
Mar. merid.— lu regione media Atlantis Majoris; in convalle Amsmiz 

circ, 1500 m, ! in monte Djebcl Tezah usque 2000 m. ! 
Ar.Geog. Italia; Sicilia?; Corsica; Hispania (floury. P/, d'Esp. no. 

2249). Oriens {Boiss. Fl Or.). Marocco meridionalis. 








A typo facile dignoscitur rhizomate parum incrassato fibras plurimas 
crassas edente, sed pace eel. Boissier carpella habet iJ. bulbosi, rostris 
brevissimis plus minusve arcuatis. 

Confer notulamMS. beati J. Gay, et frustulum ex exemplari authentice 
Tenoreano herb. Desfoataines, in Herb. Kew conservata. Meo 
sensu R. neapolitanus est omnino forma meridionalis R. bulbosi et 
verisimiliter per totam regionem Mediterranean! diffusus. 

, var.? GiGANTEUS, nob. 5-pedalis et ultra; rhizoma in- 

crassatum ; foliorum radicalium petioli 2-pedales ; folia pinnatipar- 
tita, segmenta trisecta, varie incisa; flores R. bulbosi, Carpella 


Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis secus torrentem Ourika ! 

-R. rhceadifolius (DC. Syst. i. 284) ex descript. celeb, auctoris nostrae 
plantse baud absimilis, sed ex icone in Delessert Icon. i. 40, hie mihi 
videtur forma R , philonotidis , Retz, seu R, trilobi^ Desf. ; sed ob defec- 
tum carpellorum res incerta manet. Planta nostra est fere certe R. 
bulbosi forma insi":nis. 

Ranunculus philongtis {Retz, Obs. vl. 3; DC. Pr. i. 41), var. 

iNTERMEDius,«o6. = R. intermcdius (Poir. Diet, vi. 116')? 
Mar. sept. — Tanger ! 
Ar. Geoff, Hinc inde in regione Meditcrranea ? 

R-trilobus (Desf, Fl, Ail, i. 437, tab. 113 ; DC. Pr, i. 42). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger {Salzm, Exsicc) I {Webb, herb,) I Tetuan secus 
ripas fluminis (1851) ! . 

Mar. merid. — Sektana! 

Ar. Geoff. Regio omnis Meditcrranea (inclusa Macaronesia). 

Pace auctorum celebb. qui R. trilobum pro specie probe distincta enu- 
merarunt hie mihi mera forma R, philonotis videtur, et nisi obstitisset 
auctoritas majorura pro varietate potius quam pro subspecie habuerim. 
Notse diagnosticse ex earpellis desumptaenon gravis momenti videntur. 
In R. philonoti vulgari carpella ostendunt tubercula circa marginem 
concentriee disposita, sed haec non raro omnino desunt. In R. triloba 
tubercula crebrlora sunt sed secundum eandem normam distribuun- 
tur. Varietas nostra supra memorata, qua; verisimiliter est R. inter- 
medius, Poir., habitu et corolla est R. philonotis, sed glabritie et car- 
pellis propius accedit R, trilobo, 

R. ARVENSis (L., DC. Pr, i. 41). 

Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore et media Atlantis Majoris; in convalle 

Ait Mesan circ. 1200 m. ! et usque 2200 m ! 
At. Geoff, Europa media, Asia borealis (Gmel). Regio Meditcrranea 

omnis. Montes Himalaya. 

R. MURiCATus (L., DC. Pr, i. 42). 

Mar. sept.-Tanger ! (Sflfem. Exsicc,)l (IVebb. herb.) I Prope Cap. 

Spartel ! 


Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore et media Atlantis Majoris. Reraya 
circ. 1100 m. ! Amsmiz ! Djebel Tezah usque 1/50 m, ! 

Ar. Geoff. Regio Mediterranea ouinis. India boreali-occidentalis. 
America borealis et Meridionalis (vix indigenus?) . 

Ranunculus parviflorus (L., DC, Pr, i. 42). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger {Sahm. Exsicc.)l Vidimus in sepibus baud procul 

a Tanger! et in dumosis mentis Djebel Kebir! 
Mar. merid.— In reg, inferiora Atlantis Majoris. distr. Reraya! Ex prov. 

Mtouga specimina nana attulerunt R. et Fr. 
Ar. Geog, Europa occidentalis ex Hibernia ad fretum HercuHs. Eu- 

ropa australis, ager Byzantinus. Africa boreali-occidentalis. Macaro- 

nesia. America borealis. 

R. ophioglgssifglius {VilL Dauph. iv. 732, tab. 49; DC. Pr. i. 43). 

N.B. In exemplari nostro operis Villarsii anno 1789 impressi inventum 

III. 731. 

Mar. sept.— In uliginosis pr. Tanger ! (Sahm, Exsicc.) 

Ar. Geoff. Europa occidentalis ex Sarnia ad Lusitaniam. Regio omnis 

Mediterranea. Formse affines in America boreali {R.pnsillus, Poir.), 

etin America meridionali {R. bonariensis, Poir.). 

In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris (in convalle Ait Mesan circ. 
2550 m. loco frigido uliginoso) invenimus Ranunculum nondum 
florentem, rhizomate brevi recto, fibris validis elongatis (6-10-pol- 
licaribus) pra^ditum. Folia radicalia sunt glabra, pinnatim trisecta, 
lobis cuneato-ovatis, in pagina superiore albo variegata. Eandem 
plantam florentem ex reg. superiore Atlantis anno 1873 attulerunt 
ell. Rein et Fritsch. In hac scapus solitarius superne adpresso- 
pdosus, folium unicum subsimplex gerens, petala lutea mediae 
magnit., carpella (nimis immatura) rostrata, rostro spiraliter recurvo. 

Est verisimiliter nova species e grege R. montani, W., et proxima R. 
procumbenti (Boiss., Ann. Sc. Nat., et Fl. Or. i. 51). 

Niqella (i. Gen. 685). 

N. ARVENSis (L., DC. Pr. i. 49). 

Mar. merid.— Ain Tarsil, prov. Mtouga ! 

Ar. Geoff. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea (exclusa Macaronesia). 

, var. Cgssgniana, no6. = N. hispanica, var. parviflora (C055. 
PL Crit. 49). I' y v v 

Mar. occid.— Prope Mogador ! et Agadir {Coll. Indig. 1871) ! 





Mar. merid.— Prov. Shedma pluribus locis ! Prov. Mtouga (iJ. et Fr, 
spec.) ! 

Ar. Geog. Gallia australis. Hispania. Africa borealis. f 

Cel. Boiss. (in Fl. Or. i. 66) sub N. arvensi plurimas sic diet, species 
adunavit et sicut varietates descripsit ; scil. N. tuherculata, Gris. Spic, 
N. aspera, C. Koch., N. faniculacea, DC, N. divaricata, Beauprt ; 




in DC. Syst., iV. cretensis, Stev., N, aristata, Sibth. et Sm., sed 
reveravix pro varietatibus habendae sunt. N, arvensiSy L., est enira 
species summopere ludibunda, per totam regionem Mediterranean! 
(exclusa Macaronesia) late diffusa, et rarius invenies specimen typo 
unius alteriusve forrase descriptse omniiio conveniens, 
Cel, Cosson loc. cit. plantam nostratn a N, arvensi distinxit et pro varie- 
tate N. Hispanic(e sure vindicavit. Sed vir oculatissimus limites 
frustra qusesivit; dura natura invicta obstat. Forma et color sepalorum, 
ratio inter se labiorum petali^ carpella extus plus minusve glanduloso- 
rugosa, horum rostra erecta, vel patentia^ vel recurva, sunt omncs 
notse variabiles, sicut jam me docuerunt specimina plurima Maroc- 

^ cana in vivo observata. Nee valet nota diagnostica a ell. Gr. et God. 

(Fl. Fr, i. 45, A&) proposita. In N. arvensi nervi laterales carpelli 
basin usque rarius prodncti; dum in iV, Hf5/?a722ca rostrum semper 
trinerve est; nervi in dorso carpelli baud raro producti. 
N, Hispanicaa, Cosson, Z.c, in Hispania Gaditana hand infrequens 
(Bourgeau, PL d'Esp. 1849, No. 13, et a me olim prope Vejer et pr. 
Zahara lecta), statura maxima, sepalis illis iV. arvensis 2-3ve major- 
ibus, basi vix uttenuatis, pro subspecie habenda videtur. Haec in 
ditione Maroccana nondum detecta fuit. Specimina nostra ex Agadir 
et prope Mogador lecta gaudent floribus quam in N. arvensi typica 
paullo majoribus. Hajc forma prope Mogador a Balansa lecta sistit 
verisimiliter N. Ilispanicam, var. intermediam (Coss., Index in Bull. 

^ Soc. Bot. Fr.). 

NiGELLA Damascena (L., DC. Pr. i. 49)^ forma spontanea floribus 

minoribus = ]V. Bourgcei, Jord. pug- 
Mar, sept. — Tetuan {Webb, herb.) ! 
Mar. occid. — Agadir {ColLIndig. 1871) ! 
Mar. merid. In prov. Shedma! et Haha (J. D. H.) ! 
Ar.Geog. RegioMediterraneaoccidentalis. Europa. Afr. borealis. Ma- 
caronesia. In Oriente vix indigena ? 

Aquilegia {L. Gen. 684). 

A. VULGARIS (L., DC. Pr. i. 50) var.? 

Mar. merid.— In monte Djebel Tezah circ. 1800 m. legit J. D. H. 

Ar. Geog. Europa borealis (excl. arctica), et media, et australis (in um- 
brosis montanis). Macaronesia. In Asia temperata et in mont. Hi- 
malaya. Formae affines in America boreali. 

Stirps polymorpha et miro modo ludibunda. Specimina nostra gaudent 
foliis radicalibus tritematis, foliolis profunde incisis, omnibus glabres- 
centibus, petiolis longis, caule bipedali superne ramoso, floribus mino- 
ribus viridi-flavescentibus. Tota planta (foliis exceptis) pube brevi 
non viscosa pr^dita. Carpella desunt. Experientia docebit an varietas 
sit, vel subspecies nomine novo salutanda. 

310 MR. J, ball's SnClLEGIIIM FLOR.^ MAROCCAN^, 

Delpuii^ium {L, Oen, 681). 

D. Ajacis (L., DC. Pr. i. 51). 

Mar. merid. — Mesfioua ! 

Ar. Geog, Europa meridionalis, Macarouesia (an indigenum ?). 

Legi specimen unicum valde incompletum, et ideo minus certum. 

D. HALTERATUM {SibtL et Sm. FL Gr. vi. tab. 10/ ; Boiss, Fl. Or. I 

86, et forsan DC, Pr. i. 53). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exs. sub D.junceo) ! (Webb, herb.) ! 
Mar. occid. — Agadir {Coll. Indig. 1871) ! 
Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in regioneinferiore. Prov. Haha! Shedma! 

Mtouga ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea. Europa. Africa borealis. Formse afB- 

nes in Oriente, 
, var. CARDioPETALUM, = D. cardiopetalum {DC. Syst. i. 

Mar. sept.— Tanger ! Tetuan (anno 1851)! Forma elata, raceme laxo, 

foliis rigidis. 

Mar. occid, — In monte Djebel Iladid ! prope Ain el Hadjar I 

Ar, Geog. Gallia ; Hispania. Africa borealis. 

— , var. MACROPETALUM, = D. macropctalum (DC. Syst. i- 


Mar. occid. — Frequens in arenosis prope Mogador ! ubi legerunt etiam 
Broussonet, Schousboe, Lowe, et Balansa. 

Ar. Geog. Ilucusque nonnisi pr. Mogador detectum. 

Primo aspectu a D. halterato et formis affinibus differt floribus duplo 
majoribus, pedunculis longioribus, foliorum segmentis latioribus. 
Caracteres stabiles frustra qnsesivi dum lise notse omnes variabiles sunt. 
Vix aut ne vix quidem a D. obcordato, DC. Syst. Nat. i. 350, ex speci- 
mine manco in ^Barbarla' lecto a cl. Durand descriptor diversum est. 

Nibil dubito quin Delphinia omnia § D elphinellum ^ DC, regionis Medi- 
terranean (exclusis orientalibus et D. Balansce) cum D. peregrino^ L., 



^ V 

nexu genetico coUigari, et pro subspeciebus vel varietatibus enumeranda 

esse. D. halteratum dignoscltur petalorum lateralium lamina orbicu- 

lari basi rotundata vel leviter obcordata. D. junceum (DC. FL Fr. v. 

364, et Prod. i. 52) habet laminam elli])ticam in unguem attenuatam. ^ 

Foliorum forma, indumentum, ratio longitudinis calcariset sepalorum 

notfc sunt omnino variabiles. Formre arete affines in tota regione 

Mediterranea (exclusa Macaronesia) vulgares sunt. 

Delphinium, sp. nov. ? Forsan subspecies D. Balansce (Boiss. et 

Reut. Diagn. PI. Or., ser. 2, v. 12)? 
Mar. merid, — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 

Mesan supra Arround ad 2400 m. ! In monte Djebel Tezah 2300- 

2500 m. ! 
Stirpem nondum florentem incerta; sedis inter Delphinia (suadente cl. 


MR. J. ball's spicilegium flor^ maroccan^. 311 

Baker) retuli; accuratius visa affinis D, Balansce mihi videtur, sed 
pluribus notis difFert. Radix perennis lignosa, plerumque obliqua ; 
caules florigeri e basi procumbeate adscendentes ; folia radicalia et 
inferiora palmatim (nee pinnatim) partita, caulina inagis divisa sub- 
biternata; imluTnentum D. BalanscB, 

Delphinium pentagynum (Lam, Diet, ii. 264; DC. Pr. i, 54). 
Mar. occid. — In monte Djebel Hadid hand procul a Mogadon R. et Fr. 
spec, m Herb, Kew, ! 

Ar, Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa borealis. Sicilia = D. emargina' 
turn (Presl, Bert. Fl. It. v. 419). 

Pace beati Bertoloni planta Algeriensis (Desf. Fl. Atl. i. 427, tab. Ill) 

est certe non diversa a stirpe Calpensi quae Maroccanis conformis. 

Specimina lusitanica non vidi, %eALam. I, c, plantain lusitanicam sub 

oculis habuit, et eandem speciem descripsit (confer Brotero, FL Lus, 

ii. 304) quam pro D. emarginato, Psl. habuit auctor Fl, Italicae. Notae 

diagnosticae mihi videntur incertae et variabiles. 

Berberide-5; (Vent. Tahl. lii. 83). 
Berbekis (Z., Gen. 442) . 

B. cretica (I/., DC. Pr. i. 106), var. = B. Hispanica (B, et R, 

Pug. 3) ? 

Mar. merid, — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In monte Djebel 
Tezah (/. D. H.) ! 
V Ar. Geog. Hispania. Africa boreali-occidentalis. Forma arete affinis in 

Oriente et in insulis Italicis Corsica, Sardinia, Sicilia (B. jEtnensis, 
Presl) . 

Specimina nostra inter B. creticam etB.cratcBginam, DC, ambigua viden- 
tur sed propiora plantae Nevadensi (olim B. vulgaris, L., var. australis, 
Boiss. — B, Hispanica, B. et R.). Folia subintegerrima in ramis ferti- 
libus spinas subaequantia, in sterilibus (hornotinis?) duple longiora. 
Baccae nigro-ca;ruleae stigmate breviter stipitato coronatae. B. cretica, 
L., cum B. cratcegina, DC, et B. densijlora, Boiss. et Buhse, melius 
sicut subspecies B. vulgaris euumerandae videntur. 

Papaverace^ (Ji/55. Gen. 235). 

Papaver (X. Gen. 648). 

P. HYBRIDUM (L., DC. Pr. i. 118). 

Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca! Agadir (Coll. Indig. 1871)J 

Mar. merid.— Tam in planitie, prov. Shedma! et prope Marocco ! quam 

in reg. inferiore Atlantis. Ait Mesan? 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Begio Mediterranea omnis. 

P. DUBIUM (L.,DC. Pr. I 118), var. Maroccanum, no 
Mar. sept.— Tanger ! Inter Tetuan et Ceuta ! 
Mar, occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

312 MR. J. baxl's spicilegium ploe^ maroccan.^. 

Differt a typo foliis radicalibus piunatis, caulinis integris basi latis 
subamplexicaulibus inaequaliter incisis vel crenato-incisisj interdura 
subtrilobis, pilosis vel subglaberrimis. Quoad foliorum formam vi- 
detur a P. dubio prorsus diversum et potius ad P, gracile (Boiss. 
Fl. Or. i. 115) accedeus, sed forinse intermedise non desunt. 

P, dubium est species per totam Europam late diffusa, uec deest in re- 
gione Mediterranea (inclusa Macaronesia). In India boreali-occi- 
dentali adest forma glabra (P. dubium^, Icevic/atumj Elk. Mon.) quae 
forma, monente Boissier (FI. Or. i. 114), ab ipso Elkan cseterisqiie 
auctoribus cum P. IcBvigato, M. B., perperam confusa est. Vereor ne 
caracteres a disci crenis incumbentibus vel inter se discretis a eel. 
Boissier allati, in hac grege fallaces sint. In stirpe nostra crense disci 
interdum incumbentes fere ut in P. Rhccas, 

Papaver Rhceas (L., DC. Pr. 118). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger ! 

Mar. occid.— Mogador (Lowe); Agadir {ColL Indig. 18/1) ! 

Mar, merid. — Hinc inde in planitie Maroccana — Shedma ! Sheshaoua ! 

Pr, urbem Marocco ! Formam nanam par\^ifloram legi pr. Sektana ! 
Ar, Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis. 



P. TENUE {Ball, Journ. Bot. 1873, 296). 

Annuum (seubienne?) ; planta tota pilis longis setosis vestita (folia in- 
feriora et sepala interdum glabrescentia) ; folia primariapinnata, pinnis 
inciso-lobatis segmentis rotundatis, caulina circuitu late triangulari- 
ovata, bipinnatifida, segmentis lineari-oblongis acutis ; caulis sub- 
simplicis setae inferiores patulse, superiores adpressse ; petala obovato- 
oblonga; discus convexiusculus capsular glabrae obovato-turbinatse 
latitudine vix sequalis, crenatus, crenis vix incumbentibus ; stigmata 


Mar. merid. — In regione media et superiore Atlantis Majoris, in coa- 

valle Alt Mesan! et in jugo Tagherot ! a 1800 m. ad 3000 m., 

in convalle Arasmiz ! et in monte Djebel Tezah ! a 1600 m. ad 
2500 m. 

Proximum P. arenario, M. B., at differt petalis angustis nee subro- 
tundatis, setis caulinis adpressis nee patulis, cajterisque notis. Cap- 
sula fere P. Decaisnei, Hochst. et Steud., sed in hoc discus com- 
planatus, crense magis discretse. 

P. soMNiFERUM (L., DC, Pr. i. 119), var. setigerum, =P. setigerum 

{DC. Fl, Fr.v. 585; DC. Pr. i. 119). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger, versus Cap. Spartel {Webb, herb.) ! 
Mar. occid. — Mogador {Lowe Cat.). 

Ar. Geog. In regione Mediterranea hinc inde, sed patria incerta. 
P. somniferum colitur, et ssepe cum seminibus affertur in Imperio Ma- 

roccano, et ex cultis evadit forma sylvestris, P. setigerum, sed ve- 

risimiliter hand indigenum est. 


Papaver rupifragum (Boiss. et Rent, Pug. p. 6), var. atlanticum 
(BalhJourn. Bot. 18/3, 296). 

Perenne, caespitosum ; rhizoma multicaule ; folia (fere omnia radicalia) 
setis longis albidis dense obtecta, circuitu obverse lanceolata, grosse 
dentata vel pinnatipartita, segmentis insequalibus plus minusve inci- 
sis ; caulis scapiformis, 8-20-pollicaris/ simplex vel ima basi fur- 
catus, adpresse setosus ; flores ante anthesin nutantes ; petala late 
obovata, sordide aurantiaca; capsula clavata, glabra, ima basi (ad 
petalorum insertionera) annulo glandulifero instructa; discus cou- 
vexns, erenatus, capsulse latitudinem superans. 

Mar. merid. — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris; Ai'tMesan! Djebel 
Tezah ! a 2000 m. ad 2600 m. 

Aspectu a planta Boissieriana diversissima ; liajc enim obscure virens 
subglaberrima, dum varietas nostra canescens undique pilosissima, 
forsan melius pro subspecie habenda. 

P. rupifragum est species distinctissima, hucusque tantum in Hispania 
Arundana detecta. 

Ecemeria {Med. in TTst. Ann. 1792, 15). 

R. hybrida (DC. 92, et Prod. i. 122, L. sub Chelidonio), 
Mar, merid,— In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris. Pr. Sektana circ. 

1200 m. ! In convalle Amsmiz, circ. 1500 m.! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea fere omnis (exclusa Macaronesia). In 

Europa media vix indigena. 
Siliquse in spec, nostris aliquid attenuatae fere ut in R, rTiceadiflora, 



G. LUTEUM (Scop. I c.), = G. flavum {Ciz. Fl. AusL i. 141 ; DC. Pr. u 

122),= G. fulvum (Lois. Fl. Gall, i.376; DC. Pr. i. 122),=Chelido- 

nium glaucium, L, 
Mar. sept, — Legi nondum florens in arenosis maritimis inter Tetuan et 

Ceuta ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa borealis et media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (in- 

clusa Macaronesia). 

G. coRNicuLATUM (Z/., sub Chelidotiio, Curt. Land. vi. tab. 32; DC. 

Prod. I 122), 
Mar. occid.— In prov, Haba prope Mogador! (Schsb.) et prope Agadir 

Mar. merid. — Prov. Shedma! Mesfioua! Seksaoua ! 
Ar, Geog. Germania. Regio Mediterranea (exclusa Macaronesia). 

Htpecoum (L. Gen. 171). 

H. PENDULUM (L., DC. Pr. i. 124). 
Mar. merid. 

circ. 1400 m. 1 Prope Mzouda, J. D. H.l 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. R^gio Mediterranea (exclusa Mac 




CofiTDALis (DC, FL Fr. iv. 636; Benth, ef Il.fil Gen. PL i. 55). 

C. HETEROCARPA {Dioieu lu Pari. Giorn, Bot. i. 336^ sub Ceratocapno), 
Ceratocapnos umbrosa {Dur, in Walp. Ann, ii. 29). 

Mar. occid, — Prope Mogador {Lowe Cat.), 

Mar. tnerid.— In rej^ionc iiiferiore Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Ait Mesan 
detexit G. Maw ! 

Ar, Geog, Africa borcalis. Hucusque nonnisi in Algeria detecta. 

De genere Ceratocapno confer B. & H. Z. c. p. 56. A Corydali cla- 
viculata, cui similliraa, differt fructu dimorpho. Superiores eujusvis 
racemi capsulae l-2-sperm8e, bivalves, in rostrum longum cornuto- 
recurvura attenuatse ; inferiores nuces indehiscentes, monospermse, 
compressse, truncatae, fenestrato-sulcatae. Nomen speeificum a clar. 
inventore prius editura, aptum et nullomodo mutandum. 

ruMARiA (X. Gen, 849). 

F. AFRiCANA {Lam, Diet, ii. 569), = F. corymbosa {Desf,Act, Soc, Hist, 
Nat, Par, i. 26, tab. 6; DC Pr. i. 130; OL Ham, Mon, 42). 

Mar. sept. — In rupibus juxta Tetuan florentemetfructiferam legi mense 
Junio 1851 et iterum Aprili 1871 ! 

Ar, Geog. Ilispania Granatensis ; Africa borealis. Species sat rara. 

F. OFFICINALIS (L., DC Pr, i. 130; 01, Ham, Man, 9). 

Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Ait Mesan 
a 2000 m. ad 2200 m.! 

Ar, Geog. Patria verisimiliter regio Mediterrauea. Nunc fere cosmo- 
polita per Europam, Asiam, Africam borealem (inclusa Macarone- 
sia), Americam tarn borealem quam meridionalem late diffusa. 

F. Vatllantii {Lois. Not. p. 102; DC. Pr. i. 130; OL Ham. 
Mon. 14). 

Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis majoris pr. Tasseremout ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa et Asia temperata ; regio Mediterrauea (inclusa Ma- 

caronesia); India orientalis {sec. OL Hammar). 
Notae qulbus hsec et sp. sequens dignoscuntur ex fructu desumptse 

vix stabiles sunt. Fructus F, parvijlorcB in Marocco rarius apiculatus. 

F. parviflora {Lam. Diet. ii. 667; DC Pr. i. 130; OL Ham. 
Mon. 16). 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in planitie et in regione inferiore Atlantis 

Majoris. Prov. Shedma, pluribus locis! Prope urbem Marocco! 

In convalle Ait Mesan, /. D. H. I In convalle Arasmiz circ. 1500 m. ! 
Ar.Geog. Europa media (vix indigena?). Regio Mediterrauea omnis, 

unde in Americam subtropicam (Mexico, sec. Parlatore^ Buenos Ayres, 

herb. Hooker) et in Indiam boreali-occidentalem effugit. 
In spec. Maroccanis flores ssepissime albi, rarius dilute rosei. 



FuMARiA CAPREOLATA (L., DC. Pr, i. 130 J OL Ham. Mon, 24), var. 


i M^v. merid. — Ad radices Atlantis Majoris. Frequens circa Amsmiz ! 

Mzouda ! Keira ! 

Ar, Geoff. F. capreolata per Europam fere totam et regionem Medi- 
terranean! (inclusa Macaronesia) late diffusa est, et inde in Americara 
extratropicalem aufuga. De distributione formarum seu varietatum 
ardua scntentia et forsan inutllis est. 

[ Var. nostra est forma parviflora, racerais densis, ^t forsan cum var. y, 

. albiftora, 01. Ham. 1. c. conjungcnda. 

F. media (Lois Not. 102; 01. Ham. Mon. 28, non DC. Syst. nee 

Prorf.)* var. a, 01, Ham. /.c., = F. Bgyxi (Jord. Cat.Jard. Bot. Gren. 

1849), = F. Munbyi {Bois. et Rent. Pug. p. 5),=F. capreolata {Eng. 

Bot. tab. 943, et auct. Brit, fere omnium). 
Mar. sept.— Circa Tanger! Prope Tetuan, anno 1851 ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa occidentalis a Norvegia ad fretum Herculis. Africa 

boreali-occidentalis ab agro Tingitano ubi valde frequens usque Oran. 

Hue verislmiliter referenda est F. capreolata (Salzm. Exsicc). 
F. media est nobis subspecies cum F. capreolata pluribus formis inter- 

mediis conjuncta, 

,var., cui proxima F. sepiUiM (Boiss. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. 2, 
i. IG; OL Ham. Mon. 27). 

Mar. merid.— In regione media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait Mesan 

1/00-1800 m.! 
Var. nostra inter formas intermedias enumeranda quibus adsocianda est 

-F. sepium, Boiss. Ilabet sepala magna corollas dimidium subfcquan- 
tia, subintegra, basi leviter dentata, et bracteas pedicellis apice valde 
incrassatis a^quilongas. 

F. MACROSEPALA (Bois. El. p. 8; 01. Ham. Mon. 36). 

Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Hosmar legi specimen mancum mox flori- 

bundum ! In eodem monte olim legit beatus P. B. Webb. 
Ar. Geog. Hispania Granatensis et Gaditana. Montes Tetuanenses. 
Species rara, verisimiliter probe distincta. 

F. AGRARiA {Lag. El PI. Hort. Matrit, 1816, p. 21 ; 01 Ham. Mon. 

38), = F. media {DC. Syst. ii. 134 ; et Prod. i. 130. non Lois.). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc. sub F. media) ! Tetuan ! 
Mar. occid.— CasaBlanca! Mazagan ! Mogador (Low;e). Agadir (forma 

fl. minoribus. Coll. Tndig. 1871) ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea Europae et Africse borealis. Deest in 

Oriente et in Macaronesia. Ex Europa in Americara australem allata. 

s var. ELATA, nob.y an F. rupestris, var. laxa (Boiss. et 

Rent. Pug. p. 4)? 
Mar. sept.— In rupibus calcareis pr. Tetuan ! 
Mar. mend.— Prov. Haha ! Shedma ! Prope Marocco ! 

2a 2 


Var, nostra differt a typo sepalis longius acuminatis apice subherba- 

Var. ATLANTICA,«0&. 


F. rupestris (B. et R. Z. c. ; 01. Ham. Men. 40), mihi videtur forma ru- 

pestrls F, agrarice, et var. laxa est ejusdera forma sylvcstris scandens. f 


ceis, fructu insigniter compresso et carinato. 


Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris. Ait Mesan circ. 1 600 m. ! ( 

Planta hand omnino certa — facies F. capreolatcBy sed charaeteres potius ' 

F. agraricB ; a priore differt sepalis multo latioribus. Multis notis, 
et foliorum segmentis subflabellatis, ad F, fiahellatam accedit, sed " f 

bractese duplo longiores, ut in F. rupestri, et pedicelli erecto-patuli 
nee reflexi. 
F. flabellata (Gasp., Rendic, Ac. So. Nap. i. 51 ; 01. Ham. Men. 41) 
verisimiliter ut subspecies F. agrarice enumeranda erit. 

Pumaxia tenuisecta {Ball, Journ, Bot 1873, 297). 

Affinis F. flf^rraneg, sed insigniter differt sepalis angustis minimis acutis 











dentatis diametrum fructus non attingentibus ; a F. judaica, Boiss., t 

petalis multo majoribus, et ab omnibus bujus gregis valde ludibundi 
foliis tripinnatisectis in lacinias lincares planas mucronatas dissectis. 

Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis majoris in convalle Ait 
Mesan ad 1400 m. specimen unicum legi ! 

Invito animo novam subspeciem proposui pro hac stirpe singulari. Folia 
fere F, Kralikii, Jord. 

CBUciFEBiE (Juss. Gen, 237). 
Matthiola (H. Br. in H, Kew. iv. 119). 

M. TRiSTis (R. Br. L c. p. 120 ; DC. Pr. i. 134). 
Mar. occid. — Mogador {Lowe). 

Ar, Geog. Europa mediterranea. Africa borealis. In Asia Minore rarior. 
Macaronesia {sec. Lowe). 

M. TRicuspiDATA {R.Br. I. c; BC. Pr. i. 134), 
Mar. sept. — In arenosis maritimis inter Tetuan et Ceuta ! 
Ar. Geog. Per oras maris Mediterranese late diffusa. In littoribus At- 
lanticis Europse et Africse bucusque non indicata. 

M. PARviFLORA {R. Br. I. c; DC. Pr.i. 135). 

Mar. merid,— Frequens in incultis saxosis calidioribus. AiuOumast! 

Misra ben Kara ! Gurguril Mtouga! Mskala! Prope urbemMarocco 

{Schsb. spec.)\ 
Ar. Geog. Hispania; Marocco; Macaronesia. 
In Marocco fit saepe robustior, sesquipedalis et ultra. 

Cheieanthus {B. Br. in K. Kew. iv. 118). 

C. SEMPERFLORENS (Schousb. MaroTc. p. 181 ; DC. Pr, i. 136). 
Mar, occid. — Frequens in arenosis circa Mogador ! ubi jam legerunt 

Broussonnet, Schousboe, Lowe et Balansa. Inde se protendit usque 

radices montes Djebel Hadid ad Ain el Hadjar ! 











LJjNN, Soc. Jouhn.Bot.Voi.XYI.Pl IX. 

'''HFx^ch l,ih 


F^itcK imp 

MK. J. ball's spicileqium flok^ maroccan^. 317 

Ar. Geog, Species Maroccana e grege Macaronesiaco Dtcroan/Ao, Webb, 
sed satis diversa. Specimen mancum sub hoc titulo, ex Mostaganem 
in herb. Kewensi est aliena planta. Seroina immatura tenuiter niar- 


Nasturtium (B. Br. in R. Rew. iv. 109). 

N. officinale (R. Br. I, c. j DC. Pr. i. 137). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger ! 

Mar. occid. — Mogador (Lowe Cat,), 

Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore Atlantis Maj. pr. Amsmiz, J. D. H. 1 

et in subalpiuis supra Arround circ. 2400 m. ! 
Ar. Geog, Herba amphig^a, in temperatis; frigidioribus et calidioribus 

hemispha^rae borealis frequens. 

N. ATLANTicuM {Ball, Joum. Bot. 18/3, 297). (Plate IX.) 

Bienne (?), c^spitosum, glaberrimum, ex collo radicis longse verticahs 
caules breves debiles emittens ; folia (fere omnia basilaria) profunde 
pinnatipartita, loho terminali anguloso-rotundato, lateralibus ina^qua- 
libus, spathulatis vel oblongo-ellipticis, angulatis; pedicelli breves 
graciles, non incrassati ; petala parva, ochroleuca ; siliqua (immatura) 
Isevis, subtorulosa, enervis ; stj-lus apice subclavatus. 

Mar. merid.— In regione superiore Atlantis Majoris— Ait Mesan supra 
Arround ! Tagherot ! a 2200 m. usque 2800 m. 

Ab affinibus (N. asperum, Boiss. (Sisymbrium, L. ; DC. Prod.) et N. 
Boissieri, Coss.) differt imprimis habitu et fohis diversissimis, floribus 
minorlbus, ochroleucis (fere albidis) nee flavis, pedicellis gracilibus 
nee incrassatis, siliqua enervi, nee ut in iUis valvse basi nervo notata. 
Stylus longitudine variabilis. 


Aeabis (L. Gen. 818). 

A. VERNA (R. Br. in H. Kew. iv. 105 ; DC Pr. i. 142, L. sub Hesperide) 
Mar. sept.-Iu monte Beni Hosmar I In eodem monte et m Djebel 

Dersa olim legit Webb ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea, exclusa Macaronesia. 

A. ALBiDA {Stev. Cat. H. Gor. 51 ; DC. Pr. i. 142). 
Mar. merid.-In reg. subalpina Atlantis Majoris, in ascensu jugi lag- 
herot versus 2600 m. ! Fere eodem loco, anno 1873, specimen mancun, 

Ar. Geog. Montes regionis Mediterranea, sed deest in Gallia et in penin- 
sula Iberica. In Italia media (territ. Lncensi) ^^escend.t m zonam 
Olece Europce^. In montibus ins. Teneriffa a 2200 ad 2,00 m. se 


Webb (in Phyt. Can. i. M) et cei. uo. 

318 ME. J. ball's spicilegium floe^ maeoccan^. 

scil. A, caucasica (W. Enum. Supp. 45), J. viscosa (DC. Syst. ii. 
216), A. thyr^oidea (Sibth. et Sm. Fl. Gr. tab. 642), A. longifolia 
(DC. Syst. ii. 219), A. brevifolia (DC. Syst. ii. 218), A. Billardieri 
(DC. Syst. ii. 218). Ab his omnibus speciniina atlantica discrepant 
foliis inferioribus, et caudiculorum profunde sinuatis vel repaudo- 
dentatis, caulinis etiaiu maj^is profunde dentatis. 

Procul dubio est formal, alpince sed satis constanset ideopro subspecie 

Arabis erubescens {Ball, Journ. Bot. 18/3, 297). 

Stirps male cognita e grege A. alpince sed cum ea confundi nequit. Ab 
hac differt insigniter sepalis basi aequalibus coloratis, petalis dimidio 
minoribus erubescentibus, eorum lamina angustiore, pilis cauliuis sim- 
plicibus velapice fuicatis, uec stellato-ramosis. 

Mar. merid.— In rcgione alpina Atlantis Majoris. In jugo Tag- 

nerot, ultra 3000 m., specimen unicum immaturum et incompletura 

A. AURicuLATA {Lam. Diet. i. 219; DC. Pr, 143). 

Mar. merid.~In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. lu convalle Ait 

Mesan supra .Arromid a 2400 m. ad 2550 m. ! In jugo Tagherot 

usque 2800 m. ! In monte Djebel Tezab a 2500 2800 m. ! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media. Montes regionis Mediterranean, exclusa Maca- 

Specimina in monte Djebel Tezahlectahabent siliquasbrevioies. Non- 
nulla (versus 2800 m. lecta) sunt tenuiora pauciflora, fere var. /3 
Sinaica (Boiss. Fl. Or. i. 169). 

A. PUBEscENs (Poir. Suppl. i. 413; BC. Pr. i. 145),=Turritis pubes- 

cens {Desf. FL Ath ii. 92, tab. 163). 
Mar. sept.— In monte Beni Hosmar! etin rupibus calcareis pr. Tetuan! 

ubi earn olim legit P. B. Webb. 
Ar, Geog. Species propria Algeria; et montium Tetuanensium. 
Sdiqua; erectse strictse subsessiles pubescentes, valvis dorso obsolete 

1-nervosis, in stylum attenuatse. Semina uniseriata exalata. Stigma 


. decumbens 

(Plate X.) 

Percnnis, ca:spitosum, e collo radicis caules plurimos debiles decum- 
bentes emittens; folia radicalia obverse lanccolata, acute repando- 
dentata, in petiolum attenuata, caulina ovato-lauceolata, profunde 
dcntata, suprema lincaria subintegra, omnia ex pilis rigidis trifurcatis 
scabriuscula; pcdiccllifiliformes, pateutes, siliquaji partem a^quantes; 
petala alba seu dilute carnea; siliqua; compressor subtorulosa? erecto- 
patentis valvjc margine parum incrassata, dorso obsolete nervosae ; 
stylus filiformis, glaber, pro genere longiusculus ; stigma vix (aut ne 
vix) bifidum. 

LiNN.Soc. Jouhn.Bot.Vol.XVLPl.X 

'W.HFitch lith 



Fitch imp 

Liis^N.Soc, Journ.Bot.Yol.Z^/LPl XI. 

v;.aFLtcK utK 


Fitcli imp. 

MB. J. ball's sPTCiLEGirM FLORAE -ntarocca:?^.?:. 319 


Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris— Ait Mesan, sui)ra 
Arround ! a 2100 m. ad 2G00 m. Djebel Tezah ! a 2400m. ad 2500 ni. 

Differt ab A. puhescenfe, cul proxiraa, babitu omnino diverso, pedicellis 
patentibiis nee adpressis, siliquis magis torulosis, stylo longiore basi 
discreto. Tabula Fontanesiana A. pubescentis habet siliquas truncatas, 
stylo subnullo prccditas ; in speciminibus nostris prope Tetuan lectis 
video siliquas semper in stylum attenuatas. 

Arabis conringioides {Ball, Journ, Bot. 1873, 297). (Plate XI.) 
Radix lignosa, perennis, caules plurimos erectos, subsimplices, foliatos 
emittens ; herba tota glaberrima, glaucovirens ; folia inferiora orbicu- 
lata, in petiolum longum sensini attenuata, caulina inferiora elliptica, 
basi auriculata, auriculis subangulatis, superiora ovato-cordata, semi- 
amplexicaulia, omnia integerrima; pedicelli numcrosi, conferti, fili- 
formes, erecto-patuli, siliqusei vel J partem a^quantes; calyx basi 
subsequalis, sepalis purpurascentibus; petala alba, apice rotundata m 
unguem sensim attenuata, suberecta ; siliqua erecta, elongata, laivis, 
subcylindrica, nervo dorsali subobsoleto notata, in stylum brevem 
truncatum attenuata ; semina 1-seriata. 
Mar. merid.— In regione alpina et subalpina Atlantis Majoris— in jugo 
Tagberot ! a 3000 m. ad 3500 m. -, in monte Djebel Tezah I a 2100 

m. ad 2800 m. 
Species distinctissima, nulli proxima, facie Conringia orientalis sive C. 

clavatcB, Boiss. 

Caedamine (Z. Gen. 812). 

C. HiRSUTA (L., DC. Pr. i. 152). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger (in monte Djebel Kebir) ! In umbrosis colhum 

inter Tanger et Tetuan ! In monte Beni Hosmar pr. Tetuan ! 
Ar. Geog. Regloues temperate hcmispha;ra; borealis. Per rcgionem 

Mediterraneam (exclusa Macaronesia) late diffusa. 



i. 50). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Beni Ilosraar pr. Tetuan circa 1000 m. . 
Mar. merid.-In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris-in monte Djebel 

Tezah circa 2200 ra. ! ,i- • » 

Ar. Geog. Euiopa borealis et media (excl. arctica). Montes Hupama et 

Italiffi, sed verisimiliter rara in reg. Mediterranea. 

NoTOCEEAS {B. Br. H. Keic. iv. 117). 

N. CANARiENSE [R. Br. I. d DC. Pr. i. 140). 

Mar. sept.— Tetuan {Webb Herb.) ! 

Mar. merid.— Inter Misra ben Kara et Marocco . 

Ar. Geog. Regie Mediterranea calidior a Belutschia usque m insula. 

Cauarienses.. India boreali-occidentalis. 

320 ME. J. ball's SPICILEGIFM FLOR-^ maroccan^. 

Altssum (i. Gen, 805 ; _5. et B, Gen. PI i. 73). 

A. ALPESTRE (L., DC, Pr. i. 161), var. serpyllifolium = A, ser- 
pyllifoliura {Desf. FL AtL ii. /O). 

Mar. merid. — In regione media et superlore (?) Atlantis Majoris. In 
convalle Ait Mesan circa 1400 m. florens et fructiferura legi 
15 Majo 1871 ! Ejusdera stirpis specimen mancura legerunt in 
jugo Tagherot cl. Rein et Fritsch anno 18/3! Denuo eel. Cosson be- 
nevole communicavit specimina in monte Pjebel Afougueur ab indi- 
gena Ibrahim lecta mense Junio 18/4 ! 

Ar, Geog. A. alpestre est species polymorpha in montibus Europae media? 
et regionis meditcrranese late diffusa. Var. nostra montium penin- 
sulse Ibericaj et Africae borealis incola est. 

Forma Fontanesiana a nobis lecta vix differt ab A, alpestreyV^r. (3. suffru- 
tescens (Boiss. FL Or. i. 268). Hujus (monente eel. Boissier) syno- 
nyraasunt J. tortuosum(3. orientate (DC, Prod, i, 164), A. Savranicum, 
Andr., et A. serpyllifolium (Griseb. Spic. i. 276). 

var. macrosepalum (Ballj Journ. Bat. 1873, 298). 
Differt a typo sepalis majoribus subpersistentibus siliculam semimaturam 
aequantibus, siliculis basi ellipticis, nee cuneatis, stylo siliculam sub- 

Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Amsmiz ! 

A. MONTANUM (L., DC. Pr, i. 162), var. atlanticum, wo5., an Boiss. 7 
=A. atlanticum {Desf. FL Atl ii. /I, tab. 149 ; DC. Pr. i. 161). 

Mar. merid. — In regione subalpina et alpina Atlantis Majoris. In monte 
Djebel Tezah a 2500 m. usque 3300 m. ! 

Ar. Geog. Varietas nostra habitat in montibus Africae borealis et forsan 


Hispanise Granatensis. Forma? arete affines per Europam mediam et 
regionem Mediterraneam (exclusa Macaronesia) diffusa?. 

Specimina nostra bene convenient spec, in monte Djebel Cheliah Al- 
geria: lectis {Balansa, PL d'Algerie, No. 898). Ab icone Fontanesiana 
differre videntur caulibus subprostratis, et sepalis persistentibus. Spe- 
cimina Ilispanica quae vidi et ipse legi fructifera in montibus Sierra 
Nevada ad aliam formam hujus specie! polymorphae pertincrc viden- 
tur. In his caules erecti rigidiusculi, planta tota ex squamis stellatis 
multiradiatis lepidotis dense incana. In spec, ab ipso Boissier in 
Sierra de Mijas anno 1837 lectis filamenta majora alata,nec dentata ut 
in A. montano typico, et in pi. nostra. 

A. montanum est certe species polymorpha quibus adsocianda; sunt velut 
varietates vel subspecies plurima; ab auctoribus jam descriptae, et formse 
non pauca? hucusque incditse. Inter varietates cum A. atlanfico, Dsf., 

da sunt A. diffusum. Ten., et A. repens, Baumg. Subspecies, 

notis stabilioribus agnoscendas, sistunt A. flexicaulcy Jord., A. cunei- 

folium, Ten., et A. Wulfenianum, Bemh. Hoc novissimum, in Alpi- 

bus Carnicis et Juliis sat frequcns, non habet siliculas semper glabratas. 


MK. J. ball's spicilegium floe^ maboccan^. 321 

Hge, pace eel. Boissier, non raro sunt squamis lepidotis adspersse, 
basi tamen semper cuneata, stylo longiore, ab illis A. montani genuini 


Alyssum campestre (L., -DC. Pr. i. 163). 

Mar. merid.— In planitie, unde se protendit usque in reglonein subalpi- 

nam Atlantis Majoris. Prov. Shedma ! Tasseremout ! Ait Mesan 

circ. 1400 m. ! et iterum ad 2300 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Macaro- 


A. CALYCiNUM (L., DC. Pr. i. 163). 

]Mar. merid.— Rarius occurrit in planitie et in regione subalpma Atlantis 

Majoris. Prov. Sliedma, prope Ain Oumast In convalle Ait Mesan 
■ ad 1200 m. et in jugo Tagherot usque 2/00 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea (exclusa Macaronesia). 
In calidioribus fit plantula subsimplex erecta 2-3-polliearis ; in fngidio- 

ribus e basi ramosissima subcaspitosa. 


A. sPiNosuM (L., BC. Pr. i. 164 ; Boiss. Voy. Esp. ii. 45, sub PtUo- 

iricho). . , . 

Mar. merid.-Crescit abunde in regione subalpina et alpma Atlantis 
Majoris in convalle Ait Mesan a 2200 m. usque 3300 m. 

Ar. Geog. Regionis Mediterranea pars occidentalism e Gallia Narbonens, 
ad Sierra Nevada ; et in Africa boreali-occidentali. In Macaronesia 


A /T n..* ; Qft. nr Pr i. 164; Desv. Jonrn. Bot. 

A. MARiTiMUM {Lam. Diet. \. yo; J-*^- ^'^- *• ^"^> ^ . 

iii. 162, sub Lobularia; K Br. in Clapp. Voy. App. p. -H, 

Synonyma Linna^ana confusa. Est enim Clypeola mar^t^maiL. Mant. 
426), et Alyssum halimifolium (L. Sp. PI. ii. 207), et J. rmmmum, L., 

Sp. PI. ii. 908). . , . Tnfnnn 1 

Mar sept.-Frcquens pr. Tanger! (Sahm. E.s^cc.) I wope Tctuan ! 

Leg! etiam in monte Beni Hosmar ! ubi jam legerat W ebb. 
Mar. occid.-Djebel Hadid baud procul Mogador, J. D. n 
Mar. merid.-In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris-pr. M.lham 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea littoralis (inclusa Macaronesia). 


var LEPIDOIDES, nob. . 

Differ, a .j'po haW.u graCiore, siliculls MU-imi, in r^.ea.0 confer... nee 

ut in typo racemo basi laxo. . 

Mar. merid.-Ad radices Atlantis Majoris. supra Seksaoua . et m prov. 

Mtouga ! 
A r ir 7>J Tih n 34 tab. 16, sub Lunaria ; R. Br. in Clapp. 

A. LIBYCUM (Viv. Ft. Lib, p. o^, ia"» *"; 

Voy. App., sub Kceniga). ^^^^^^ , 

Mar. occid.— Mogador in arenosis ! {Lowe ^ai.) m i 

Prope Ain el Hadjar ! 



Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea calidior imprimis occidentalis (Hispania 
australis, Africa l)oreali-occidentalis, Macaronesia). Nascitur etiam 
in Persia australi et in Arabia Petraea. 

Deaea (i. Gen, 800). 

D. HISPANICA {Boiss. El p. 8, et Voy. Esp, tab. 13 ; Walp. Rep. i. 14?). 
Mar. merid. — In regione superiore Atlantis Majoris legimus in monte 

Djebel Tezah a 2100 m. ad 3000 m. ! 

Specimina nostra ab exeraplaribus Hispanicis et Algeriensibus paululum 
recedunt siliculis ovatis stylum versus attenuatis, minus hispidis (in- 
terdum glabrescentibus), pilis semper simplicibus, nee pilis ramosis 
eommixtis, petalis minoribus styli longitudinem vix attingentibus. 

Ar, Geog, Hispania Granatcnsis, Africa borealis. 

Formse arete affiues per montes Europe meridionalis, Asise minoris et 

Syrise diffusse. 

Erophila (DC. Syst, ii. 356). 

E. tuLGARis {DC, L c. ; DC, Pr. 172),=Draba verna, I/. 

Mar. sept, — In monte Beni Ilosmar pr. Tetuan ! 

Ar, Geog. Europa omnis (excl. arctica). Oriens. Africa borealis, ubi 

rara. In Macaronesia non indicata. 

Malcolmia (j5. JBr, in H, Keio, iv. 121). 

M. litorea (R. Br. I c. ; DC. Pr. i. 18/). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger ! {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! (Webb Kerb.) ! 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca (E. et Fr. spec, in Hb. Kew.) ! 

Ar. Geog. Litora Oceani a Cherbourg usque ad fretum Hercuiis. Secus 

mare Mediterraueum in Hispania et Hetruria. Africa boreali-occi- 


M. lacera (L. Sp. 926, sub Cheirantho; Lam. Diet. iii. 332, sub Hes- 
peride-j DC, Syst. ii. 445, et Prod. i. 188), var. patula,=M. patula, 
(DC. Syst. ii. 444, et Prod. i. 18/). 

Mar. occid. — Valde frequens in arenosis prope Mogador ! et in rcg. 
litorea usque Ain el Iladjar! 

Ar. Geog. Hispania centralis. Ager Mogadorensis. Arete aflfinis M. 
lacerw habitat in reg. litorali Lusitaniae et Hispanise meridionalis. 

Hue verisimiliter specimina a Broussonnet in agro Mogadorensi lecta 
quae ill. A. P. De Candolle sub M, lacera (Syst, /. c.) disposuit. Re 
vera M. lacera et M. patula sunt formse ejusdem speciei. In bac 
folia linearia integra, in ilia oblongo-linearia, pinnatifido-sinuata. Ab 
his differt M, Broussonnetii stylo basi scabrido, foliis sajpe latioribus 
integris,velbreviterrepando-dentatis; nee video aliam ndtam diagnos- 
ticam. In omnibus stylus filiformis elongatus, apicem versus glaber, 
vel tenuissiine papillose- scaber. 


•j var. Broussonnetii^ = M. Broussonnetii {DC, S]/st. ii. 445, 
€t Prod. i. 184 ; Deless, Icon. Sel. ii. tab. 69). 

Mar. occid. — In arenosis pr. Mogador ! {Brouss.) DC. L c. Inter 
Shedma et Mogador legit G. Maw et specimina pulchra milii benc- 
vole dedit ! 

Mar, merid. — Prope Mesfioua unicum specimen legi! 

Ar, Geoff. Nimis incerta, vix ultra territ. Maroccanum. 

M, Broussonnetii est M. patulce forma vegetior, ssepius statura major, 
ramis rigidioribus, floribus majoribus. In spec, nostris tamen flores 
paullo minores quam in icone Delessertiana. Quid sit M. Brousson- 
netii auct. Florai Ilispanicae est mihi res dubia. Specimina sub hoc 
titulo a Boissier et Renter prope Gibraltar anno 1837 lecta, et quiE 
ipse legi anno 1871, mihi videntur magis affinia M. litorecB, et forte 
ejusdem varietas foliis profunde sinuatis. An diversa sit M. erosa 
(Lag. Cat. Hort. IVIatr. 1814, p. 20, sub Hesperide, DC. Syst. ii. 446) 
ex descriptione incompleta non satis apparet, 

M. NANA (DC. Syst. ii. 486, et Prod. i. 195; Coss. in Bull. Soc. Bot. 

Fr. X. 397, sub Sisymhrio, Boiss. FL Or. i. 222),=M. binervis (Boiss. 

Ann. Sc. Nat. 18^2, 71), = Sisymbrium bincrvc (C. A. M. Enum. 

p. 189; Jaub. et Sp. Ill PL Or. tab. 289),=IIesperis ramosissima 

{DC. Prod. i. 189), = M. confusa, Boiss. Fl Or. i. 221. 
Mar. sept.— Specimina duo semipoUicaria florentia detexi inter csespites 

graminese cujusdam in saxosis prope Tetuan lectae 1 
Ar. Geoff. Species per regionem Meditcrraneam fere omnem late dis- 

persa. Tu Gallia meridional!, in Italia, Gra^cia, et in Africa borcali 

hincinde occurrit. In litore Maris Caspiilegerunt Ilohenacker, C. 

A. Meyer, et Buhse; et m maritimis Anatolia (suadente Boissier) olira 

legit Tournefort. 
Pace eel. Boissier differentia inter M. nanam et confusam, Boiss., om- 

uino instabiles sunt. 
Speciminibus ad Mare Caspiura prope Baku lectis plantula; nostraj ada- 
mussim conveniunt nisi stylo aliquantulum breviore. Distributio hujus 
speciei, forsan ex statura minima a viatoribus praitermissa;, admodum 


SiSTMBBiTJM (All Fl. Fed. i. 274). 

m 4 

S. OFFICINALE (L., sub ErysiiHO, Scop. Fl. Cam. ii. 20; DC. Pr. i. 


Mar. sept.-In calcareis prope Tetuan! et in monte Bern Hosmar. 
Ar. Geog. Europa media et borealis (excl. arctica). Regio Medit 
uea (inclusa Macaronesia). In Americam advecta. 

S. Irio (L., DC. Pr. I 192). 

Mar. sept.-Tanger (Schsb. sec. Cosson). Visum pr. Tetuan I 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

Mar. merid.— Sheshaoua ! Inter rudera urbis Marocco ! 


Ar. Geog. Europa occidentalis a Britannia ad fretum Herculis. Regio 
Mediterranea (inclusa Macaroucsia). India boreali-occidentalis. 

Sisymbrium thalianum {Gay in Gaud, Fl. Helv. iv. 348; L. et DC, 

sub Ar abide). 
Mar. merid. — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris, in monte Djebel 

Tezah a 2100 m. ad 2300 in. ! 
Ar. Geoff, Europa omnis (inclusa arctica). Sibiria. Regio Mediterranea 

(excl. Macaronesia). 

S. runcinatum (Lag. FL Hisp, ined. ; DC. Pr. i. 194). 
Mar. orient. — Maharoug {Warion), Coss. Index, 
Ar. Geog, Hispanise prov. Murcia. Africa borealis. 

-, var. hirsutum, noh.y = S. hirsutum {Lag,, DC. Pr. I. c.) 

Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Amsniiz 
circa 1500 m. specimen unicum legi exemplaribus Hispanicis prope 
Matritum lectis omnino conforme. 

Ar. Geog. Hucusque nonnisi in agro Matritensi et in Atlante Majore 

S. ERYSiMoiDES {Desf, Fl. Ail ii. 84, tab. 158; DC, Pr, i. 195). 

Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in ruderatis et locis saxosis reg. inferioris. 

. Prov. Shedma ! Ain Beida ! in ruderatis urbis Marocco ! Seksaoua ! 
Milhain ! et alibi visum. 

Ar, Geog, Regio Mediterranea imprimis occidentalis, scil. Macaronesia, 
Hispania australis, Africa boreali-occidentalis, Sardinia; deinde 
occurrit in Persia australi et Arabia et in Abyssinia. Deest ut videtur 
in Italia continentali, Grsecia, Asia Minore, Syria et ^gypto. 

Specimina in solo arido crescentia graciliora sunt, sed vix pro varietate 


Erysimum (i. Gen. 814). 

E. australe (Gay, Erysim. Diagn. p. 6),=F. pallens {Boiss. Voy. 
Esp. in Add. p. 716), var. grandiflorum, = E. grandiflorum {D^sf. 
Fl, AtL ii. 85), = E. longifolium (DC. Syst, ii. 504, et Prod, i, 199). 

Mar. merid. — In regione media et superiore Atlantis Majoris a 1900 m. 
usque 3000 m. In convalle Ait Mesan unde se protendit usque in 
jugo Tagherot ! In monte Djebel Tezah ! Specimina in monte 
Djebel Afougueur (Coll. Indig. Ibrahim) siliquis maturis (nobis jjrius 
deficientibus) mense Augusto 18741ecta, benevole comm. eel. Cosson ! 

Ar, Geog. Var. nostra montium Africse borealis et Ilispaniaj incola est. 
Forma; arete affines per Europam mediam et totam regionem Mediter- 
raneam (exclusa Macaronesia) diffusse. 

Inter tot tantosque viros rei Botanices expertissimos qui genus Erysi- 
mum tetigerunt sententite omnino discordes. Invita natura characteres 
stabiles frustra qua;runt, et limites certos indicare conantur in catena 
formarum affininium quam raaxime proximarum. 


In speciminibus nostris folia sseplus anguste linearia sed interdura la- 
tiora, semper tamen integerrima. Pedicelli sajpissime calycis longi- 
tudinem dimldiam attingeates, sed interdum longiores. Siliqufe tenues 
ex pilis adpressis undique (etiam in angulis) canescentes. Semiua 
exangulata. Confer Gr. et God. Fl. Fr. i. 89. 

Exemplaribus permultis hujus gregis accurate observatis species s. d. 
Europese videntur omnes sub E. Cheiranthio, Pers., velut subspecies 
sen varietates enumerandae. Synonj'mia extricatu dificillima. 

Beassica {L. Gen. 820 ; B. et S. Gen. PI i. 84). 

[In genere a eel. Bentham et Hooker reformato cum Brassicis veris 
(LinniEano sensu) enumerantur sicut subgenera Sinapodendron, Lowe, 
Sinapis, L., Erucastrum, Scliimp. et Spenn., et Hirsclfeldia, 
Mcench. His forsan melius addenda erit Diplotaxis, genus charactere 
nuUo satis stabili fulcratum. Plurlms species habitu propno a Bras- 
sicis distinguuntur, sed Diplotaxis virgata, D. siifoUa, D. auriculata 
nee habitu nee charactere a Brassica dignoscendse, et nisi obstitisset 
auetorltas gravissima Diplotaxin cum ceteris generibus supra memo- 
ratis sub Brassica enumerare maluissem, ducecel. Boissier (\ oy. bsp. 
ii. 32), etsi vir celeb, in Flora Orientali sententiam mutavit.] 

B. TORULOSA {Durieu in Rev. Bot. ii. 434 ; Expl. Bot. Alg. I 74 ; 

Mar. sept.-Tanger iSahm. Exsicc. sub Diplotaxi catholica)! iUebb 

Herb.) ; Tetuan ( Webb Herb.) ! 
Mar. oceid.— Mazagan ! Mogador (Balansa. Coss. Index). 
^r. Geoo. Africa boreah-occidentalis.; Hispania ? 
Nimis proxima Diplotaxi siifvUc., Kze. ; bane ^gre distinguo s.liqu^ 

rostro longiore tenuiore insigniter trinervi, nee ut in D. st^foha s^pius 

obsolete trinervi. 
B. FRUTicuLOSA iCyr. PI. Var. Neap. fasc. 2, p. 7. tab. 1; DC. Pr. 

i. 216), 

Mar. occid.-Prope Mogador (legit Lowe, sed 

Cel. Cosson spec. Loweanum cum Sinap^ rad^cata (De^. F^^AtL 
ii 98 tab 167) comnaravit et in eadem sentent.a facile ha^reo. 

sZj!'jJ$dJrSe^. eL enim, .t mini fidem ^^^^^^^^ 
(Bdansa^Pl. d'Alg. No. 50) ex Mostaganem varietas l"«P'daf--- 
fruticulos^., Cyr. Confer tamen Boiss. Fl. Or. i. S93. deB.fru 




B. VARi A iDurieu in Rev. Bot. ii. 434 ; fValp. Ann. .. 48), - 

varium (Durieu, Expl. Bot. Alg. tab. Jb). 
Mar. merid.-Tn saxosis aridis pr. Seksaoua ! Milhain ! 
Ar. Geog. Marocco ; Algeria occident^hs. ^^^ ^^^_ 

Inter spec, duo Bupra Seksaoua lecta unum reien v 



tanam, Dur. L c, Siliquae pubescentes in spec, nostrls sunt magis pa- 
tentes quam in spec, e loco classico pr. Oran receptis. 


Brassica elata (Ball, in Journ. Bot. 18/3, 298). (Plate XII.) 

Perermis; caulis erectus, simplex, 3-6-pe(lalis, superne glaberrimus sub- 
aphyllus; folia radicalia (10-14-pollicaria) et caulina inferiora lyrato- 
pinnatifida, lobo terminalimaximo, rhomboideo, injEqualiter crenato- 
dentato, lateralibus oppositis alternisve, ovato-cuneatis, dentatis, rachi 
lata cum nervis lateralibus albo-rubente, omnia hispido-incana ; in- 
florescentia pyramidalis e ramis brevibus patulis subfcqualibus ; pe- 
dicelli breves, stricti; sepala erecta, obtusa, pilosluscula; petala 
saturate lutea, limbo subrotundo ; siliqua subtorulosa, superne ner- 
vosa, in rostrum conicum 1-2-ovuIatura trinerve attenuata. 

Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris— in rupibus apricis 
prope Seksaouna! et Milbain ! circ. 1000 m. Hue verisimiliter 
frustulum mancum in monte Djebel Afougueur ab indigena Ibrahim 
lectum et a eel. Cosson benevole communicatum ! 

Species insignis, ab affinibus omnino dissimilis. Proxima est B. baticcs, 
Boiss., sed in hac rami laterales distantes erecti, nee velut in nostra 
planta versus apicem caulis approximati patuli, siliqua rostrum bio- 
vulatum, pedieelli erecto-patentes. 111. Boissier caXycem patentem B. 
baticce tribuit, et sepala obtusa, dum in tabula (Boiss. Voy. en Esp. 
pi. 9) pictor sepalum acutum perperam delineavit. In speciminibus 
siccis mihi obviis sepala erecta nee pateutia videntur. In eadem 
tabula siliquffi rostrum ovulis 2 abortivis ostenditur. Ubi ovulura 
unum alterumve fertile adest rostrum fit longlus et siliquse dimidiam 
longitudinem attiugit. In specie nostra et in sequente siliqua quam 
in B. batica multo minor. 

B. RERAYENsis (Ball, Joum. Bot. 18/3, 298). (Plate XIII.) 
Kadix perenms ; caulis e basi adscendente erectus 1-2 furcatus, glaber- 
rimus, subaphyllus ; folia radicalia parva, incano-hirsuta, runcinato- 
lyrata, segmentis basin versus altemis, caulina pauca demum linearia ; 
racemus brevis, paueifloms; pedieelli erecto-patuli, tenues, siliquam ^ 
sequantes ; rostrum tenue, aspermum : ?), siliquje I seu } partem attin- 
gens; sepala elliptico-oblonga, pilosa; petala saturate lutea. 
Mar mend.-In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris in convalle Ait 
Mesan, a 2000 m. ad 2500 m. 

Fructus in specimluibus nostris omnino immaturus, melius exploratus 
forsan ovulum in rostro detectum fuerlt. Quocunque fit a Brassicis 
planta nostra nulloraodo divellenda. B. bcetica, Boiss., proxime affinis, 
diflfert folus glabris vel ex setis brevibus sparsis scabrida, racemo elon- 




B. NIGRA (L. et DC. Pr. i. 218, sub Sinapi; Koch, Deutsch. Fl. iv 
/ 13 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. i. 390). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger (5afeff». i:x«cc.) ! 






"Vf-H Fitch Uth. 


Fitfth irr.p 

Ltnn.Soc Journ Box. Vol, X^/I. Pi-. XIII 

W.H.PitcK UtK 


Fitch Imp 

MR. J. ball's spicilegittm flob^ maeoccax^, 327 

Ar^Geog, Europa (exclusa arctica) ; regio tota Mediterranea. 
Specimen immaturum et incertum a J. D. H, prope Tingidem leetum 
forsan hue spectat. 

Brassica arvexsis (i>. et DC. Pr. i. 219, sub Sinapi,^B. sinapis 

{Vis. FL Dalm, iii. 136). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger {Webb H€rb.)\ 
Mar. merid. — ? Specimen mancum valde incertum legi pr. Sheshaoua ! 

Spec, alterum pariter incertum pr. Ourika legerunt R. et Fr, ! 
Ar. Geog, Europa et Asia tcmperata; regio Mediterranea. 


B. alba {L. et DC. Pr. i. 220, sub Siiia^i; Boiss. Voy.Esp. ii. 39), 

Mar. occid. — Mogador {Lowe Cat.). 

Forsan est potius species sequens. JB. alba hucusque in Imp. Maroccano 

non alibi visa ssepe cum seminibus cerealibus in terras longinquas 

Ar. Geog, Verisimiliter indigena in regione Mediterranea orientali, unde 
versus occidentem usque Insulas Canarienses, et per Europam mediam 
diffusa est, 

B. HiSFiDA (Schsb. Gen. Marok. p. 182, tab. 4, et DC. Pr, 1. 220, 

sub Sinapi, non Tenore). 
Mar. occid. — "Verisimiliter ex agro Mogadorensi orta sunt semina a 

Schousboe culta. 
Mar. merid. — Tu arvis pr. Seksaoua! 
Ar. Geog, Algeria ; Marocco ; Macaronesia. 
Tabula Schousbceana effigies plantae cultse ex seminibus Maroccanis 

verisimiliter ex agro Mogadorensi. Planta spontanea gracilior est, et 

foliis raulto minoribus praidita. 
B. hispida, Teuore, est Eruca sativa. Lam, 

B. ADPRESSA (Moench, Meth. 261, sub Hirschfeldia ; Bois. Voy. Esp. 

ii. 38),=Sinapis incana (L., DC. Pr, i. 220),=Erucastrum incanum 

{Koch, Syn. p. 56). 
Mar. sept.— Tetuan (1851) ! 
Mar. merid.' — Misra ben Kara baud procul Marocco ! Keira {Salansa), 

Coss, Index, 
Ar, Geog. Europa occid entalis; regie Mediterranea fere omnis (Inclusa 


, var. LASiocARPA, no5. = Sinapis heterophylla {Lag. Cat. 

Hart. Matr. 1816; DC. Pr. i. 220). 

\rpcfiAii5i T Tn ponvflllo Alt Mesan circ. 1300 

Mar. merid. 


B. GENicuLATA (Desf. Fl. AH. ii. 98; et DC. Pr, u 218, sub 

Mar. merid.— Sheshaoua ! In hortis et ruderatis urbis Marocco speci- 

mina immatura legimus t 


Ar, Geog, Africa borealis. 

Hsec species, cum B. nigra ab ill. A. P. De Candolle atlsociata, meliore 
jure in § Hirschfeldia enumeratur, Habet rostrum 1-2-spermum et 
siliquam nuUomodo tetragonam, gaudet enim hsec nervo medio parum 
prominuk) nervis lateralibus evidentibus, quibus notis B. adpress<B 
potius quam B. nigrce propius accedit. 

Brassica nervosa {Ball, Journ, Bot. 1873, 299). 

Annua (?), ramosa; folia radicalia lyrata inciso-dentata, caulina pauca 
lanceolata, omnia in petiolo et nervis hirta; petala(pro grege) magna 
Isete lutea; siliquae brevis insigniter nervosae pube brevi yelutina ves- 
titae rostrum glabrum, aspermum (?). 

Mar. merid. — Specimen unicum mancum legi in prov. Mtouga! 

Forsan incaute nomen novum proposui {loc. cit.) pro planta male cog- 
nita, verisimiliter in § Hirschfeldia enumeranda. Ex struct urasiliquae 
et cotyledonibus conduplicatis ad Brassicas certe referenda. 

Brassica, spec. nov. ? 

Mar. sept. — Cel. J. D. Hooker specimen legit, verisimiliter inter Tan- 
ger et Tetuan, cui desunt flores et folia inferiora. Proximum videtur 
Sinapi Allionii, Jacq., sed in spec. Hookeriano rostrum valvanim 
dimidio sequilongum, eximie trinerve, compressum, subanceps. Fo- 
lium caulinum unicum quod adest omnino Barbarece vulgaris^ R. Br., 
unde nomen triviale barbarecpfolia aptum fuerit. 

Brassica, spec, nov.? 

Mar. sept.— Alterum specimen ex regione coUina inter Tanger et Tetuan 
attulit cel. Hooker, verisimiliter ad Brassicam referendum, sed ob 
fructum nimis immaturum incertum. Planta tota glabra, nisi foliis 
inferioribus setis nonnuUis retrorsis prseditis. Folia inferiora runcinato- 
pinnatifida. An forma singularis B. nigrce ? 

Brassica, spec, nov.? 

Mar. merid.— In convalle Amsmiz ad 1400 m. specimen unicum 
legi ! 

Annuumj caulis e basi ramosus, ramis subaphyllis C-8-pollicaribus ; 
folia radicalia et inferiora pauca obverse lanceolata in petiobim at- 
tenuata, repando-dentata, praesertim secus nervos strigulosa; racemus 
elongatus ; pedicelli glabriusculi, stricti, calycem sub^quantes ; sepala 
sequalia, basi non saccata, purpurascentia; petala in unguem sensim 
attcnuata, ochroleuca, venis saturate violaceis; siliqua immaturae 
subcylindricse elongatae erectse, cum caule ex setis brevibus retrorsis 
scabrae; rostrum glabrum, tenue, valvarum sextae parti aequilon- 
gum, verisimiliter aspermum. Stigma capitatum breviter bifidum, 
Habitu a Srassicis recedit : nlanta nltprina iTinnirpnda. 

ME. J, ball's SPICILEaiUM FLOB^ AtAUOCCAN^. 329 

DiPLOTAxrs (Da Sj/sL ii. 220). 


D. Harra (ForsJc, FL jEg.-arah. 118, sub Sinapi] Boiss, FL Or. i. 
388),= D. pendula {DC, Syst. ii. 630, et Prod, i. 222), = D. hispida 
{DC, I c.), = D. crassifolia(DC. /. c.), = Sisymbrium pendulum {^Desf. 

FL Atl. tab. 156). 
Mar. merid. — Prope Amsmiz circa 900 m. ! ^ 

Ar, Geog, Hispauia ; Sicilia. Oriens. Africa borealis. 
Siliquse in S2)ec. nostris sa^pius non pendulse. 

D. ERUCOiDEs (L., sub Sinapi] DC. Syst. ii. 631, et Prod, i. 222). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger ! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea, sed non ubique; deest in Macaronesia, 

Greccia, Asia Minore et in ^Egypto. 

D. viRGATA {Cav. PrcBl.) DC. Syst. ii. 631, et Prod. i. 222). 

Mar. sept. — Prope Tanger I 

Ar. Geog. Hispania. Africa borealis. 

Specira. nostra Tingitana sistunt lusum vel varietatem seminibus siib- 
uniseriatis. Formam majorem foliis profundius divisis legi prope 
S. Roque ! • , 

D. CATiioLicA {DC. Syst. ii. 632, et Prod. i. 222; L.sub Sisymlrio). 
Mar. sept.— Prope Tetuan legi anno 1851 specimina incompleta veri- 

simihter hue referenda ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa australis ; Africa borealis. 

D. siiFOLiA {Kunze in Flora, xxix. GS5; Walp.Ann. i. 49). 

Mar. sept.— Frequens circa Tanger ! In regioue collina inter Tanger et 
Tetuan ! In maritimis inter Tetuan et Ceuta ! 

Mar. occid.— Frustulum plants 4-pedalis baud procul Mogador Itgit 
J. D. Hooker verisimiliter buc referendum ! ? 

Ar. Geog. In utroque litore freti Ilerculis, et (?) prope Mogador. 

D. snfoUa est D. cathoUccB proxima species, sed forsan satis ditincta 
foliis et caule pilis patentibus vel subreflexis hispidulis, foliorum 
laciniis ovatis vel inciso-lobatis acutis, nee linearibus obtusis, petalia 
ocbroleucis nee luteis. Ludit glabrescens sed foliorum indole semper 
diversa. Confer Brassicam torulosam, Dur. 

D. TENUiFOLiA (L., sub Sisymhrio ; DC. Syst. ii. 632, et Prod. i. 222). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc. sub D. catholica) I 

Ar. Geog. Europa media et Mediterranea. Tauria. Asia Minor. 

T» -TENUisiLiQUA (.Del. Ind. Sem. H. Monsp. 1847. 7 ; Walp. Ann. i. 49), 

- D. auriculata [Durieu in Expl. Bat. Alg. tab. 76, sine descr.) 
Mar. occid.-Casa Blanca ! Aia el Hadjar, baud procul Mogador. 

Mar. merid.-Sati's frequens in regione inferiore. In aridis fit tenulor, 

2 B 


pumila parviflora. Prov. Shedma prope Ain Oumast ! prcpe Mskala ! 

Misra Ben Kara! Amsmiz ! Prov. Mcouga ! et alibi visa. 
Ar. Geoff. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 
Nomen triviale ienuisiliquajnre prioritatis conservatur. 
Typo Algeriensi sat bene congruunt specimina nostra ; paululum variant 

siliquis longioribuSj caule interdum pilis retrorsis hispidulo. 

, var. RUPESTRis, nob. 

A typo differt habitu graciliore, caule ramosissimo cum foliis hispidulo, 

seminibus ssepissime uniseriatis. 
Mar. merid. — In rupibus aridis supra Seksaoua ! Eandem formam lege- 

runt in prov. Mtouga cl. R. et Fr. ! 
In hac specie pedicelli et siliquse semper patentes vel erecto-patentes. 

Eruca (DC. Si/st ii. 636). 

E. SATiVA (Lam. Fl. Fr. ii. 496; DC. Pr. i. 223), var. stenocarpa, 

Coss.,=E. stenocarpa [Boiss, et Rent. Pug. 8), 
Mar. merid. — Frequens in regione inferiore. Tasseremout ! Ourika ! 

Reraya! Milhain ! Seksaoua usque 1500 m. ! Sektana (R. et Fr.spec. 

in herb. Kew.) ! Keira (Balansa)} Akka (Mard,)^ Coss. Index. 
Ar, Geog. Africa borealis. Forma typica per regionem Mediterraneam 

(Inclusa Macaronesia) late diffusa et in cultis ac ruderatis Europae 

mediae cum seminibus advecta. 
Varietas distinguitur habitu tenuiore, siliquis angustioribus subuniseriatis. 

Adsunt formse intermedise. 

Cabbichteea {BO. Syst. ii. 64). 

C. Vell^ (DC. Syst., Ic. et Prod. i. 224),=VeIla annua, L. 

Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in regione inferiore. Prov. Shedma (pluribus 

locis) ! Sheshaoua ! Misra Ben Kara! 
Ar, Geog. Europa meridionalis calidior. Oriens. Africa borealis. 

SirccowiA {Med. in Tfst. Ann. i. 64). 

S. BALEARiCA {BC. Syst. ii. 642, et Prod. i. 224). 

Mar, sept. — In monte Beni Hosmar spec, unicum detexit G. Maw et 

mihi benevole dedit ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis a Sicilia usque Ins. Canari- 
enses, nullibi a mare remota. 

Capsella {Vent, tabl, iii. 110), 

C. Bubsa-Pastoris (L., sub Thlaspi] Moench. Meth. p. 2/1 ; I^C. 

Prod.'x. 177). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger! 
Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore et subalpina et alpina Atlantis Majoni. 



Tn convalle Ait Mesan supra Arround (2200 m.?), R. et Fr, spec, in 
herb. Kew. ! In jugo Tagherot ultra 3000 m. ! 
Ar. Geoff. Herba ampliigaea in temperatis utriusque hemisphgcraj et 
usque in regiones arcticas diflfusa, hominum vestigia secuta. 

SexVebiera (Poir. Diet. vii. 75). 

S. CoRONOPus (I/., sub Cochlearia, Poir. Diet. I c. ; DC. Prod. i. 203). 
Mar. sejit.— Tetuan ! 

Mar. merid.— Misra Ben Kara, haud procul urbe Marocco! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media ; regio Mediterranea fexclusa Macaronesia). 

Lepidtum (Z. Gen. 801). 

L. SATIVUM (L., DC. Prod. i. 204). 
Mar. raerid. — In ruderatis urbis Marocco ! 

Ar, Geog. Regio natalis incerta. Per orbem late diflFusum, sed saepius 
ex hortis aufuga. 

L. NEBRODENSE {Rafin. Prec. p. 38, sub Nasturtio; Guss. Fl. Sic. ii. 

154; Boiss. FL Or.i. 355),=L. pubescens {Tin. Cat. H. R. Panorm, 
150, non Desv.), = L. Bonannianum {Guss, Prod. FL Sic. p. 21 1},= 

Lepia Bonanniana {PsL FL Sic. 84), var, atlanticum, nob. 
Folia radicalia spathulata longe petiolata, integra vel lyrata, caulinases- 

silia vix auriculata, omuia velutina; sepala glabra, purpurascentia ; 

silicula glabra, matura interdum pubescens, breviter emarginata; 

stylus brevissimus, 


Mar. merid. — In regione superiore Atlantis Majoris, vail. Ait Mesan ! a 
2500 m. ad 3000 m. 

An diversum sit L. stylatum (Lag. Ann. Cicnc. Nat. 1802) non satis 
liquet ; confer Guss. Fl. Sic. /. c. Nomen iufaustum, dum styli longi- 
tude in liac jxrege nimis variabilis. 

Ar. Geog. FormEC arete aifines per regionem Mediterranean! (exclusa 
Macaronesia) late diffusac, nullibi frequentes. 

Plurimae s. d. species sicut varietates sive subspecies enumerandse, scil. 
L. calycotrichum, Kze,= L. granatense^Coss.^L. Dhayense, Munby, 
quocum forsan jungendum est L. microstylum (Boiss, & Held. Diag. 
ser. 2, fasc. vi. p. 21, et Boiss. Fl. Or. i. p. 355). L, nebrodensis 
forma aberrans est (ni fallor) L. petrophilum, Coss. Valde affinis est 
species Europa; occidentalis L. Air/um, L., quocum adnumeranda sunt 
L. heterophyllum, Benth., L, Smithiij Hook,, et L. Villarsii, G. et 
G., dum inter has formas characteres firmos adhuc frustra quairunt 
botanici. L. oxyotum, DC. Syst. = X. humifusum, Req., est species 
insulse Corsicae propria, erronee in DC. Prod. vol. i. p, 204, et Boiss. 
Fl. Or. i. 356, ad Floram Syriacam relata, Specimina enim in herb. 
Labillardiere loci natalis indicatione carent, sed spec. Corsicis omaino 
conformia sunt. Hoc tamen, etsi silieulae forma sat bene definitum, est 



sp. nostrae forsan nimis proxima; vidi inter specimina Sicula L, ne- 
brodensis formam intermediam. 

Lepidium latifolium {L.y DC. Pr. i. 207). 

Mar, sept. — Legi anno 1851 prope Tetuan ad ostium fluminis ! 

Ar. Geog. Europatemperata; regio Mediterranea (exclusa Maearonesia); 

Asia media. Verisimiliter stirps orientalis in regionibus occidentali- 

bus adveua. 

BiscuTELLA (Z. Gen, 808). 

B. APULA (L., DC, Pr. i. 182). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Kebir prope Tanger ! Prope Tetuan in 
Monte Dj. Dersa (Webb Herb.) ! 


, var. MicRocARPA, = B. microcarpa {DC. Pr. I. c). 

Mar. occid.— Ain el Hadjar, hand procul Mogador ! 

Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris. Tasseremout ! 

Ourika ! Ait Mesan usque 1/00 m, ! 

B. Ijrrata (L., DC. Pr. i. 182), = B. raphanifolia {Poir.l= B. mari- 

tima {Ten. Prod. FL Neap. 38). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger in saxosis ! In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan, 

J. D. H. ! Prope Tetuan ad rivos fluminis legi anno 1851 ! 
Mar, merid. — In prov. Mtouga ! In reg, subalpina Atlantis Majoris supra 

Arround ad 2200 m. legi specimen unicurh siliculis minimis ad 

varietatem B. scutulatam (Boiss. et Rent. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. 1, i. 41) 


Nihil dubito quin Biscutellce omnes annuse regionis Mediterraneae (ex- 
clusa 5. obovata, sp. omnino dubia) pro unius speciei prole haberi de- 
beant. Forma foliomm radicalium, qua nota B. lyrata, L,, B. rapho' 
nifolia, Poir., et B. maritima. Ten., a eseteris dignoscuntur, subcon- 
stans, et hae meo sensu subspeciem sistunt. Sed notse diagnosticse 
ex caule plus mi^nusve folioso et ramoso, ex siliculis minoribus majo- 
ribusve, disco et margine puberulis, vel scabris, vel laivibus, vel disco 
lajvi et margine scabro, omnino fallaces sunt, et inter exemplaria 
eodem loco nata plane variabiles. Habeo specimen prope Tanger 
lectum ad B. baticam (Boiss. et Rent. Diagn, PI. Or, ser. I, i. 42) 
accedens. Specimina secus flumen pr. Tetuan lecta sunt proxima 
B. maritimeBj Ten, Sed in hac grege qui nolit speciem in catervam 
mordinatam divellere de nominibus auctorum parum curare debet. 

Thlaspi (Z. Gen. 802). 


T. PERFOLIATUM (7^., DC. Pr. i. 176). 

Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Ilosmar prope Tetuan ! 
Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Ait Mesan 
circ. 2100m.! 


Ar, Geoff, Europa media (in Scandinavia advena). Asia temperata. 
Re":io Mediterranea. 

, var. rotundifolium, not. = T. rotundifolium {Tin, PL 

Rar. Sic, fasc. i. 46), = T. Tineanum {H, de Pav. PL Sic. Exsicc), 
Mar. merid. — In regione alpina Atlantis Majoris. In jugo Tagherot 

usque 3200 m, ! In monte Djebel Tezah ! 
S^jec. nostra Siculis omuino eonformia. Secundum auctores prsecipuo* 

siliculae T, perfoliati sunt in quovis loculo 4-ovulataj. In spec, nos- 

tris video sfcpe semina 5 in quovis loculo fructus maturi. 
Clar. Rein et Fritsch ex regione alpina versus jugum Tagherot retule- 

runt specimen mancum nimis iucoinpletum, verisimiliter in genere 

Thlaspi pouendum. 

Iberis {L, Gen. 834). 

•I. parviflora (Munby,in BulL Soc. Bot. 282), ?=I. Numidica 

{Jord. Biagn. 290). 
*'Pedicellis fructiferis cor}'mbosis; radice annua; caule a basi ramoso 
parce hirtiilo ] foliis glabrescentibus linearibus, valde dentatis quasi 
pectinatis ; siliculis emarginatis, sinu latiusculo, stylo dimidium sinus 
ajquante ; petalis subsequalibus vix cal} cem violaceum superantibus.'' 

Sec. diagnosin Munbyanum, L c. 

Mar. merid.— Specimina duo fructifera prope Tasseremout legit cl. G. 

Maw ; quorum unum mihi commumcavit ! 

Ar. Geog. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

Specimina nostra diagnosi supra citatae baud omnino eonformia, sed spe- 
ciminibus Bourgseanis prope Gharrouban in prov. Oran leetis sat bene 
conveniunt. In spec, nostro racemus fructifer coiTmbosus, folia mar- 
gine setosa, subpinnatifida lobis paucis 1-2 utriuque instructa; pedi- 
celli fructiferi rigidi superne papiUoso-scabri, infeme Ixves; stylus 

basi alse siliculse vix adnatus. 
Pace eel. Cosson hac mihi potius quam I. pectinat<B, Boiss., videtur 

I. odoratee, L., proxima, et forsan ejus subspecies. 

I. GIBRALTARICA (L., DC.iV. i. 181). 

Mar. sept.— In fissuris rupium montis Beni Hosmar prope Tetuan I 

eodem loco quo eam olim legit fructiferam beatus P. B. Webb. 
Ar. Geog. In promontorio Calpes et in montibus Tetuanensibus. 

HTTTcnnfsiA {B. Br. in Sort. Kew. iv. 82). 

■H. PETR^A (L.. sub hepidio; R. Br. I c. ; DC. Pr.i.m). 

Mar. sept.-Inter Tetuau et Ceuta ! In monte Bern Hosmar prope 

Tetuan 1 . ,,.•*••* »*• 

regione subalpina Atlantis Majoru. Alt Mesan .upra 

2300 m. ! lu monte Djebel Tezah ad 2500 m. ! 

Mar. merid. 

334 MB. J. ball's, SPICTLEGirM FLOH^ MAROCCAN^. 

Ar. Geog, Europa (exclusa arctica). Montes regionis Mediterranese 
Cexclusa Macaronesia). 

I ' 

IsATis (X. Gen. 824). 



I. TiNCTORiA (Z/., DC. Pr. i, 211), var. l^tevirens, nob. 

Differt a planta Europaea satis variabili foliis Isete virentibus, sed non 

video notas graviores differeatiales. Siliculae obverse lanceolatse, 

ssepius apice obtusangulo- 
Mar. merid. — Frequens in regione media Atlantis Majoris unde secus 

torrentes in reg. inferiorem descendit. In convalle Ait Mesan a 1600 m. 

usque 2000 m. ! In convalle Amsniiz IIOO-IJOO m. ! Specimina nostris 

conformia sub "J. virens, Coss. MSS." in montibus Djebel Ouensa 

et Djebel Afougueur ab indigene Ibrahim lecta benevole comm. eel.' 

Ar. Geog. Species per Europam mediam et australem, et per Orientera 

diffusa. Varietas Maroccana est. 

CRAMBE(i. Gen, 825). 

C. HISPANICA (L., DC. Pr. 226),— C. reniformis (Desf. FL AtL ii. 78, 
tab. 161 ; DC. Pr, I. c.),=C. filiformis {Boiss. Voy,, an Jacq. ?). 

Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Amsmiz a 
1500 usque 1800 m.! 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa bdrealis. 

C. hispanicam, L., et C. reniformeniy Dsf., sistere unam eandemque spe- 
ciem mihi baud dubium videtur. Nee in descript. auctorum', nee in 
exemplaribus plurimis Hispanicis et Algeriensibus a me sedule inves- 
tigatis, nee in aspectu et habitu plantse spontaneae, quam pluries vi- 
vam observavi, notam differentialem nisi levissimam detexi. Quid 
sit vera Crarnbe filiformis, Jacq., hie non dijudicare licet. Nomen 
triviale Linnseanum certe conservandum. 

Eapistrum (Desv. Journ. Bot. iii. IGO). 

R. RUGOSUM (L., sub Myagro] Berg. Phyt. iii. 171 ; DC. iV, i. 227^ 
Mar. sept, — Tanger ! {Webb Herb.) \ 

Ar. Geog. Europa media; regio Mediterranea omnis. Ludit siliculis 
hirtis vel glabris. 

Ceratock-emum {Coss. et Bal. in Bull. Soc. Bat, Fr. xx. 239). 


Sepala erecto-patula, lateralia baud saccata. Petala longe unguiculata, 
limbo integro. Stamina tetrad}Tiama, filamentis liberis subfiliformi- 
bus inferne complanatis edentulis. Glandulse hypogynge quatuor, 
duse ad staminum longiorum paria, duee ad stamina lateralia. Sihqua 




abbreviata, indehiscens, coriaceo-indurata mesocarpio suberoso, biar* 
ticulata; articulo inferiore pedicello vix latiore, tereti-subcompresso, 
uniloculari, monospermo, valvis distinctis sed cohcerentibus in appen- 
dicem terminalem triangulari-lanceolatam articulo superiori cequilon- 
gam et in aBfractu dorsali articuli superiorls receptam productis ; ar- 
ticulo superiore vix seeedente, subrhombeo apice truncato stylo cus])!- 
dato, a latere compresso, nervo piteminente subirain valvarum articuli 
infer ioris coiitiuuaate donato, utrinque dorso ad receptionem proces- 
sus valvaris excavato, unilocidari, monospermo, evalvi. Stylus siliqua 
longior, lanceolato-linearis, tetragonus. Stigma depressum, integrum. 
Semina oblonga, fuinculo brevissimo, semen articuli inferioris pendu- 
lum, superioris erectum, Cotyledones recta?, obovato-suborbiculattie, 
retusse, canaUculato-complicat^, radiculam amplexantes. 
Planta annua, erecta, ramosa, pilis simpiicibus liirta. Folia oblonga, 
grosse sinuata dentatave, superiora angustiora ssepe subiutegra. Ra- 

cemi ebracteati, virgati, deranm elongati, pejiiccilis filiformibus 
demum subclavato-incrassatis. Fiores latfi. Siliqua; parvulaj, 

Ceraiocnemum, novum genus ex ordine Cruciferarum, juxta Rnpistrum 
collocandum, sed distinctum valvis articuli inferioris siliqua; in appeu- 
dicem articulo superiori lequilongam j)roductis, non abrupte truncatis, 
articulo superiore subrhombeo compresso utrinque miinervio, non 
ovoideo vel subgloboso pluricostato. — Nomeu generis obformam in- 
signem articuli inferioris siliqua; e verbis gra?cis K€pas {cornu) ct Kvqixls 
{ocrea) couflatum." 


Ceratocnemum rapistroides {Coss, et Bal. I. c). 
Planta annua. CauHs erectus, a parte inferiore vei a basi ramo&us, 
teres, pilis albis rigidulis deflesis hirtus. Foli:i hiac inde pnTsertiin 
in nervis et ad margines hirta, oblonga, in petiolmn brevem angustata, 
grosse sinuato-subpinnatifida dentaiave, superiora angustiora dcntata 
vel subiutegra. Racemi ebracteati, primum subconferti, demum 
eiongati virgati laxiusculi. Peilicelli calyce subbrcviores, siiberecti, 
demum incrassato-subclavati, hirti. Sepalahirta. Petala lutea, ealyce 
subtriplo lougiora, limbo ob^vato integro venis saturatioribus picto, 
in unguem exsertum attenuata. Stamina longiora ealycein longe ex- 
cedentia. Siliquae pilis patentibus hirta^, 8-10 millim. longjc, erectae, 
adpressae. Semina stramineo-fuscescentia, sub lente tenuissime 
punctulata. Maio 1867 floriferum et jam fructifenim lectura." 

Diagnoses aceuratas gen. et spec. nov. ad calcem conservare malui. 

Mar. merid.— In monte Djebel Orguis supra Iraintenout detexit cl. 
Balansa ! Legimus 4-6-pedale ramosissimum in sepibus distr. Mes- 
fiona hand procul urbem Marocco ! et nanum (vix pedale) prope Tas- 

seremout ! 


336 MB. J. ball's spicilegium floe^ maeoccan^. 

Cakile {Adans, Fam. PI ii. 423). 

C. MARiTiMA (Scop. FL Cam. No. 844; DC. Pr, i. 185),=Bunias 
Cakile, L. 

Mar. sept.— Tanger in arenosis ! In arenosis inter Tetuau et Ceuta! 
Ar. Geog. Litora maritima totius Europse et Africa? borealis, in Maca- 

ronesia et Africse litore Atlantico nondum detecta. 
Forma arete affinis in Amprir^n L<^Vnai; ^f ;*, a«*;ti;« 

Hemiceambe {Welh, in Ann. Sc, Nat. eer. 3, 

xvi. 246, tab. 19). 


H. FKUTicuLosA {Webb, I. c. ; Walp. Ann. iv. 215). 

Descriptionem Webbianum hie referre licet. 

" Suffruticulus glaberrimus caudicibus lignosis, tortuosis, nodosis, nudis 
ad ramorum apicem foliosis. Folia petiolata, la;te viridia, lyrata, basi 
sacpe auriculata, lobis 2 inferioribus oppositis, 7-nervata, nervis a 
medioad lobos divergentibus, venis reticulatis sub epidermide insignita, 
basi subcordata truncata vel cuneata, lamina 2-2^ poll, longa, li-2 
poll. lata. Petioli 2-3 poll, longi, ascendentes, basi latiores, sub- 
semivaginantes, supra canaliculati, juniores glandulis nigris inconspi- 
cuis conspersi. Hamuli floriferi foliis subduplo longiores. Racemi 
laxe paniculati. Pedicelli filiformes, floribus duple longiores, fruc- 
tiferi elongati, ebracteati. Calyx basi fere jequalis, luteus, patens, 
mox deciduus, foliolis lanceolatis, concavis, intus nervosis, tenuibus, 
diaphanis. Petala lutea, calyce duplo longiora, longe unguiculata, 
unguiculis angustis, laminis obovato-lanceolatis, basi attenuatis. 
apice rotundatis, integris, ramoso-nervosis. Filamenta edentula, 
sub medio dilatata, apice subulata. Anthers fequales lanceolatae, 
sub medio affixae, basi sagittatse, flavje. Glandulse hypogyna 4, 
quarum 2 post stamina longiora sitae iisque alternantes, calcariformes, 
obtusffi, 2 ante stamina breviora iisque oppositJE, tenues laminiformes 
ovario applicatae. Ovarium ellipticum, planum, basi attenuatum, tri- 
nerve, margine acutum, ad medium usque alatum. Stylus nullus. 
Stigma sessile globosum, centro depressum. Siliquse elIij)soide2e 
utrmque attenuata;, apice rostratae, glabra. Funiculi recurvi, usque 
ad medium dissepimento rudimeiitario immersi. Ovula globoso- 
pyriformia, sub apice affixa. Semina ovata, eompressa, reticulata, 
fusca. Cotyledones rotundatae, tenues. Radicula cylindracea eoty- 
ledonibus longior." 

Mar. sept.— In fissuris rupium calcarearum montis Beni Hosmar supra 
Tetuan primus detexit beatus P. B. Webb. Eodem fere loco ad 
900 m. s. m. legimus vix florentem die 12 Aprilis 18/1 ! 

Ovarium futrinque) trinerve sec descript. Wcbbianum. In flore innupto 
video nerves duos laterales conspicuos, medium vero subobsoletum. 

Planta singularis inter Brassiceas et Cakilineas transitum prsebens. 


septo rutlimentario, siliquae articulo infeiiorc interdum aspermo vel 
prorsus abortive. Habitus Brassicts. Caudex basi diametro tripol- 
licaris et ultra, 

Eaphais-us (i. Gen, 812). 

R. Raphanistrum (L., DC. Pr. i. 229). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger! (Webb Herb.)] In regiore collina inter Tangeret 
Tetuan ! 

Mar, occid. — Casa Blanca ! 
f Ar. Geoff. Europa omnis } reglo Mediterrauea (inclusa Macaronesia). 

Cappakide^ (Jtcss. Gen. p. 212). 

Capparis (i. Gen. 643). 

C. spiNosA (L., DC. Pr. i. 245), var. /3, canescens {Coss. Not. PL 
CriL i. 38), = C. herbacea (Willd. Enum. Ber. 560; DC. Pr. i. 245). 

Mar. merid. — In regione iuferiore Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 
Mesana 1300 ad ICOO m. ! 

, var. y, ^gyptia (Boiss. FL Or. i. 420),=C. .^gyptia {Lam. 

Diet. i. 605 ; DC. Pr. i. 245). 
Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in apricis saxosis ad radices Atlantis Majoris. 

Gurguri ! Seksaoua! Inter Sektana et Frouga (G. Maw spec.) I et 

alibi pluries visa ! 
Optimo consilio eel. Boissier loc. cit, species plurinias auctorum notis 

diagnosticis stabilibus non definitas sub typo Linnscano sicut varietates 

enuineravit. , 

Ar. Geog, Species per rcgioneni omnera Mediterrarfeam late diffusa 

est, sed deest in Macaronesia. 


Eesedaceje {DC. Theor. Elem, p. 2li). 

Eeseda (i. Gen. 608). 

R. ALBA (£., Miill. Arg. in DC. Pr, xvi. sect. 2, 557). 

Mar. sept.— Tetuan ! 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! Mazagan ! Mogador {Lowe) ! 

Ar. Geog, Regie Meditcrranea omnis (exclusa Macaronesia). Occunitia 

Europa media, prsesertim occidentali, forsan non indigena. Verisimi- 
liter introducta in Indiae orientalis montibus Nilgberry, et in Capita 
Bonse Spei. 

R. PROPiNauA (R. Br, Obs. Oudn. Denh. Clapp. p. 22; Mull ArgAn 
DC. Prod. xvi. sect. 2, 559),= R. eremophila {Boiss, Diagn. ser. 1, 
viii. 88). 

Mar. occid. — Secus Oued Kseb prope Mogador ? 

Mar. merid.— Prov. Shedma prope Mskalal Prov. Mtouga! 

Ar. Geog. R^gio desertorum a Syria et Arabia Petraea per iEgvptum, et 


MR. J. ball's spicilegitjm tloe^ maeoccan^. 

in plaga Africse Tripolitanae et Tunetanae, et in Marocco meri- 
dionali. ' 

R. propinqua est species sat variabilis, in eodem specimine video 
flores tetrameros et pentameros; scil. sepalis et petalis 4 vel 5. Pe- 
tala in spec. Maroccanis iconi Mullerianse (Monog. tab. vi. fig. 90) 
baud omniiio contbrmia, sed differentiae parvi momenti. Sepala 
ssepius subingequalia, superiora paullo longiora. Capsulge ^landu- 
losae, sa^pissirae octocostatai, costis 4 vel rarius 3 placeutis oppo- 
sitis elevatis subalatis. Seraina fere ut in i?. alba. 

R. tricuspis (Coss. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. xx. 241) cujus specimen prope 

urbem Marocco lectum 

berb. Scbousboe debeo bumanitati eel. 

anct., differt a R. propinqua imprimis capsula trigona ore tridentato. 
Forsan pro subspecie babenda; video tamen capsulara in R. prop in- 
qua interdum, etsi rarius, tridentatam. 

Reseda attenuata {Ball, in Journ. Bot. 18/3, 299). (Plate XIV.) 
Radix perennis; caules 2-3 exiles, 8-12-pollicares; folia ina^qualiter 
pinnatifida, eanlina abbreviata, 2-^-juga; spica gracillima, pauci- 
flora; bracteae lineares, pedicellos brevissimos ssepius superantes ; 
sepala ovato-lanceolata, superiora 3 interdum coalita ; petala brevis- 
sima calycem vix superantia, staminibus breviora, 2 superiora gau- 
dent appendiciila (pro grege) magna, papilloso-ciliolata, concava, et 
lamina appendiculam sequante, profunde trifida, lobis aequalibus, 
petala media superioribus subaequalia, petalura inferius in lacinias tres 
aequales uninervias ultra medium divisum ; capsula dentibus quatuor 
brevibus erectis coronata, pube rara brevissima adspersa. 
Mar. merid.— In regione alpina et subalpina Atlantis Majoris, Ait 
Mesan! et in jugo Tagherot! a 2100 m. ad 3000 m. Ex montibus 
Djebel Afougueur et Djebel Ouensa {Coll. Indig. Ibrahim) specimina 
benevole comm. eel. Cosson. 

Proxima R, Gayan<B (Boiss, Voy. Esp. p. 76, tab. 21 ; Mull. Arg. Monog. 
p. 111). Differt praesertim petalis minimis, lamina fere ad basin tri- 
fida, omnibus appendiculatis, et capsulje dentibus magis prominenti- 
bus. Forsan sicut subspecies enumeranda. 

In DC. Prod. xvi. sect. 2, 558, cl. Muller, R. Gayanam sub nomine "iJ. 
undata, h.'* enumeravit. De R. undata inter auctores gravissimos 
niagna est orta dissensio. Ipse Linnaeus speciera male cognovit et 
quoad fructum descriptio (Spec. PI. ed. 2, p. 644) plane erronea, et 
auctores fere omnes ad aliam speciem nomen retulerunt, Sententiam 
primam cl. auctoris Monographiae secutus sum, et nomen R. undata 
delendum esse censeo. 

R. Phyteuma (Z., Mull Arg. in DC. Pr. xvi, sect. 2, 563). 
Mar. merid.— Prov. Shedma! In convalle Amsmiz circa 1200 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regie Mediterranea imprimis occidentalis, sed 
deest in Macaronesia. 

LlTUT.^OC. JOUH\ BotVoIj.XVI 1^!. XIV 

WH Fitch hth. 


Fitch imp 


Reseda media (Lap, Nov. Gen. et Spec. p. 1 7 ; MiilL Arg. in DC. Pr. 

xvi. sect. 2, 563),= R. macrosperma (iJcA6. in Floray 1830, i. 130; 

Walp. Repert, ii. 752; Mull. Arg. Monog. 133). 
Mar. sept. — lu monte Djebel Kebir prope Tanger! et in saxosis prope 

Cap Spartel ! 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Forma arete affinis (R. oritntalis, Boiss.) 
in Oriente infrequens. 

Specimina nostra Hispanicis conformia, sed folia fere omnia Integra, 

— \ 

capsulse demum hoi'izontales, nee pendulse. Praeter semina paulu- 
lum majora petalorum lacinulse spathulatse, nee lineares, notam 
diagnosticam praebent. Adsunt tamen, sed rarius, formse intermedise, 
et banc pro subspecie R. Phi/teamatis enumerare malui. 

R. diffusa {Ball, Journ. Bot. 1873, 299). 

Radix biennis (?), caulis e basi ramosissima, diffusa ; folia integra vel 
rarius trifida, oblongo-linearia, obtusa; bracteae filiformes, (pro grege) 
longiuscuUe ; sepala ut in jR. mediae Lag. ; petalorum superiorum 
lamina brevis, aatheris v'lx longior, 3-partita, laciniis lateralibus 
profunde 3-5fidis, laciuulis apice abrupte spathulatis (fere coch- 
leariformibus) ; capsula (nondum matura) insigniter 3-dentata, den- 
tibus divergentibus. 

Mar. merid. — In rupibus calcareis ab urbe Marocco septentrionem ver- 
sus legit, el. G. Maw, et mihi benevole commuuicavit. 

A proxima R. media. Lag., recedit petalorum lamina multo minore, 
lacinulis cochleariformibusj nee obovato-oblongis apice rotundatis, 
capsulse dentibus divergentibus, qua nota ad R. inodoram, Rehb., 
proprius accedit. R. mediuy Lag. et jR. inodora ad subspecies, sub 
typo R. Phyteumate, L., reducendai mihi videntur. Planta nostra lon- 
gius a typo recedit. 

R. LUTEA (I/,, Mull. Arg. in DC. Pr. xvi. sect. 2, 569), var. mucronu- 
LATA, = R. mucrbnulata (Tin. Cat. H. Panorm. 1828, p. 280). 

Mar. merid. — Prov. Mtouga ! Ai'u Tarsil ! Shedma! 

Distinguitur caule stricto subsimplici elongato, capsulse papillosse, pra- 
senim immatura?, dentibus longioribus. Individua vegetiora ad typum 

Ar, Geog. Varietas nostra (ex Miill. Arg. I c. 570) nascitur in peninsula 

Iberica et in Algeria et in insula Zante. 
Species per Europam mediam et rcgionera Mediterraneam late difliisa 
est, sed in Africa boreali infrequens. Deest in Macaronesia, ubi locum 
tenet species affinis R. crystallina, Webb. 

R. neglecta (Mull. Arg. Monog. p. 178, et in DC. Pr, xvi. sect. 2, 

Mar. merid. — In rupibus supra Seksaoua!? Frustulum ex Oasi Akka 

{Coll. Indig. Mardochaus) benevole comm. eel. Cosson. 


Ar. Geog, Huciisque nonnisi in Algeria meridionali ad fines Saharse 


Frustula spec, ab Oasi Akka, quae humanitati eel. Cosson debeo, speci- 
miuibus Kralikiaiiis a Miill. Arg. citatis non omnino conformia. Spe- 
cimea a nobis ad Seksaoua lectum, R. lutece habitu simile, ex forma 
eapsularum propius ii. neglectce. Ilacc mihi certe forma R. lutece,et 
forsan potius varietas quam subspecies, videtur. Forma petalorum inter 
varietates Miillerianas R, lutece valde ludibunda. Quoad notam dia- 
gnosticam a magnitudine capsulae desumptam confer verba ipsius auc- 
toris. Sub R, neglecta habet " capsulae 12 mm. longse," dum sub iJ. 
liitea var. ct legitur '* capsulae sa^pius 12 mm. longse." Denique semina 
in R, neglecta minora et magis numerosa, sed ni fallor adsunt individua 



Pr. xvi. sect. 2, 572), var. constricta, no5.,=R. constricta (Lange, 
Descr, PL Nov, preec, Hisp, fasc. i. 6, tab, viii., icon opthna). 

Mar. merid. — ^In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 
Mesan a 1200 m. usque 1600 m. ! Supra Seksaoua circ. 1500 m. ! 

' Djebel Sidi Fars {Balansa, Coss. Index). 

Ar. Geog, Hucusque nonnisi in Ilispanla australi visa. 

R, constricta sistit varietatera satis insignem, pedicellis longis patulis sub- 
horizontalibus, capsulis longius dentatis erectis. Folia in spec, ab Ait 
Mesan omnia trifida segmentis latis. Capsular dentes divergentes. 

R. STRiCTA {Pers. Ench. [ii. 10; Mull. Arg. in DC. Pr. xvi. sect, 2, 

373), var. suBSESsiLis(?). 
Mar. occid. — Ain el Hadjar Imud procul Mogador ! 
Specimen unicum legi nondum fructiferum et ideo incertum ; diflfert a 

spec. Hispanicis pedicellis brevissimis. 
Ar. Geog. R. stricta est imprimis species Hispanica : varietates tres a 

Miiller /. c. enumeratae in Africa boreali sat late diffusse. 

R. ELATA {Mull. Arg. in DC. Pr. xvi. sect. 2, 578 ; Coss. in Bull. Sac. 
■ Fr. XX. 242). 

Descriptionem Cossonianam optimam hie referre licet : 
" Plauta biennis vel induratione perennans. Caules elati, indurato- 
frutescentes, ramosi, brevissime puberuli, ramis elongatis virgatis cor- 
tice olivaceo-viridi striis albidis. Folia sub lente brevissime puberula, 
in petiolum attenuata, plana, indivisa lineari-lanceolata elongata 
acutiuscula, vel rarius trisecta segmentis foliis indivisis conformibus. 
RacemI densiflori, bracteis apice subcomosi, demum elongati, cap- 
sulis inferioribus remotiusculis, superioribus approximatis. Bracte<s 
lanceolato-lineares longe acuminatae, late albido-margiuatse, glabrse. 


fiores sub anthesi longe excedentes, post antliesin cito deciduac. 
Cal3'x 6-sepalus, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis acutiusculis, late albo 
marginatis, glabris vel dorso brevissime puberulis, cito deciduis. Pe- 
tala calyce subduplo longiora, omnium ungue albo suborhiculato vil- 
loso, lamina pallide lutea, superiorum trisecia lobo medio Uueari* 
spailiulato lobis lateralibus subduplo brevioribus in lacinias in* 
c&qnaies lineares 6-9-sectis, lateralium trisecta lobo medio oblongo 
inferne angustato lobis lateralibus indivisis, inferiorum lobo medio 
eonformi lobis lateralibus saepius obsoletis. Disci hypogyni lamina 
majuscula ovata acutiuscula ascendente marginibus recurvis estus 
coucava, utrinque villosa. Stamina circiter 40, filamentis inaequa- 
libus, glabris, sub antbera baud dilatatis, mox deciduis. Ovarium 
oblongo-cylindricura, papilloso-subvelutinum, apice profunda 3-den- 


latum dentibus glabris, placentife integris. Ovula inordinatim in 
placentis 3-serialia, in placenta quaque circiter 18-20. Capsula lon- 
giuscule pedicellata, suberecta, longa, trigono-subcylindrica, apice 
tridentata, infra denies vix angustatay brevissime puberula, placen- 
tis integris. Semina rainuta (immatura tantum nota), tubercuUs 

minutissimis undique obsiia. 

Mar. mcrid. — In montibus ad austro-occidentem urbis Maroc, j)rope 
Keira, circiter ad yOO m. detexit cl. Baiansa. Legimus in collibus aridis 
supra Imiutenout ad 1100 m.! et in monte supra Seksaoua circ. 
1500 m. ! 

A proxima R, villosa, Coss., differt, ut nobis docet eel. auctor, caule 
foliisque puberulis, non longe pubescenti-villosis, sepalis citius deci- 
duis^ I)etalorum superiorum lobis lateralibus baud cristfcformibus, 
capsulis cylindraceo-trigonis, nee oblongis infra denies vix augus- 

In spec, nostris capsula infra denies evidenter angustata, dentes diver- 
genles multo longiores quam in iJ. villosa, indumentum totius plauta? 
brevissime hirtulo-scabrum. 


Reseda Luteola (L.,MulLArg. in DC. Pr.xvi. sect. 2, 583). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger [Salzm, Exsicc.) ! {Webb Herb.) ! Formam latifoliara 
legimus inter Tetuan el Ceuta ! 

, var. australis {Mull. Arg, L c). 


Mar. merid. — In monte supra Seksaoua circa 1400 m. ! 

, var, CRISP ATA, = R. crispata {Lirik, Enum. PL H. Her. 

1822, p. 8). 

Mar. sept.— In regione collina inter Tanger et Tetuan ! 

Species per Europam niediam etregionem totam Mediterraneam (inclusa 
Macaronesia) late diffusa est. De distributione varielatum ab aucto- 
ribus non rite definitis fusius disserere inutile duco. 



CiSTiXE^ {Juss. Gen. 2i9 ; Spach, Ann, So. JVat. 

ser. 2, vi. 357). 

CisTUs (Z. Gen. 673; Willk, la. et Desc. PI tab. 75 ad 109). 

C. ALBiDus CL., DC. Pr. i. 264 ; Willk. L c. tab. 77), 

Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Ilosmar supra Tetuan ! In rupibus prope 

Ar. Geoff. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis. Deest in Macaronesia. 
Hie et sequens C. crispiis desunt in Graecia. Conf. Boiss. FL Or. i. 



Mar. sept.— Prope Tanger in monte Djebel Kebir! et alibi visus! {Salzm. 
Exsicc) ! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis (exclusa Macaronesia). 



0. POLYMORPHus {Willk. l. c. tab. 79-82),=C. vulgaris {Spach, I c. 

pro parte). Forma genuina=C. villosus (L., Sp. PL 736 ? et Lam. 

Diet. ii. 12), cui ut synon. verisimiliter coiijungendi sunt C. pilosus, L., 

et C. incaniis, L., et C. eriocephalus (Viv. Cors.-p. 8). 

Mar. occid.— Djebel Iladid baud procul Mogador {Rein et Fritsch, Spec. 
in hb, Kew.) ! 

Mar. merid.— In coUibus apricis sat frequens, et in regione inferiore 
Atlantis Majoris. Tasseremout ! Distr, Reraya ! In convalle Ait 
Mesan circ. 1300 m. ! In rupibus pr. Seksaoua! 

Ar, Geog. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Macaronesia) ; in penin- 
sula Iberica minus frequens. 


Mar. merid.— Ad radices Atlantis Majoris prope Ourika legit G. Maw ! 

, var. CRETicus {Boiss. FL Or. i. 437), = C. cretlcus (L., DC. 

Pr. i. 264). 

Mar. occid.— In monte Djebel Hadid baud procul Mogador ! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea prsesertim orientalis. Hsec. var. deest, 
ut videtur, in peninsula Iberica. 

Nomen Spachianum (C. vulgaris) antiquius foret, sed cl. auctor cum 
formis plurimis C.polymorphi etiain C. albidurnet C. crispum in unam 
speciem comprehendit. Hae novlssirase raihi videntur species probe 
distincta; nee transitum unquam observavi. Nomen Willkommianum 
nobis ideo praeferendum. Pace eel. Boissier C. villosus, L., est nomen 
nimis incertum, et ab ipso Linnseo pro parte minima catervse forma- 
rum affinium sine nota diagnostica idonea propositum, et speciem col- 
lectivam indicare nequit. 

Formam in Djebel Iladid lectam non sine dubio sub. var. cretico, Boiss., 

MR. J. ball's sptcilegium florm mahoccan^. 343 

enumeravi. Habet folia minora magis rotundata, valde rugosa, et 
nisi in calyce desunt pili longiores, 


Mar. sept. — Tanger (ScVt^i. 5/?ec.)! (Webb Herb.) \ In regione collina 
inter Tanger et Tetuan ! Inter Tetuan et Ceuta ! 

Mar. merid. — Ad radices Atlantis Majoris prope Tasseremout! 
Ar, Geog. Regio Mediterranea praesertini occidentalis (inclusa Maca- 
ronesia). Nisi in Gra^ciaetin insulis Cypro et Greta deest in Oriente. 

C. SALvi^FOLius (L., DC. Pr, i. 265). 

Mar. sept. — Sat frequens in ditione Tingitana. Prope Tanger ! Prope 
Tetuan ! " In fruticetis totius imperii '' {Schsb. in herb.) Schousboe 
tamen nonnisi ditioneni Tingitanam et provinc. meridionalium partem 
miuimam coiz:novit. 

Mar. occid. — Mogador {Lowe Cat.). Prope Ain el Iladjar baud procul 

Mogador ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea tota (exclusa Macaronesia). 

, var. i3, MACROCALYX {IVillk. Ic. et Descr. PL ii. ISS. 

tab. 92). 
Mar. occid. — In monte Djebel Hadid ! 
Mar. merid. — In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris in convalle Ait Mesan 

usque 1200 m. ! 

C. poPULiFOLius (L., DC. Pr. i. 266). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Keblr prope Tanger! {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! 

{Schsb. spec.) ! 
Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica, adjecta Gallia NarbonensI finitima, et ditione 

Tingitana. , 
C. LADANIFERUS (L., DC. Pr. I 266). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Kebir prope Tanger! (Salzm. Ezsicc.) I 
Var. vel lusus petalis immaculatis. 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica, cum ditione Tingitana et Gallia Mediter- 
ranea finitima. 

Helianthemum (Pe7's. Syn. ii. 75.) 


Cistus Libanotis, Lam., nee Dsf.), = Ilaliraium rosmarinifolium 
(Spach, Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, vi.)- 

Mar. sept. — Prope Cap Spartel ! 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberiea et ditio Tingitana. Forsan etiam in Si- 

01 im inter auctores sententiae diversae de vero C. Libanotide, L. ; hodie 
tamen omnibus notum est hoc esse cum stirpe Linnaiana genuiua 
identicura. Nomen triviale igitur nullomodo mutandum, et nomen 
rosmarinifolium (hodie pro sp. Americana Purshiana vindicatum) 


verisimiliter ad Cistum fastigiaium (Guss. Pr. Fl. Sic. ii. 13) meliore 
jure spectat. An stirps Gussoniana a nostro //. Libanofide probe 
diversa sit milii adhuc incertum est. 

Helianthemum umbellatum {MilL Diet. No. 5 ; DC, Pr. i. 267), 

var. VERTiciLLATUM, = Cistus verticillatus, Brot, 
Mar. sept. — In coUibus saxosis prope Tetuan ! 
Ar. Geog. Gallia media et meridionalis. Graicia, Peninsula Iberica. 

Maroeco Tingitanus. Legi formam arete afBnera in Libano ; conf. 

Boiss. FL Or, i. 4:39. 
Specimina Gallica plurima qua; vidi inflorescentiam tenninalem nee ver- 

ticillatam ostendunt. 

II. HALiMiFOLiUM (L., sub Cisto ; WiUd. Enum. 569; DC. Pr. i. 268), 

=IIalimium lepidotura (Spack, Z. c). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger ([Feii Herb,) ! In saxosis prope Tetuan! 
Mar. occid. — In parte superiore inontis Djebel Iladid ! In sylva Calli- 

tris quadrivalvis et alibi prope Mogador, et inde versus Ain el Iladjar ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa Mediterranea occidentalism ex Italia usque Lusita- 

niam. Africa borealis. Deest in Macaronesia. 

, var. SEPALis STELLATO-TOMENTOsis,=II. multifloruui 

{Salzm. Exsicc; IVillk. Ic. et Descr. ii. 67, tab. 108). 
Mar. sei)t. — Ex fruticetis et aridis regionis Tingitanaj (Schsb. spec.) be- 
nevole coinm. eel. Cossou. {Salzm. Exsicc. !) In monte Djebel 
Kebir! [Webb Herb.) I 

var, LASio-CALYciNUM,=II. lasio-calycinum (Boiss. et 

Reut.y Diagn. PL Or. ser. 2, i. 50),= H. hirsutissimura {IVillk. 
L c. tab, 106). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Kebir prope Tanger ! {Boiss. et Rent. L c). 

H. multijlorum et H. lasiocalycinum certo certius ad varietates H. kali- 
mifolii reduccuda, notis nuUis stabilibus distinguendas. H. multi- 
jlorum spepe, sed nou semper, foliis minoribus praiditum, gaudet sepalis 
ex pilis longiuscule stellatim ramosis dense obtectis. Folia in hoc 
iininervia, in H. halimifolio obsolete trinervia dicuntur, sed discrimen 
omnino fallax et minime constans. In hac specie, ut fit in Cistis 
plurimis, indumentum variabile. In H. lasiocalycino folia et sepala 
pdis longis subvillosis plusminusve vestita, et indumentum stellatum 

fit rarius. Specimina nostra fere intermedia sunt sed propiora H. la- 
siocalycino. Nomen hujus forma;, vix pro varietate enumerandse, cl. 
Willk. ])erperam mutavit. 

II. TuBERAiUA (L., sub Cisto ) MUL Diet. No. 10; DC. Pr. i. 270). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger {Salzm. Exsice.)l {Webb Herb.)\ Djebel Kebir 

prope Tanger ! Cap Spartel ! Prope Tetuan ! 
Ar. Geog. Per regionem Mediterraneam occidentalem ex Dalmatia usque 

JVlacaronesiam diffusum. In Grxcia verisimiliter errore indicatum ex 

Boiss. Fl. Or. i.440. 


IIklianthemum guttatum(L., sub Cislo; Mill. Diet. No. 18; DC. 

Pr. i. 270). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger (^Salzm. Exsicc.) ! Djebel Kebir prope Tanger ! 

Cap. Spartel ! 
^lar. occid. — Casa Blancat 
Ar, Geoff. Regio MeJiterranea a Syria usque Macaronesiam. Gallia 

occidentalis. Forma aixte affinis in Anglia. 
, var, MACROSEPALUM {Coss, PL Crit, 29), =11. macro- 

sepalum (Salzm. JE;r5tcc.),=Tuberaria raacrosepala [fVillk., Lc. tab. 

Mar. sept. — Tanger (Salzm. Exsicc) ! {Webb Herb,) ! Spec, ex herb, 

Scliousboe (sub Cisto ylaadnloso, Schsb.) ''in frutlcctis pr. Tanger," 
leetum benevole coram. ceL Cosson. Djebel Kebir! (ReiU.), Tetuau 

Legi etiani prope San Roque baud procul Gibraltar 1 

, var- iNCONSPicuUM,=II. inconspicuum {Thib. in Pen. Syn. 

ii. 77; DC.Pr. i. 271). 

Mar. sept.— Prope Tanger legit J. D. //. spec. Ilispanicis omnino cou- 

forme ! 
Ar, Geog, Tarn haec quara var. macrosepalum in peninsula Iberica et in 

ditione Tingitana obvise sunt. 

Ilaec est inter typum et formam pro si>ecie nova in Boiss. et Reut. Png. 
p. 13, propositam, sub noin. H. brevipes, varietas intermedia. Cliarac- 
teres in hoc grege ex pi-a^seutia vel defectu stipularuni, ex jnlis 5ongis 
plus minusve frequenttbus,ex longitudine pcdicellorum et magnit\idiuc 
petalorum et scpalorum valde ludibundi et ideo fallaces. 

II. NiLOTicuM (L., sub Cisto ; Pers. Syn. ii. 78; DC. Pr. i. 272). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger {Webb Herb.) ! Inter Tanger et Tetuan ! 
Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca ! Prov. Ilaha prope Mogador ! 
Mar. mcrid.— Prov. Shedma! Mesfioua! Tasseremout ! Milhain! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea tota (inclusa Macaronesia). 

, var. MicuoCAKPUM {Coss. in Bourg. PL Ilisp.; Boiss. FL 

Or. \. 441). 
Mar. merid.~In saxosis aridis regionis inferioris. Prov. Shedma i)rope 

Ain Oumast! Mskalal et alibi. 
Ar. Geog. Varietas per reg. omnem Mediterraneam diffusa. 

■, var. ? PUMILUM. 

Mar, merid.— In reg. subalpina Atlantis Majoris supra Arround legi ex- 
emplaria duo 2-3.polIicaria deflorata, foliis superloribus et sepalw 
tomentoso-hirtis, racemo contracto, capsula fere typica sed multo rai- 
nore, seminibus angularibus omnino lajvibus. Vcrisimiliter est hujut 

speciei polymorphae forma nana. ..... 

Utrum Cisfus ledifoUus, L., Sp. 742, foret synonymon C. nilottci, sive 
melius ad var. microcarpum referri debet non satis cminet. Nomeii 
specificum ab auctoribus posterioribus confusum hodic ncghgenduui. 


316 MR. J, ball's spicilegium flokje marocca^t^. 

Helianthemum papillare (Boiss. Voy, Esp. ii. 63, tab. 14). 

Mar. ruerid. — In saxosis aridis supra Seksaoiia ! 

Ar. Geog, Peninsula Iberica ; Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

II. ^GYPTIACUM (L., sub Cisto ; Mill Diet. No. 23 ; DC, Pr. i. 273). 

— Legi prone Casa Blanca specimen exsiccatum sed satis 

Mar. occid. — Legi prope Casa Blanca 

eertum ! 
Ar. Geoy. Per regionem Mediterranean! calidiorem (exclusa Macaro- 

nesia) diffusa. Deest iu Griecia, Dalmatia et in Gallia Mediterranea. 

II. LiPPii (L., sub Cisto ', Pers. ii. IS; DC. Pr. i. 273). Y^y a{Boiss. 

FL Or. i. 443), = Cistus ellipticus {Desf. Fl. Atl, i. 418, tab. 107),= 

H. rosmariuifolium, PsL Symb. tab. 21. 
Mar. occid.— In monte Djebel Hadid specimen unicumlegi ! Ex spec. 

in Oasi Akka lecto {Coll. Indig. Mardochceus) frustulum benevole 


comm. Cosson. 
In herb. Kew. conservatur specimen a ell. Rein et Fritsch in Marocco 
(verisimiliter in ditione Mogadorensi) lectum; anostro parum differt 

floribus et capsulis aliquid majoribus et sepalis longius villosis. 
Ar. Geoff. Oriens. Africa borealis. Sicilia. 

II. CANARIENSE (Jucq. Ic, Rur. i. tab. 97, sub Cisto; Pers. Syn. ii. 7B, 

DC. Pr. i. 274). 
Mar. occid.— Legimus prope Mogador ! et Am el Hadjar ! et in monte 
Djebel Hadid ! et iterum legi in litore Atlantico ab urbi SafB meridiem 

versus ! 
Ar. Geog. Species propria insularum Canariensium et terrse continen- 

talis proximse. 
Nisi herba densius incana spec, nostra Canariensibus omnino conformia. 

H. rubellum (Psl. Del. Prag. 25; Boiss. Voy. Esp.\=ll. rotundi- 

folium { DC. Pr. \. 277), = Cistus nummularius {Cav. Ic. tab. 

142; Dsf. Fl. Atl. i. 423, non L.). 
Mar. merid. — In regioue media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Amsraiz 

1200-1600 m.! 
Ar, Geog. Ilispania ; Africa boreali-occidentalis ; Sicilia, et forma arete 

afBnis (-ff. Hyrnettium, Boiss. et Heldr.) in Graecia. 
Specimina nostra gaudent foliis oblongo-ellipticis acutlusculis, etsistunt 

^ r 

transitum in H. Hymettium, quod nobis mera varietas videtur. 


H. lavandul^folium {Lam. Diet. ii. 25, sub Cisto; DC. FL Fr. iv- 

820, et Prod. i. 278). 
Mar. occid. — Ab urbe Mogador septentrionem versus! In monte Djebel 
Hadid! Inter Mogador et Shedma (G. Maw spec.)\ Agadir (Co//. 

Indig. \S7l)l 
Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Gallia Mediterranea et Corsica. Oriens. 

Africa boreali-occidentalis. Deest in Italia, Dalmatia, Africa boreali- 

orientali et in Macaronesia, Fere semper in regione litorali occurrit. 

MR. J. ball's SPICILEGIVM FLOIItE maboccan^. 347 

H, JSroussonnetii, species Canariensis ex scheda iu herb. Bouchet prope 
Mogador indicata, verisiiuiliter ad floram Maioccanani non pertinet. 
Broussonnet plautas patriae diversse in herbario ssepe miscuit, et ha3C 
pulchra stirps ia agro Mogadorensi nemini recentiorura obvia fuit, 

IIelianthemum glaucum (Cav. Ic. iii. 31, tab. 261, non Des/,, sub 

Cisfo ; Pers. Syn. ii. 78 ; DC. Pr. i. 279). 
Mar. merid. — In convalle Amsmiz circa 1400 m.! 
Specimma nostra Ilispanicis omnino confonnia nisi statura miuore. 

Ludit petalis albis ut fit in spec. Bourga^anis, No. 1074, PL d'Espagne. 

, var. STCECHADiFOLiUM, = II. stcechadifolium {Brot. FL 

Lus. ii. 270, sub Cisto ; DC. Pr. i. 273). 

Mar. merid. — In rupibus supra Seksaoua! 

Distingiiitur foliis superioribus insigniter revolutis et ramis abortivis in 
axillis foliorum ad fascitulos foliorum juniorura reductis, undeaffinita* 
aliqua, ut jam innotuit Brotero L c, cum H, lavandulcBfolio. 

Specimiua Maroccauis simillima legi olim prope Malaga. Patala vidi 

semper lutea. 
Ar, Geog. H. glaucum^ per regionem Mediterrancam occidentalem late 
diffusum, in Macaronesia deest. Est stirps valAe ludibunda, cujus 
limites segre definiendi, 

II. viRGATUM {Desf. FL Atl i. 432, sub Cisto ; Pers. Syn, ii. 79 ; DC 

Pr. i. 282. Inclusis H. racemosum (Lara. Diet. li. 25, sub Cisio ; Dun. 

in DC. Pr. i. 281), et H, pilosum (Pars. Syn. ii. 79 ; DC. Pr. i. 282, 

an L., sub Cisto). 
Mar. merid. — Frequens ad radices Atlantis Majoris et in convallibus 

calidioribus. Tasseremout! Ourika! Reraya! Ait Mesan usque 

1400 m J Sektana! Amsmiz ! Milhain ! Ex Prov. Mtuga (R. et Fr. 

spec, in herb. K€W.)l 
Notae diagnosticEC quibus H. racemosum et H. pilosum ab 11. virgato 

separantur sunt adeo instabiles et ludibundae ut ne quidem varietates 



verulentus pubescens, in H. piloso nervoso-striatus pilosiusculus, in 
ff. racemose nervoso-sulcatus violaceo-rufescens. In ditione nostra 
calyces sa^pius subglaberrimi, rarius tenuiter incano-pubescentes, vcl 
pilosiusculi, folia angusta, j>lus minusve margiue revoluta, in pagina 
superiore viridia ve\ subincana, subtus stellato-tomentosa. In spcci- 
minibus Hispanicis et Algeriensibus H, pilosi video calyces valde 
variabiles ut in spec, nostris. Petala ludunt alba vel pallida rosea. 

, var. stricti;m,=H. strictum (Car. Ic. iii. 32, tab. 263, sub 

Cisto; Pers. Syn. ii. 79; DC. Pr. i- 28l), = n. virgatum; var. Ma- 

roccanum, noh. MSS. 
Mar. merid. — Valde freqacna in saxosis aridis regionis infcrioris et 

rarius in convallibus Atlantis Majoris. Legimus in Prov. Shcdma 


848 ME. J. "Ball's spicilegifm flou^ maroccan^. 

prope Ain Oumast! in glareosis torrentis Ourika ! prope SeTcsaoua! 
et in convalle Ait Mesan ! In convalle Amsmiz legi varietatem seu 
lusum calyce piloso, sepalis exterioribus longioribus et aciitioribus, 
stipulis pariter longioribus foliorum dimitliain longitudiuem sub?c- 
qnantibus. Petala ex albo pallide rosea. 

Ar, Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

Aifinitas inter H. virgatum et H. apenninum (quocum velut synonyraa 
enumeranda sunt H, puherulentum, DC, H. polifoUiim, DC, et plu- 
rimai species ab auctoribus cnumeratse) tarn arcta est ut vix pro typis 
specificis probe distinctis haberentur. 

PuMA^TA (Spach, Ann, Sc. Nat, ser. 2, vi. 359). 

Genus Fumana staminibus exterioribus sterilibus moniliformibus, semi- 
nibus anatropis raphe precditis, facile recognoscendum, et praiterea 
habitu proprio (in F. glutinoso minus eminente) gaudens, a celebb. 
Benth. et H. f. in Gen. PL 114, ad subgenus Helianthemi reductum 
est. Pace tantorum virorum vestigia auctorum recentiorum qui hoc 
(eodem jure quo CaZ/ia/^?/temMmetplurima genera subnaturalia) nomine 

proprio salutarunt secuti sumus. 

F. GLUTINOSA (L., sub C'isto \ PcTS. Sgu. ii. 79, et DC, Pr. i. 276, sub 

HeUanihemo'y Boiss. Fl, Or. i. 449), = F. viscida (Spflc^, loc. cit,). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger (Schsb. spec, sub C Fumana) ! {Webb Herb,) ! In 

rupibus prope Tetuan 1851, et iterum 1871 ! 
Mar. occid. — Mogador (Lowe) I Ain el Hadjar ! Djebel Hadid ! 
Mar. merid. — Sat frequens ad radices Atlantis Majoris et in convallibus 

calidioribus. Mesfioua ! Ourika ! Ait Mesan usque 1400 m. ! Seksaoua ! 

Amsmiz ! 

Ar. Geog, Regie Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Macaronesia). 

-, var. viRiDis,=IIelianthemum viride {Ten. Pr. FL Neap. 

p. 31). 

Mar. sept. — In rupibus prope Cap. Spartel ! Inter Tanger et Tetuan ! 
In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan ! 

Optimo consilio cl. Spach plurimas s. d. species nullis notis stabilibus 
dignoscendas in unam reduxit, sed minus bene nomen triviale Lin- 
nsenum antiquius et satis aptum matavit. Verum est in var. viridi 
folia sa^pius subglaberrima, laxiora et longiora quam in typo ; sed pe- 
dicelli semper plus minusve glanduloso-viscidi, et formse intermedise 
non desunt. Specimina Schousboeana Tingitana quae benevolentise 
eel. Cosson debeo inter typum et genuinum H. viride^Teu, transitura 

Fumana l^vipes (L., sub Cisto; Pers. Syn. ii. TG, et DC. Pr. i. 

275, sub; Spach, loc. cit.). 
Mar. sept. — Tetuan ! {Webb Herb,) ! In monte Beni Hosmar ! 


Mar. merid. — In rupibus supra Seksaoua ! 

Ar. Geog. Reglo Mediterranea occidentalis (exclusa Macaronesia). 

F. CA.LYCINA, Clauson, = F. arbuscula (Ball, Journ. Bat. 1873,300) = 
Fumana Spachii.var. calycina {Coss. Index PL Mar. 14), 

Frutex humilis, ramosissimus, intricatus, trunco demum diametro pol- 
licarl; ramuli recti, rigidi, foliacei; folia alterna, coriacea, infima 
ovalia, vix lineam longa, superiora ovali-oblonga circa 3 liaeas attm- 
gentia, suprema brevissima, cum ramulis junioribus puberula; flores 
in quo vis ramulo pauci (2-4) ; pedicelli subpoUicares, demum recur- 
vati ; sepala exteriora (epicalyx) brevia, linearia, scabrida, interiora 
membranacea, carnea, ex costis 3 viridibus hirtulis et nervo 1 utrinque 
non costato lineata ; petala (nondum expansa) calyci aequilonga, sa- 
turate flava; semina maxima, in quavis capsula sex, pallida, lajvia, 

oculo armato minute granulata. 
Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris admodum rara. Ex- 
emplaria duo, jam deflorata,legimus in glareosis ad torrentem Ourika 
(circ. 1000 m.) ! et alteriim, nondum florens, in convalle Ait Mesan 

(eirc. 1300 m.) ! 
Semina illis F. vulgaris ter quaterve longiora et latiora. Planta Atlan- 
tica a nobis visa multo major est quam spec, quae postea vidi m herb. 
Cosson, et mihi a F. Spachii Europaea omuino diversa visa est. Me- 
lius edoctus ex spec, intermediis Algeriensibus nuper scrutatis hodie 
hajc stirps insignls sicut subspecies F Spachii enumeranda mihi 
videtur. Monente eel. Cosson F calycinam legit Balansa m sylva Cal- 
litris baud procul Mogador. Nascitur etiam in Algeria. 

VioLAEiEiE (.BC.Fl. Fr. iv. 801). 

Viola (i. Gen. 1007). 

V. odorata (L., DC. Pr. i. 296). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger (Webb Herb.) ! Tetuan (G. Maw) ! 

Mar. merid.— In umbrosisinigatisurbisMarocco! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea tota (inclusa Macaro- 
nesia). Sibiria. Forma orientalis montana F. «.amM.B ; a typo 
aliquid recedit, sed sicut varietas a eel. Boissier (Fl. Or. i. 45»; enu- 
meratur. Spceimina nostra ex urbe Marocco carent^flore et fructu ; 
forsan referunt varietatem maderensis (Lowe, Man. H. Mad.;. 

,T (T rtr Pr i 299) =V. suberosa {Desf. Fl. All. 

V. arborescens [L., JJt. fr. i. ^jj). 

Mar. sept.-Tanger ( Schsb. spec.) ! In rupibus maritim.s baud procul Cap. 
Spartel! In rupibus calcarei, prope Tetuan ! In monte Bcui losmar 
supra Tetuan (exemplaria pulcherrima scsquipedaha et ultra) . 


Mar. occid. — Secus rivulum Oued Kseb prope Mogador ! ubi eani jam 

legerat Balansa. In raonte Djehel Iladid 1 
Ar. Geoff. RegioMediterranea occidentalis(exclusa Maearonesia); prse- 

ffiligit rapes zonrc snblitoralis. 
Ludit foliis latioribus angnstioribusve, margine integerrimis vel denticn- 
latis vel serratis, sed hse notse nimis ineonstantes et veras varietates 
nan sistunt. Confer DC. Prod. 1. c. 

Viola Tezensis, noh., = V. modesta (Ball in Journ. Bof. 1873, 
300; non FzL III PL Taur. p. 41). 

E grege V, tricoloris, L., et verisimiliter jnxta V. Heldreichianam, Boiss. 
collocanda, sed notis plurimis distincta. Folia inferiora ovata, superiora 
lanceolata in petiolum attenuata, profunda crenata vel crenato-dentata, 
praisertira margine et nervo medio hirtula. Stipula? f^. HeldreickiaiKe, 
oblongo-lineares, integrse vel basi externa lacinula auotse, foliis bre- 
viores. Pedieelli glaberrimi, apicem versus bibracteoluti. Sepala 
viridia, oblonga, margine eiliolata, cseterum glabra. Petala calycem 
vix sequantia. Calcar brevissimum. 

Mar. merid. — Exemplar imicum in monte Djebel Texah alt. cireiter 
2400 m. detexi! 

PoLTGALE^ (Juss. Ann. Mus. xiv. 386), 

Polygala (Z. Gen. 851). 

P. RUPESTRis (Pourr. Act. TouL iii. 325),= P, saxatilis {Desf.FL Aih 

ii. 128, tab. 1/5 ; DC. Pr. I 324). 
Mar. occid. — Ain el Iladjar ! 
Mar. merid. — Tn regione inferiore et media Atlantis Majoris, et rarius in 

planitie. In convalle Ait Mesan 1400-1800 m. ! In convalle Amsmiz 

circ.lSOOm.l In monte Djebel Tezah eirc. 1800 m..! Ex prov. Shedma 

specimen retulerunt ell. Rein et Fritsch ! 
Ar. Geoff. Regio Mediterraneaoccidentalis (exclusa Maearonesia). 

P. rosea (Desf. Fh Ail. ii. 128, tab. 176 ; DC. Pr. I 324),=P. Preslii 
[Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 531 ) =P. nica^ensis {Bissoex Koch, Syn. i. 98). 

IVlar. sept.— Pr. Tanger in monte Djebel Kebir versus Cap. Spartel ! 
In rupibus prope Tetuan ! In monte Beni Hosmar ! ubi earn jam 
legerat P. B. Webb. 

Ar. Geog. Per regionem Mediterraneam, imprimis occidentalem, late 
diffusa. Deest in Maearonesia, sed insulas Azoricas incolit. 

Icon Fontanesiana supra citata minus bona, sed de identitate stirpis vix 
dubitandum. Confer tamen Boissier, Fl. Or. i. 475. 

P. monspeliaca (L., DC. Pr. i. 325). 

Mar. sept. — In regione collina prope Fondak, inter Tanger et Tetuan ! 
Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Maearonesia), sed potius 

MR. J. ball's spiciLEQiuii FLORj: m:aroooa>'^. 851 

PoLYGALA Webbiana (Coss. ill Bull. Soc, Bot. Fr. xx. 240). 

Descriptionem eel. auctoris pr'jeferre juvat. 

*' Planta i)erennis, ut videtur a basi ramosa, ramis diffusis, teretiusculis, 
inferne dgnudatis pulvinis foliorum delapsoruin tuberculatis, superne 
dense foliosis, pilis arcuato-asccnJentibus dense pubescentihus. Folia 
eodem modo ac rami sed parcius pubeseentia, oblonga, plana, m 
petiolum contracta, acutiuscnla vel inferiora obtusa hand mucronata. 



bracteolis 3 membranaceis obovatis amplis deeiduis ad basim pedi- 
celli involucrum eflPorraantibus suffulti. Sepala omnia citius decidua, 
glabrescentia, 3 exteriora albida membranacea vix herbacea quorum 
superius majus fornicatum subsaccatum et duo inferiora planiuscula 
ovata, 2 interiora petaloidea alba vel pallide purpurascentia coroUam 
subgequantia obovata obtusa inferne angustata. Peiala 3, inter se et 
cum vagina staminali ad tertiara partem superiorem in tubum superne 
fissum coalita, duorum lateraliuin limbo ina;quilatero concavo-subcari- 
nato pallide p urpurascente apice obtuso, inferioris limbo sequilatero 
concavo-carinato genitalia amplecteute apice truncato in carina pro- 
cul ab apice crista purpurascente in lobos nonnullos oblongos latins- 
culos hand incrassatos divisa donato superne pallide lutescente. 
Ovarium superne basi glandula stipatum. Capsula (immatura tantura 
visa) membranaceo-carnosula.a latere compressa, obovata, apice mar- 


Mar. sept.— Florentem legimus in monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan 
ubi earn olim legit P. B. Webb! ; et iterum spec. 2 detexi in rupibus 
juxta urbem Tetuan! In monte Djebel Moussa supra fretum Iler- 
culis eminente legit cl. Blackmore. 

Monente eel. Cosson :— "P. Webbiana, floribus magnis, in racemos axil- 
lares 1-3-floros dispositis, sepalis deeiduis, superiore foruicato subsac- 
cato, crista carinali petali inferioris parce et grosse lobata, ad sectionem 
Chamcebuxus pertinet.— A P. Munhyana (Boiss. ct Reut. Diagn. 
PI. Or,' ser. 2, v. 50) differt ramis teretiusculis, non acute angubtis, 
dense pubesceiitibus, non glabrescentibus, fdiis baud mucrouatis, 
petalis lateralibus baud truncato-obtusis.— A P. Chameebuxo, L., cui 
valde affinis, distincta indumento ramorum densiore, foliis minus cori- 
aceis baud mucronatis, petalis lateralibus baud truncato-obtusis, lobis 
crista tenuibus planiusculis, non incrassatis subeorculatis." 

Facie simillima est P. Chamabuxo, var. rhodoptera, ttirpi Alpium Vene- 
tarum solenni, sed in hac, prater notas supra indicatas. sepala in- 
teriora saturate purpureo-rosea, petala latcralia apice lutescentia; 
dum in P. Webbiana, sepala interiora in viva pallide purpurascentia, 
petala lateralia l^te purpureo-rosea. Folia in P. Cham^^buxo longiora. 
angustiora, nee sensim in petiolum attenuata. 

P. Chamabuxus est Alpium Europae (latiore sensu) incola, unile iii en- 


cetis Bavarise et per Pannoniam usque Transsylvaniam, necuon per 
Apenninum Ligiiriae in Alpes Apuanas se protendit. Deest in penin- 
sula Iberica et in Pyrensciset in Europa austro-orientali. Localitas 
in ducatn Lucemburgensi verisimiliter spuria. ^ 

PoLYGALA Balans^ (Coss. in BaL PL Maroc. 1867, et in Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Fr. XX. 240). 

Seqnitur descriptio Cossoniana: — ^^Frutex erectus, multicaulis, dumosus, 
divaricatim ramosus, ramis rigidis spinescentibus, pulvinis foliorum 
delapsorum tuberculatus, sub lente punctato-pubeiulus. Folia parva, 
oblongo-linearia, concavo, cifo decidua. Racemi breves, 3-4-flori, 
S(epius abortu l-2-Jlori. Sepala omnia citins decidua, glabrcscentia, 
3 exteriora subherbacea margine purpurea, quorum superiusfornicaium 
mbsaccatum et duo inferiora planiuscula ovata; 2 interiora petaluidea 
purpurea coroUara suba^quantia ovata, inferne angustata, superne 
margine inroluto apiculata. Petala 3, inter se et cum vagina stami- 
nali ad quartam partem superloi'em in tubum superne fissum coalita, 
duorum lateralium limbo inaequilatero concavo-carinato pallide pur- 
pureo ; ivferioris Umbo latiore sequilatero concavo-carinato genitalia 
aniplectente, apice eniarginato^ in carina infra apicem crista indivisa 
irregulariter plicata donate, superne luteo. Ovarium superne basi 
glandula stipatum. Capsula membi-anaceo-carnosula, a latere com- 
pressa, snlorbiculata, apice vix retusa, angusta, niarginata, vents con- 
centricis parce ramosis donata. Semen nigrescens, pilosum, carun- 
eida triloba lobis lateralibus seminis quartam partem inferiorem attiu- 

Mar. merid. — Species per clivum septentrionalem Atlantis Majoris hu- 
cusque exploratum in saxosis aridis et rupestribus usque 1800 m. s. 
m. frequentissima. Primus earn detexit cl. Balansa anno 18fi7- Legi- 
mus pr. Tasseremout ! Ourika ! Seksaoua! In convallibus Ait Mesan ! 
Amsmiz ! et alibi vidimus, 

Stirps insignis s£cpe fi-8-pedalis. Ramis teretibus apice spinescentibus 
Spartium scoparium interdum relert. 

ludividua minora habitu et facie stirpem Sinaitlcam P. spinescens, 
Decaisne, miro modo simulant etsicliaracteres valde diversi. Species 
nostra structura floris et fructus ad sectionem Ckarmebuxns pertinet* 

FuANKEXiACEJE (Sf,-IIiL Mem. Plac. Cent. p. 39). 

riiA>^KEXiA (i. Gen, 445). 

F. puLVEFiULENTA (L.* DC. Pr, \. 349). 
Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca ! Moj^ador ! 

^lar. mcrid. — In saxosis aridis Seksaoua! ■ 

Ar, Geog. Regio Mediterranea omnis inclusa Macaroncsia. Senegalia. 
Songaria, Olim in Anglia meridionali. 

MR. J. ball's spicilegium floh^ mauoccanje. 353 

Frankenia uiRSVT a iL.,Boiss, FL Or. i. 780; Schousb, Gew. Marok, 
168). Inclusis F. Icevis (L., DC. Pr. i. 349 ; Schousb. Gew. Marok. 
167) et F, intermedia (DC. eodem loco). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger specimen (cui scheda F. lavis, L.) ex herb. 
Sehousboe beuevole communicavit eel. Cosson ! et eandem formam, 
foliis basi eiliolatis eaeterum glaberrimis, leglraus prope Cap. Spartel! 
et prope Tetuan legit Webb ! Formam foliis tenuitertomentellis legi 

prope Tetuan anno 1851 ! 

Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca in litore Atlantic©, formam foliis subtoinen- 
tellis ! et eandem legimus prope Mazagan ! Mogador {Schsb. L c). 

Optimo consilio eel. Boissier, I c, Frankenias fere omnes perennes 
regionis Mediterranea; sub F. hirsuta, L., reduxit. Pace tanti viri 
varietates a et /S sola prajsentia vel absentia tomenti tenuissimi innixas 
separare nequeo, dum in eodem loco specimina utriusque formsc semel 
crescunt. Formas sequentes a typo reraotiorespro speciebus rite dis- 
tinctis habuerim, sed characteres nimis instabiles sunt et formae inter- 
mediae non desunt. 

Ar. Geog. F. hirsuta, L., sensu latiore est species late diffusa per oras 
Atlanticas Europai et Africa?, ex Britannia ad Cap. Bon. Spei, et per 
totam regionem Mediterraneam. In Europa media deest, sed terras 
continentales Asia; temperatse non fugit. 

, var. velutina, nob. = F, velutina {DC. Pr. i. 350). 

Stiips insignis (lifFert ab affinibus statura majore, floribus majoribus 
pulchre roseis, herba tota vfelutino-canescente ; seel specimina inter- 
media iu litore Atlantico lecta banc cum typo conjimgunt. 

Mar. occid.-Legimus in rnpibus insula; Mogador ! verisimiliter eodem 
loco ubi earn primus detexit Broussonnet et postea legerunt Sehousboe 
et Balansa. Specimina fere intermedia legimus inter banc et F. mter- 
mediam, DC, prope Saffi ! et pr. Casa Blanca ! 

, var. 8, KEVOLUTA, Boiss. I. c.,=F. revoluta {Forsh Fl. 

F. corymbosa {Desf. Fl. Atl. i. 

315, tab. 93; Z>C. Pr. i. 350). 
Mar. iiierid.-In planitie aridissima inter Ain Oumast et Sheshaoua I 


et iterum prope Misra ben Kara ! . 

Specimina nostra ludibunda. Nonnulla oranino similia spec. « Ajan- 

nue prov. Murcia [Bourgeau, PL d'Esp. no. 2315) qua. F. H^ebb^^ 
?Boiss. et Rent. Pug. 16), et aliis a me olim lectis pr. Almena et prope 
Chiclana. Alia propiora ^«t F pallid. (Boiss. et Rent. D.agn. PI. 
Or. ser. 2, i. 61), qua= mihi lusus levis nee vera v;a"etas videtur. 
F. tkymifolL (Desf. >1. Atl. i. 316; DC. Pr. i. 350) a Sc^«-boe md." 
catur fn arenosis maritimis prope Mogador (ScAo«.5. G^. Marok 
167); nos non vidimus et florx nostra, videtur dub.a civi, II«c 
forsai yelut subspecies enumeranda est. Faces sat smgularis et 


characteres minus variabiles quam in afRnibns. Hiijusvar. levis mihi 
videtur F. Reuteri (Boiss. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. 2, i. 60). 

CARTOPHTLLEiE (Jusff. Gen, 299). 

Velezia (Z. Gen. 417). 

V. RiGiDA {L.,DC. Pr. i. 387). 

Mar. occid.— Agadir {Coll. Indig. 1S71) ! 

Ar, Geog. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Macaronesia) 


DiANTHUS (i. Gen, 565). 

D. ATTENUATUS {Sm. Truns. Linn. Soc. ii. 301 ; DC. Pr. i. 358),=D. 

lusitanus {Brot. FL Lnsit. ii. 177). 
Mar. raerid. — In regione media et superiore Atlantis Majoris. In con- 

valle Alt Mesau usque in jugo Tagherot a 1800 m. ad 3000 m.! 

Specimina ex montibus Djebel Ouensa et Djebel Afougueur {ColL 

Indig. Ibrahim) benevole eouim. eel. Cosson sub '*D. lusitanicus, 


Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Pyrenaei Orientales. Atlas Maroccanus. 

D. lusitanvsy a Brotero loc. cit. bene descriptus, est saepius forma mul- 
ticaulis^ caulibus pluries furcatis, petalis profunde inciso-serratis basi 
pilosiusculis, dum stirps Pyreuaica (D. attenuatus typicus) habet raraos 
pauciores breviores 1-2-floros, petala crenata seu leviter dentata im- 
berbia. Sed hae notae a solo et temperie pendent. Vidi ex Pyrenaeis 
orientalibus specimina nullomodo a D. lusitano distinguenda. Nostra 
specimina ex convalle Ait Mesan potius ad formam vulgarem Pyre- 
naicara ; contra quae debeo humanitati eel. Cosson ad formam Lusi- 
tanicam propius accedunt. 

D. viRGiNEUs (L. Sp. PL 590 J Gr. et God. FL Fr. i. 238, non DC. Fr. 
i. 361). 

Mar. sept.—? Specimen nondum florens legi in rupibus pr. Tetuan veri- 
similiter hue referendum ! 

Mar. merid.— In regione media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait Mesan 
a 1600 m. ad 2000 m. ! In raonte Djebel Tezah spec, legit J. D. H. ! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis (exclusa 

D. siculus (FsL DeL Frag. p. 59 ; Guss. FL Sic. I 479). 

Mar. occid.— Inter Mogador et Ain el Hadjar ! In monte Djebel Hadid f 

(forma calycibus coloratis). Inter Mogador et Shedma, G. Maw, sp. I 

Agadir (ColL Indig. 1871)1 
Mar. merid, — In rupestribus supra Seksaoua! Ourika (R, et Fr. spec. 

in herb. Kew.) ! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis, imprimis in calidioribus. 
Genus omne deest in Macaronesia. Specimina classica Panormitana et 

MR. J. Ball's sptcilegittm flor-s; maroccaxjs. 355 

quse legi in Hispania sunt omnia valde variabilia quoad calycem et 
squamas exteinas plus minusve elongatas, chartaceas velherbaceas, et 
specimina ex ditione Mogadorensi non minus ludibunda sunt. Quae 
legimus pr. Seksaoua propiora D. virgineo. An D.siculus pro varie- 
tate vel subspecie meliore jure enumerandus sit judicet raonographus 
in hoc genere valde desideratus. 

DiANTHUs GADiTANUs {Boiss. Diafffi. PI. Or. ser. 2, i. 67), = D. Home- 
manni {Salzm. Exsic, non Ser. in DC, Pr. i. 362), = U. Schousboei 

Mar. sept. — Tanger (Schsb, herb, sub '* D. fflaucus"), Coss. sped 
(Saizm, Exsicc. in herb, Kew.)l In monte Beni Ilosmar supra Tetuan 
nondum florentia, sed verisimiliter hue referenda, specim. 2 legimus ! 

Jr. Geoff, Hispania Gaditana et Marocco Tingitanus. 

Affinis ut videtur D, Liboschiiziano^ Ser. 

Tunica {Scop. Fl Cam. i. 300). 

T. coMPRESSA {Besf. FL Atl i. 343. tab. 97, et DC. Pr. i. 354, sub Gyp- 

sophila; Fisch. etMey. Ind, Sem.). 
Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in planitie et in calidioribus reg. inferioris 

Atlantis Majoris. Ain Oumast ! Mskala ! Seksaoua ! In convalle 

Amsmiz, circ. 1400 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

T. PROLiFERA (L., et DC. Pr.L 355, sub Diantho ; Scop.FL Cam. i. 

Mar. merid, — In regione media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait Mesan 
circ. 1500 m, ! In monte Djebel Tezah usque 2100 m. ! 

Ar, Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea (inclusa Macaronesia), 
sed rara in calidioribus. Orientem versus vix ultra Byzantium se 


Sapoj^abia (Z. Gen, 584). 

S. vaccaria (L., DC. Pr. i. 365). 

Mar. merid. — In distr. Mesfioua baud procul urbem Marocco spec, uni- 

cum legit J. D. H. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (inclusa Macaro- 
nesia). In regionibus alienis, e. g. Sibiria Altaica et India orientali, 
verisimiliter cum seminibus introducta. 

SiLEKE (X. Gen. 772 ; Bohrhach, Monog. Sil). , 

S. INFLATA (5ffi. FL Brit. ii. 292; DC. Pr. i. 368), = S. cucubalus 

{Wib. Prim. Werth, 241 ; Rohrb. SiL 84). 
Mar. sept.— Tanger ! In monte Beni Hosmar pr. Tetuan ! Prope Tetuan 

Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca! Agadir (Coll Indig. 18/1)! 

356 ME. J. ball's sptcilegium ploeje maeoccak^. 

Mar. merid. — Milhain! formam foliis angustioribus legimus in con- 
valle Ait Mesan, alt. 1200-1()00 m. ! 
Ar, Geog. Europa media et borealis. Regio Mediterranea omnis (in- 
clusa Macaronesia). Asia tempeiata. India orieutalis. In ximerica 
boreali introducta. 

, var. RUBRiFLORA, tioh. Fetalis brevissimis calycem vix 

excedentibus saturate rubellis. 

Mar. sept. — In sepibus prope Tanger ! 

Nomen triviale ab omnibus fere botanicis receptumcl. Rohrbaeh infauste 
mutavit. Si solo antiquitatis jure legamur, S. vulgaris erit. Nomen 
Behen vulgaris (Moench. Metb.) est enim Wibeliauo pluribus annis 



S. DisTiCHA {Willd. Emm, 476 ; Rohrh, Sil. 96), = S. parvifolia {Otth 

in DC, Pr, i. 376, non Zea, in Poir, Diet. SuppL), 
Mar. sept.— Specimen ex herb. Schousboe in monte Djebel Kebir 

pr. Tanger Tectum sub "S. hirsuta^' Schsb. herb., beuevole comm. 


Ar, Geog. Algeria. Ins. Baleares. Ditio Tingitana. 

S. GALLiCA (L., DC. Pr. i. 371 ; Rohrb. Sil. 96). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc.)\ Cap. Spartel! Inter Tanger et 
Tetuan ! 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

, var. MINOR, magis pilosa, = S. sardoa, Moris.? 

Mar. merid. — Mesfioua hand procul urbem Marocco ! 

Hsee est verisimijiter S. lusitanica (L. Sp. PL i. 416). 

Ar. Geog, Species verisimiliter Europae mediae et australis indigena, 
per totam fere orbem iutroducta et facta spontanea ; ex coeli et soli 
diversitate formae plurimse enatse pro speciebus distinctis ab auctori- 
bus descriptae. 

S. CERASToiDES (L., DC. Pr. i. 372; Rohrb. Sil 38), var. anomala 
(Ball, Journ. Bot. 1873, 301). 

Habitu et seminum structura typo omnino conforrais, sed insigniter 

differt calyce subeveuio, nervis in parte calycis superiore obscure ana- 

stomosantibus, et filamentis basi puberulis. 
Mar. merid. — Prope Mzouda ! 
Forsan melius cognita pro specie diversa habenda. 
Ar. Geog. Species per regionem Mediterraneam (exclusa Macaronesia) 

S, Giraldii (Guss. Fl. Inar. 36), quae gaudet seminihus et calyce S. gal- 

licce et filamentis glabris S. cerastoidis, mihi videtur varietas prioris, 

nee cum S, cerastoide adsocianda. 

S. TRiDENTATA {Desf. Fl. Atl.'u 349 J DC. Pr. i.371 ; Rohrb. Sil.99). 
Mar. merid. — Amsmlz ad radices Atlantis Majoris! 

Mn. J. ball's spicilegium tlor-s: ma.boccan-5:. ^57 

Ar, Geog, Africa boreali-occidentalis. Peninsula Tberica. Macaronesia. 
Priori similis sed ut videtur bene distincta species, floribus snbsessilibus, 
ealyce ex nervis eminentibus eximie costato, fructifero ore contracto 


dentibus longis divergentibus, capsula subsessili globosa longe ros- 
trata, nee, ut in S. cerastoidi, ovoidea carpopliovo brevi falcrata et 
rostro brevi praidita. 

SiLENE NOCTURNA (L., DC. Pr. i. 3/2; Rohrb. Sil 100). 

Mar. merid.— Hinc inde in regionc inferiore et in convallibus calidiori- 
bus Atlantis Majoris. In convallc Ait Mesan circ. 1300 m. ! Prope 
Mzouda ! Ourika (R, et Ft. spec, in herb. Kew.)\ Seksaoua (J. D. IL)\ 

, j3, PARViFLORA {Ottli 171 DC. Pr. L c.),= var. micrantha 

(Willk. Ic. et Desc. i. 69, tab. 50),=var. y, permixta {Rohrb. l. c), 
= S. permixta {Jord. Pug. PL Nov. 32), = S. mutabilis (L, Sp. 

PL 596) ? 
Mar. merid. — Tasseremout ! 
Ar. Geog. Species per regionera Mediterraneam (inclusa Macaronesia) 

late diffusa. In America borcali advena. 
Var. nostra e tvar. brachypetala (Rohrb. L c.) verisimiliter per totam 

areara inveniendse. 
S. decipiens {Ball in Journ. Bot, 1873, 300), 

Proximo S.nocturnce, cui facie similis; differt tamen pedicellis parce 
glandulosis vix viscidulis, ealyce fructifero ex nervis fuseo-viridibus 
costato, dentibus erecto-patentibus capsulam superantibus, ejus dia- 
metrum sequantibus, petalis capsulam vix superantibus, lamina brevi 
atrorubente, seminibus minimis dorso vix canaliculatis. 

Mar. occid.— Legimus in arenosis prope CasaT^lanca! 

Mar. merid.— Specimen incompletum sed cseteris plane conforme legi 

prope Amsmiz ad radices Atlantis, alt. circ. 1100 m. ! 
Stirps singularis ealyce et seminibus a S. nocturna nimis diversa ut pro 

varietate haberetur. 

S. OBTUSiFOLiA {11111(1. Euum, p. 473; DC. Pr. i. 374 ; Rohrb. SiL 
102), = S. colorata {Schousb. ex Horn. H. Hafn. i. 412; DC. Pr. u 

374, non Poir.), .... rr * 

Mar. sept.-In arenosis pr. Tanger! In arenosis maritimis mter Tetuan 

et Ceuta ! • i- -j ^ r 

Ar.Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Macaronesia. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

Habitat etiam in ^gypto inferiore (.ex Boiss. FL Or. i. 5i)3). 

S. HiRSUTA iLag. Var. de Ciena. 1805, 2V2 ■ RoM Sil. 102. non 
Pair. Voi,.), = S. hirsutissima (Otth in DC Pr. u 3/2). var. tuber- 


CVL.ATA, nob. J- 10 T 1Q71 fl^ 

Mar. 8ept.-In monte Djebel Kebir pr. Tanger die 13 Jun. 1871, flo- 
rentem et fructiferam legi! Ex eodem monte specimma semin.bu. 


nondum maturis a b. Schousboe lecta (S. pilosa, Schsb. herb.) bene- 
vole cotntnunicavit eel. Cosson. Eandeni varietatcm, nisi fallor, 
sistit S, hispida, Salzm. Exsicc. Tingitana. 

Mar. occid. — Specimina jam deflorata legi prope Casa Blanca (Apr. 22, 
1871) seminibus spec. nostrisTingitanis omulno confonnlbus. 

H^ec varietas speeiminibus typicis S. hirsutm quae in Ilispania legi et 
pluries habui omnino conformis est, nisi seminibus dorso etprsesertim 
niargine tuberculatisj facie paululum depressis nullomodo cxcavatis. 
Speeiminibus plurimis Hispanicis accurate scrutatis transitum nullum 
detexi ; demum specimen S. hirsutce prope Malaga a Rambur lectum 
semina nostris valde accedentia mihi prsebuit. Semina in genera 
Silene notas optimas diagnosticas inter species aifines pra^buerunt, 
sed vis varialiva naturae, vitse socia inseparables, etiam in seminura 
structura se palam facit. 

Utrum S. hirsutay Lag., a S. vespertina (Retz. Obs. Bot.iii. 31 ; Rohrb. 
Si]. 95, non auctorum plurimorum) probe distincta sit est mihi res 
valde dubia. Pace cl. Rohrbach inter semina utriusque specie! dis- 

crimen vix uUum invenies, nee notae differentiates ex inflorescentia 
- allatae satis constantes. Calyces dentes in S. vespertina supra cap- 

sulam contracti forsan ad speciem dignoscendam satis valent. S. veS' 

pertina, Retz, ab auctoribus fere omnibus cum specie omnino divcrsa 

(S. coloratay Poir.) confusa, a Rohrbach loc, cit. suo loco restitutafuit. 

IIujus synonyma sunt S. hirsuta (Poir. Voy. ii. 163), S. hispida (Dsf. 

FI. Atl. i. 348), S. beUidifolia (Jacq. Hort. Vind., non Pourr.), et S, 

sahuletorum, Dub., non Lk. 
S. hirsuta genuina est peninsulae Ibericae civis, formae aflBnes in ItaUa 

calidiore et Grsecia et in Africa boreali obviae sunt. 

Silene psammitis {Link in Spreng. Nov. Prov. p. 39), = S. villosa 
(Boiss, Voy. Esp. ii. 90, non aliorum), = S. lasiostyla {Boiss, Diagn. 
PL Or, ser. 1, viii. 79). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc.)l 

Ar. Geog, Species propria peninsulae Ibericae et ditionis Tingitanae. 

S. coLORATA {Poir, Voy, ii. 163; Rohrb, Sil, 114, non W., nee 
Sckousby nee DC, Pr. i. 374), = S. bipartita {Desf, FL Atl i. 352, et 
Willh Ic. et Descr, i. 45, tab. 30), = S. sericea {Guss. et auct, plurim., 
non AIL), = S, vespertina {Rchb, Ic, FL Germ, tab. 279, et auct, mult,, 
non Retz., nee Boiss. Voy.), 

Mar. sept. — Tanger ! (Salzm. Exsicc. sub S, pespertina) ! Inter Tetuan 
et Tanger ! Prope Tetuan (1851 et iterum 1871) ! 

Mar. occid. — Prope Mogador! Ain el Hadjar ! 

At, Geog, Regio Mediterranea omnis (inclusa Macaronesia). 

, var. LASiocALYX (Soy. W. et God. SiL Alg, p. 26, sub 

S, bipartita'). 
Mar. occid. — In arenosis maritimis prope Mazagan! 

MR. J. ball's spicilegium flqum maroccan^. 359 

SiLENE SETACEA {Viv. Fl Lib. 23 ; Rohrb. Sil 105, non Otth), 
S. colorata, var. angustifolia, nob. olim. 

Mar. meri(L— In regione inferiore pr. Mesfioua ! Ourika! Sektana (R. 
et Fr. spec, in herb. Kew.) \ 

Accedit ad S. coloratam var. /3, decumbens, Rohrb. I c.^^S. decumbens 
(Biv. Ceut. i. 75); sed in S. setacea folia omnia tenuia linearia, vel infima 
lineari-oblonga, caulis tenuis e basi ramosus, tota planta pube tenui 
adspersa. S. coloratfB affinis et post earn enumeranda. 

Ar. Geoff. In regione desertorum ex Mesopotamia et Palaistina per 
Afrieam borealem interiorem diffusa. 

S. GLAUCA {Pourr.EL H. Matr. 1803; Lag. Gen.etSp. p. 15; Rohrb. 
Sil. 117), = S. secundiflora (0^/A 2w DC. Fr. i. 375),=:S. ambigua, 
Cambess. in Soy. W. et God. Sil. Alg. 24). 

Synonyma alia plurima in Rolirb. I. c. 

Mar, sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc, sub S. decumbens, fide Willk. Ic. 
et Descr., et Rohrbach, I. c.)- 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Algeria et forsan ager Tingitanus. 

Florae Maroccana^ dubia civis. Salzinann banc speciem legit prope 
Malaga et forsan inter plantas suas Tingitanas speclmina nonnulla 
commiscuit. Qui series Salzmannianas habuerunt plurirai botanici 
banc a Tingide nunquam viderunt, et ager Tingitanus a multis bota- 
nopbilis perlustratus speciem banc nemini post Salzmann obtulit. 

S. APETALA (Wind. Sp. PL ii. 307; DC. Fr. i. 369; Rohrb. Sil. 

Mar. sept- — Prope Tetuan ! 

Mar, merid. — Prov. Shedma! Sheshaoua! Mesfioua! Seksaoua ! 

Ar> Geog. In regione Mediterranea calidiore ex Affghanistan usque Maca- 
ronesiam late diffusa. Deest in Europa in reg. inter Atticam et His- 
pauiam Murclcara, et in Africa boreali inter Mare Rubrum et Mos- 

S, coRRUGATA {Ball in Journ. Bot. 18/3, 301), = S. cauariensis {Willd, 
in Spreng.) ? Noraen verisimiliter falsum. 

E collo mdicis ramosissima, diffusa, glanduloso-pilosa ; folia inferiora 
spatbulato-acuminata, superioialanceolata; pedicelli calycem demum 
aequantes; bractcie 2 inaiquales, major herbacea, minor subsetacea; 
flores distantes, ante anthesin nutautes ; calyx merabranaceus, viridi- 
striatus, nervis parallelis, basi truncatus, vix umbilicatus ; petala car- 
nea, biloba, ungue quam calyx longiori ; carpophorum capsulae ajqui- 
longum ; semina fusca, sat profunde canaliculata, dorso corrugata. 

Mar. merid.— In regione media Atlantis Majoris; Ait Mesan ! circa 

1750 m.! 
Affinis Silene pseudo'Atociony Dsf., a pL nostra differt petalis integris, 
seminibus multo majoribus vix canaliculatis, calycis tubo longiore. 
Habitu propior est S. pendula, structura omnino diversa. 


Mu. J. ball's spicilegium flok^ maroccan^. 

Monente eel. Cosson spec, nostra ad S. Canariensem (Willd. in Sj)reng. 
Neue Entd. iii. 60 j Rohrb. Sil. 194, non Otth in DC. Pr. i. 372, re- 
ferenda sunt, et eandem plantam legit Balansa, anno 1SC7, in monte 
Djebel Haid, et secus rivulum Oued Kseb prope Mogador, Vix 
dubito specimen in herb. Willd. (No. 8G33) a Broussonnet communi- 
catura ex ditione Mogadorensi ortum esse, et errore schedjE ex in- 
sula Teneriffa prodisse fertur. Dum nomen Canariensis incertum et 
falsum videtur, plantam enumeravi sub nomine triviali a me propositi 
Judiceut magistri sclentiae nostrse. Icon Webbiana (Phyt. Can. 
tab. 18) minime exacta vix ad plantam nostram referenda est. 

, var. ADUSTA, = S. adusta {Ball in Journ. Bot. I c). Proxima 
pra;cedenti et pro subspecie a me olim edita. 

Planta pumila, erecta, pauciflora ; differt insuper a S. corrugata foliis 
angustioribus, bracteis suba;qualibus setaceis, petalis albidis, magis 
profunde bilobis, seminibus (non omnino maturis) pallide luteo-fuscis 
mmus profunde canaliculatis, in fossa dorsali tuberculosis. 

Mar. merid.— Prope Seksaoua! in rupibus calidisslmis. 

S. RUBELLA (L., BC. Pr. i. 369; Rohrb. Sil. 155). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger ! (Salzm. Exsicc.) ! 

Mar. merid.— In planitie Maroccana pr. Sheshaoua ! 

— ■ — — -^ -^^ —— ^-^ ^^^ ^.^ ^«r ■ 

Ar. Geoff. Regio Mediterranea, imprimis occldeutalis. In Oriente, ad- 
modum rara, deest in Macaroncsia. 

S. INAPERTA (L., DC. Pr. i. 376; Rohrb. Sil. 165). 
Mar. merid.— Ad radices Atlantis Majoris pr. Amsmiz ! 
Ar. Geoff. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis a Corsica et Galloprovincia 
usque Macaronesiam, 

S. MusciPULA (L., Rohrb. Sil. 170, non DC. Prod.), = S. stricta (DC. 
Pr. i. 379, non L.). ^ 

Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore Atlantis Majoris. Distr. Reraya ! In 

convalle Alt Mesan ! Amsmiz! Mzouda! Oued Gh8igs.m (Balansa), 
Coss. Index. ^ ^ ' 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea, imprimis occidentalis. Deest in Maca- 
ronesia, et rarms m Oriente occurrit, forsan cum seminibus introducta. 

Silene stricta (L., Rohrb. Sil, m),=S. pteroplevra {BoU^. et Rent. 
Pug. 18), species affinis sed bene distincta, nascitur in Hispania aus- 
trah proxima (e. g. pr. San Roque !) - hactenus in Imp. Maroccano 

S. ITALICA [L., sub Cucubalo, Pers. Syn. \. 498: DC. Pr. i. 381: 
Rohrb. Sil. 218). 

Mar. sept.— In monte Beni Ilosmar supra Tetuan legit P. B, 
Specimen habui ex herb. Webb sub « S. viscosa " 1 

Mar. merid.— In regione inferiore et media Atlantis Majoris. In con- 
valle Ait Mesan (forma typica) circ. 1400 m. ! In monte Djebel 




Ma. J. ball's sprcrLEaiiTM flor^ makoccax^. 361 

Ar. Geog, Regio Mediterranea fere omnls (exclasa Macaronesia). Forma 
arete affinis (S. nemoralis, W. K.) in Germania orientali, Ilungaria, 
et Rossia meriJionali. 

SiLENE MOLLissiMA (I/., sub Cucubulo, Sibth. ct Sm. Pr, FL Gr, u 298; 
Roirb. Sil. 226, uon DC. Pr. i. 382),=S. velutina (Pourr. in Herb. 
Dsf.; DC. Pr. I 373; Willk. Ic. et Desc. tab. 43), = S. Salzmanm 
Otth in DC. Pr. i. 381, now Bad.), Var. rosulata, = S. rosulata {Soy. 
W. et God. Sil. Alg. 50, Exp. bot. Alg. tab. 82). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger! 

Ar, Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa borealis. Corsica. Scriptores 
Floras Orientalis, et imprimis eel. Boissier, siluerunt de hae specie, a 
Sibthorp, I. c. indicata inter Smyrnam et Bursam. 

Notfe diagnosticfc quibus S. rosulata a S. mollissima distinguitur mihi 
videnturnimis leves et instabiles. Specimen unicum nostrum Tingi- 
tanum siniillimum est spec. S. gibraltariccs in monte Djebel Santo 
prope Oran lectis. Quae vidi et ipse legi in rupibus Gibraltar orien- 
tern spectantibus pauhilum diversa sunt et aliam varietatem sistunt. 

, var. GiBRALTARTCA, = S. tomentosa {Otth in DC. Pr. i. 383), 

= S. gibraltarica (Boiss. EL p, 29, et Voy. Esp. tab. 266; Rohrb. 

Sil. 227). 
Mar. sept. — Prope Tetuan legit Webb (spec, in herb, nostro sub ^^ S. 

visco^io '*) ! 
Ar. Geog. Nascitur in fissuris rupium Gibraltar et in rupestribus Te- 


Pace cl. Rohrbacli, ex descriptione incorapleta, sed omnino conformi, et 
loco natali plane apparet S. tomentosa esse stirps ipsissima quae 
postea eel. Boissier melius descripsit et illustravit. Hanc ego olim 
legi in rupibus Gibraltar orientem spectantibus iconi Boissieriana; si- 
milliraam; sed, ut mihi videtur, est nil nisi var. S. mollissimae quae 
fatente eel. Boissier in rupibus septentrionem versus ejusdam raontis 



373 5 Gren. et God. Fl. Fr. i. 220). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger! {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! 
Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica, Gallia austro-occidentalis. Ditio Tingi- 


Fl. Ft. iv. 7G1) 


Pr. i. 386). 

Mar. sept.— Prope Tetuan legit P- B. Webb ! flores, sec. MSB. Webb., 


Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Gallia meridionalis. Italia. Dalmatia, 

Ditio Tingitana. 

-, var. ASPEBA (DC. Pr. I. c). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger (JTefift Herb.)l (Schousb. spec.) I 




Lychnis macrocarpa {Boiss. et Rent. Diagn, PL Hisp, p. 8; ExpL 
Scient. AJg. tab. 80). 

Mar. merid. — Ad radices Atlantis Majoris prope Amsmiz ! 

Ar, Geoff, Peninsula Iberica. Africa borealis. 

L, DiURNA {Sibth. FL Ox, 145; Koch, Syn, FL Germ. i. 146), = L. 
dioica, var a, L., = L. sylvestris (DC. Pr. i. 386), = Melantlrium ])ra- 
tense (RoehL Deutsche FL i. 254 ; Boiss. FL Or. i. 660). 

Mar. sept. — In itinere inter Tanger et Tetuan specimen unicum legit 

J. D. IL ! 

Ar. Geoff, Europa fere omnis, exclusa arctica. Africa boreali-occiden- 


HoLOSTEUU (L. Gen. 333). 

H. UMBELLATUM {L,, DC. Pr. i. 393). 

Mar. merid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris. Supra Arround circ. 

2300 m. ! In monte Djebel Tezab circ. 2100 m. ! 
Ar. Geoff, Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Maca- 


CEKASTiUii (L, Gen, 585). 

C. GLAUCUM (Gren. Mon. Cer, 4/), var. octandrum {Gren. L c.),= 

C. tenue (Viv. Tent. FL Cors. 7), = Moenchia octandra {Gay in Perr- 

Cat. Frejiis, 55). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger ! {Schsb. spec.) ! {Salzm. Exsicc. sub Sagina oclan- 

dra) ! {Webb Herb.) ! Prope Tetuan ! 
Ar, Geoff, Species a Greniero L c. definita per Europam mediam et re- 

gionera Mediterraneam (exclusa Macaronesia) diffusa, fit rarior in Asia 


C. GLOMER\TUM (ThuUL Par. 225; Koch, Syn. FL Germ. i. 132), 
C. vulgatum {Sm, FL Brit, ii. 496; DC. Pr. \. 415), = C. viscosura 
iGren. Mon. p. 25; Boiss. FL Or. i. 722). 

Mar. sept. —Tanger ! Cap. Spartel ! Prope Tetuan! 

Mar. occid. — Mogador {Tuowe Cat.). 

Mar. merid. — In planitie et in Atlante Majore usque in regionem subal- 

pinam. Mesfioua I In convalle Ait Mesan usque 2400 m. ! In 

raonte Djebel Tezab circ. 2200 m. ! 
Ar, Geoff. Species per orbem terrarum fere totum diffusa, vestigia ho- 

minum et animalium secuta. 
Monentibus celebb. Mertens et Kocb, Bentbam, aliisque magistris, no- 

mina Linnaeana C. vulgatum et C. viscosum diu vexata et ab ipso 

auctore in Herbario confusa hodie negligenda videntur. 

C. PUMILUM {Curt, FL Lond.'u fasc. 6, tab. 30; Gren. Mon. Cer. 33), 
=C. pentandrum {Moris FL Sard. i. 266, an L.f an DC. Pr. i. 416). 

Mar. sept.— Prope Tanger et inter Tanger et Tetuan legit Lagrange sec. 
Cosson. In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan specimen nanum inter 
radices graminese cujusdam inveni, nimis inoompletum et ideo incer- 


Ar. Geog. Per Europam totara (exclusa arctica) et verisimiliter per 

omnem regionem Mediterranean; diffusum. Syuonymia auctorum 

incerta. lu Macaronesia hsec species et affines hucusqiic non de- 
tect se. 

Cerastium brachypetalum {Desp, in Pers. Syn, i. 520; DC. Pr, 

i. 416; Gren, Mon. Cer. 36). 
Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Ilosmar supra Tetuan! 
Mar. merid. — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 

Mesan supra Arround, circ. 2400 m, ! In monte Djebel Tezah usque 

2600 m. ! 
Ar, Geog, Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (exclusa Maca- 

ronesia) . 


petalorura unguibus basi barbatis, bracteis herbaceis, inflorescentiae 
indole, hue referendum. 

C. ARVENSE (L., DC. Pr. i. 419), = C mutabile {Gren. Mon. Cer. 68) 

pro parte. 
Mar. raerid. — In regione media Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait Mesan 

a 1800 m. usque 2300 ra. ! In monte Djebel Tezah circ. 2000 m- 
In jugo Tagherot (R. et Fr, in Herb. Kew.) ! 
Ar. Geog. Ilerba amphigea. Per omnem Europam,Asiani temperatam, 
Americam borealem et per montes regionis Mediterranese (inclusa 
Macaronesia) diffusa; nee deest in America australi frigidiore. 

Stellaria (L. Gen. 568). 

S. MEDIA (L., sub Alsine; DC. Pr. i. 39/). 

Mar. occid.— Mogador (Lowe Cat.). 

Mar. merid.— Mesfioua ! In convalle Ait Mesan usque 1400 m.! veri- 
similiter communis sed cite marcescens, 

Ar. Geog, Per orbem terrarum fere totum diffusa, hominum et anima- 
lium (imprimis avium) vestigia secuta. 

- van MAJOR, Kochy=:S. latifolia iPers. Syn. i. 501 ; DC. Pr. 

i. 396),= S. neglecta(W^ 
Mar. sept.— Inter Tanger et Tetuan spec, legit J. D. H. ! 
Ar. Geog, Varietas in umbrosis regionis Mediterranese et Europae cali- 

dioris frequens, 

S. ULiGiNOSA (Murr. Prod. Goett. 55; Rchb. Ic. fig. 3669), = S. aqua- 


Mar. merid— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In ascensu versus 

jugura Tagherot ultra :^500 m. ! 
Ar Geog. In temperatis frigidioribus bemisphaerae borealis. In reg. 
subalpina montium regionis Mediterranese rarius occurrit Hucusque 
Quoad sciam in Africa non deteeta fuit. 


Stellaria akenaria {Salzm. Exsicc. ; an L. et DC. Pr. i. 398 ?). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm, Exsicc) ! 

Species mihi non satis cognita, facie Arenarice spathulatce, Dsf., valde 
similis. An propria ditionis Tingitanse ? 

Arekaeia (Z. Gen. 777). 

Genus a celebb. Bentham et Hooker (Gen. Plant, i. 149) reformatum 
genera plurima auctorum notis non satis firmis defiuita includit, quae 
sistunt sectiones sequentes. \. Arenaria (auct. recent.). 2. Mceh- 
ringia (L. Gen. 494). 3. Rhodalsine (Gay, in Ann. Sc. Nat. sen 3, iv. 
25). 4. Alsine (Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 125). 5. Minuartia (L. Gen. 107). 
6. Cherleria (L. Gen. 5/0). 7- Hymenella (DC. Pr. i. 389). 8. 
Gouffieia (Rob. et Cast, in DC. Fl. Fr. v. 609). 9. Lepyrodiclis 
(Fenzl, in Endl. Gen. PI. p. 966). 10. Ammoderia (Gmel. Fl. Sib. 
iv. 160). 11. Merckia (Fisch. ex Cham, et Schlecht. in Linn^a, i. 69). 

A. PUNGENS {Clem, in Lag. Gen, et Sp. 15; DC. Pr. i. 403). 
Mar. merid,— In reg. subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In monte Djebel 
Tezah circ. 2500 m. ! 

Ar. Geog. Montes Hispanise Granatensis. Atlas Major. 

, var. GLABRESCENS {Ball, in Journ. Bot. 18/3, 301). 

Differt a typo Hispanico sepalis glabris, nervo medio prominulo basin 
versus ciliato, caulibus subglaberrimis, foliis ad basin membranaceam 
eonnatis ciliatis, antheris fusco-griseis, nee rubentibus. 

Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris, Ait Mesan! versus 
2500 m. ! 

A. serpyllifolia (L., DC. Pr, i. 411). 

Mar. merid.— In planitie Maroccana et in Atlante Majore. Mesfioua 

baud procul urbe Marocco ! Ourika ! Ait Mesan 2000-2200 m. I In 

jugo Tagherot usque 2800 m. ! In monte Dj ebel Tezah circ. 2200 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Species per Europam fere omuem et Asiam temperatam et 

regionem Mediterraneam (inclusa jMacaronesia) late diflFusa. In 

ditione Tingitana nondum detecta. 
Specimina nostra ssepe inter typum et A. leptocladon (Rchb. Cent. xv. 

tab. 32, = 4. serpyllifolia, y^T. tenuoir, Koch) media videntur. 
In distr. Reraya ad radices Atlantis Majoris legl specimina duo nana 



his folia in petlolum brevissimum margine ciliatum sensim attenuata,, 
sepala acuminata pubescenti-scabra, apice setis longioribus coronata. 
An spec, nova? 

A. spathulata {Desf. FL Atl. i. 358; DC. Pr. i. 413), = Stellaria 

arenaria (L., Sp. PL App. 1196),= Arenaria cerastoides {Poir. Diet. 

Mar, sept.— Tanger ! {Salzm. Exsicc.) I {Webb Herb.) \ Inter Tanger 
et Tetuan ! 

Ar. Geog. Africa boreali-occidentalis. Hispania Granatensis. 


Abenaria emarginata {Brot. FL Lus. ii. 202; DC. Pr, i. 406),= 
A. rose3L(Salzm. Exsicc.)y=A. baetica {Salzm. Exsicc). 

Mar. sept— Prope Tanger! (Salzm. Exsicc. sub A. rosea) \ {Webb 
Herb,) ! In raonte Djebel Kebir [spec, ex Herb. Schsb.) ! 

Ar. Geoff, Peninsula Iberica. Ditio Tingitana. 

Ipse auctor specie! et cl. Seringa in DC. Pr. /. c. affinitatem proximara 
cum A. tenuifolia viderunt adeo ut de diversitate specifica dubitarunt. 

Facie est revera similis,nisipetalis eraarginatis calyce longioribus, sod 

■ 1 ' 

structura omniuo diversa. In hac capsula Arenarite genuinae valvis 
profunde bidentatis, diim A. tenuifolia in § Alsine (capsulse valvis in- 
tegris) retinenda. Ego semper vidi petala calyce sesquilongiora, nee 
breviora ut dantur in auct. citatis. 

J ■ 

A. TRiNERViA (L., DC. Pr. i. 412),= Mcehringia trinervia {Clairv. 

Man. Rerl. 150, et plurim. auct. recent.). ' , 

Mar. sept.— In monte Djebel Kebir pr. Tanger 1 In raonte Beni Hos- 

mar supra Tetuan ! 
Ar. GeoQ. Europa et Asia temperata. In umbrosis reg. Mediterraneae 
Europe et Asi« et in Macaronesia infrequens. In Africa boreali 


A. PROCUMBENS {VaU, Syml. i. 50, tab. 33; DC. Pr. \. 413), = A. 
geniculata {Pair. Diet. vi. 365),=Rliodalsineprocumbens {Gay, Ann. 

Sc. Nat. ser. 3, x. 25). . , ^ 

Mar. sept.-Prope Tetuan ad ostium fluminis (1851)! Inter Tetuan 

et Ceuta! lo^ix 

Mar. occid.-Mogador ! (Lowe Cat.). Agadir {Coll. Indig. 18/ 1) ! 

Mar. merid.-Sat frequens in planitie et in regione mferiore Atlantis 


Maioris. Prov.Haha! Prov. Shedma ! Frope i5.r , , ^ ^ 

Ait^Iesan usque 1400 m. ! Prov. Ksima {ColL Indig. Mardochaus), 

Coss, Index. 

borealis. Adest etiam 

in Macaronesia, sed in Asia Mediterranea desideratur. 
Species satis ludibunda quoad formam foliorum et longitudinem sepa- 
lorum, sed varietates stabilire inutile duco. 

A TENUIFOLIA {L., DC. Pr. i. 405),=Alsine tenuifolia auct. plurim. 
Mar. sept.-In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan specimen umcum 

J.t4. Europa media. Asia temperata. Regio Mediterranea omnl. 
(exclusa Macaronesia). 

. . var. GLANDULOSA,=A. viscidula {Thum. Par. 219). 

Mar. merid.-In saxosis pr. Seksaoua ! MdhamI 

Ar. Geog. Fere per totam aream speciei impnmis calidiorem diffusa. 

Abenaria fasciculata {Gouan, III. p. 30; Jacq. Austr. tab. 182; 

3G6 MR. J. ball's spicileqtum florae marocca:s-^. 

DC. Pr. i. 407, non Sibth. et Sm. Fl Gr. v. 30).=Alsine Jacquliii 
{Koch, Syn. FL Germ. 125, et auct. plurim.). 
Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris in convalle Ait 
Mesan a 2200 m. usque 2500 ra. ! 

Ar. Geog. Europa media, in regione Mediterranea rarius obvia. Citatur 
in Albania a eel. Grisebach et in montibus Velebith a eel. Visiani. 
In latere meridionali Alpium Europae baud infrequens, sedin regionetn 
inferiorem vix descendit. 

Nomen triviale A, fasciculata a Gouan prius publici juris factum. 
Quid sit A. fasciculata, L. Spec. PI. ed. 12, iv. 733, eruere non 
potui. Planta Florae Graecse est Alsme Smifkii (Fzl. Alsin. 57),= 
Alsine lancifoUa (Vis. le. Fl. T)a]m, ),=Alsine fasciculata (Maly, 
Enum. Austr. 295, et Vis. Fl. Dalm. iii. 177, tab. xxxiv.). Asp. 
nostra differt sepalis trinervibus, foliis 5-7-nervibus, C£eterisque notis 

Speciraina nostra a tj-po Europseo parum diversa sunt sepalis minus 
insequalibus. Radix annua vel biennis, vel interdum (?) perennans. 


Alsine setacea 

(M. K. et auct.plurim.). Var. Atlantica, wo6., cui simillima A. try- 
throsepala (Boiss. Diagn. Pi. Or. ser. 1, viii. 98, et Fl. Or. i. 679). 

Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina et alpina Atlantis Majoris. In jugo 
Tagherot usque 3100 m, ! In monte Djebel Tezah, J. D. H. ! 

Ar. Geog. Species polymorpha per montes regionis Mediterranean ex 
Atlante usque Persiam, et inde in Sibiriam Uralensem diffusa. In 
Europa media obvia, fit rarior occidentem versus. Deest in Macaro- 
nesia, in montibus peninsulae Ibericse (?) et in Alpibus Europ^e. - 

Specimina nostra pluribus notis inter A. setaceam, Thuill., et A.fasci- 
culutam, Gouan, media sunt,et re vera ilia, nisi radice perenni,abhac 
segre dignoseitur. Sepala in specim. nostris basin versus obscure tri- 
neryia sunt, praesertira in statu juniore ; inflorescentia fere A. setacece 
typica;, sed interdum cymoso-corymbosa ; folia trinervia, brevia, ad- 
pressa, apice cartilagineo prsedita. 

Cel. Boissier (Fl. Or. i. 680) sex formas seu varletates A. s€tace(B enu- 
mcravit, quibus, pace tanti viri, addenda? sunt -4. ery throsepala, Boiss., 
et A. lihanotica, Boiss. His adjungenda erit Arenariafilifolia (Forsk. 
Fl. .Eg.-Arab. p. 211) qua? monente beato J. Gay est Alsine Sckim- 
peri, Ilochst., stirps in montibus Abyssinlie et Arabia obvia. Nostrae 
plantac valde proxima est No. 983, Balansa, PI. d'Alge'rie {Alsine 
setacea, M. K., var.,' sec. Cosson). Specimina a monte Djebel Tou- 
gourt, Bal. PI. d'Alg. No. 856 {Alsine setacea, vsir.pubescens, Coss.}, 
gaudent habitu diverso et facie potius A.juniperiiice. De his novis- 
simis in notula M^. b. Gay scripsit " ab A. setacea sine dubio dis- 
tmctissiraa." Frustra tamen notas diagnosticas quaesivi. Semina 

(in spec, nostris nimis immatura) nullomodo ab -.4. setacea diversa 



Arenaria verna (L., DC. Pr. i. 405), = Alsine verna auct plurim., 
var. BRACHYPETALA, petalis calyce paullo brevioribus oblongo- 


Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina et alpina Atlantis Majoris. In jugo 
Tagherot 2500-3000 m. ! In monte Djebel Tezah circ. 2500 m. ! 

Ar. Geoff. Europa media. Asia media et borealis. Montes regionis 
Mediterraneee (exclusa Maearonesia), 

BuFFONiA (L. Gen. 1G8). 

B. TENUTFOLIA (L. Sp. 179, €t Herb. ex. b. J. Gay),z:=B. annua (DC. 

FL Fr. iv. 768, et Prod. i. 388). 
Mar. merid. — Ad radices Atlantis Majoris sat frequens. Pr. Ourika 1 

Reraya ! Gurguri! Seksaoua! et in convalle Ait Mesan ! 
Ar. Geog, Gallia australis. Hispania. Grajcia et {ex Led.) prov. Trans- 
, caucasicae. 
Radix interdum fit biennis. Specimen legi in distr, Reraya ramis anni 

praecedentis jam emarcidis, glomerulis floralibus in axillis foliorum 

praeditis, ramis hornotinis inflorescentia racemosa typica donatis. 

Sauixa (Z. Gen. 236). 

S. procumbens (L., DC. Pr. i. 389), var, parviflora, nob. 
Mar. merid.— In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris. In jugoTagherot 
' versus 2G00 m. ! In monte Djebel Tezah circa 2500 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa fere omnis et Asia temperata. Montes regionis 

Mediterraneje. America borealis et australis. 
Praeter flores minores specimina nostra tj^po Europaio videntur omnino 


S. MARITIMA {Don in Eng. Bot. tab. 2195; DC. Pr. i, 389). 

Mar. sept. — In rupibus juxta Cap. Spartel ! In litore freti Ilcrculis juxta 

Ceuta ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media et australis in maritimis. Specimina Africana 

(nostris exceptis) non vidi. 

S. APETALA (I/., DC. Pr. 1. 389). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger ! In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omuls (inclusa Maearo- 

S. ciliata (Fr. Nov. Fl. Suec. 59; Rchb. Ic. FL Germ. fig. 4956},= 
patula (Jord. Obs. PL Fr. p. 23). 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

Forsan nrioris var.. sed nota diaenostica ex sepalis supra capsulam ma 


ram adpressis, nee patulis cruciformibus, videtur satis constans et cul- 
tura immutata. Caracteres caeteri plane variabiles. Ilaud sine dubio 
pro subspecie enumeravi. 

S. LisyjRi {Presl, ReL Hcenk. ii. 14; Boiss. FL Or. i. C63j;=iS. saxa- 


tills (IVimm. FL Schles. 76; Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. 1 19), = Spergula 
sagiaoides (L.,DC. Pr. i. 394). 

Mar. merid.— In regione suhalpiiia Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 
Mesan usque 2500 ni. ! 

Ar. Geoff. Montes Europse fere totlus^ Asise borealis et Americse bo- 
realis. Ilucusque in Africa non indicata. 

Speegula (Z. Gen. 586). 

S. ARVENSis (L., DC. Pr. i. 394). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger! {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! 

Ar. Geoff.^ In arvis Europae fere totius. Hinc inde in regione Mediter- 

ranea (inclusa Macaronesia), in India orientali et in Abyssinia. 
S. pentandra (L., DC.Pr. I 394). 
Mar. merid.— Misra ben Kara baud procul urbe Mogador! 

Ar. Geog. In cultis Europse et regionis Mediterrauese (inclusa Macaro- 

Semina videntur omnino diversa ab illis S. arvensis; sed non desunt 
formae intermediae, et hsec forsan melius pro subspecie babenda. 

SpERGULAEiA (Pers. Sijn. i. 504 ; B. et H.f. 

Gen. PI i. 125). 

Arenarias stipuliferas a cseteris Linneeanis Persoon loc. cit. primus se- 
paravit, et^ ad genus novum {Spergularia) constituendas proposuit. 
Nomen igitur Lepigonum a plurimis receptum, consentientibus Ben- 
tham. Hooker, Boissier, rei botanices magistris, prsetermisi. 

S. MARINA (J//. F/. Perf. ii. 114, sub Jrewana; Wahlb. FL Gothob. 47; 

et Kindb. Man. Lepig. 18, ^\xh L€pigono), = kxeixBxm rubra /3. marina 

(L. FL Suec. p. 152), = Arenaria marginata {DC. FL Fr. iv. 793), = 

Spergularia marginata {Boiss. FL Or. i. 733),=A. media {DC. Pr. i. 
401, nonL.). 

Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca ! Mogador ! 

Ar. Geog. Species amphigea per orbem terrarum (exclusis reg. polari- 

bus) in maritimis diffusa, rarius iu terris continentalibus subsalsis 

De L. media (L. Sp. PL 606) conf. Kindberg, loc. cit. Nomen hodie in- 
extricabile delendum. 

S. FiMBRiATA {Boiss. et Reut, Diagn. PL Or. ser. 2, i. 94 ; Salzm. 

Exsicc. MSS. I Kindb. Mon. Lepig. 21, sub Lepigono). 

, yar. a, typica. Facies S. macrorhizce (Gr. et God. Fl. Fr. i. 

2/6), ramis elongatis saepissime prostratis, mucrone in foliorum apice 

ipsorum diametrum sequante vel superante. Semina majore pro parte 

aptera, caetera margine fimbriata. 
Mar. sept— Tanger in maritimis ! {Boiss. et Reut. loc. cit.). 
Mar. occid.— Casa Blanca! 

-, var. p, coNDENSATA. Foliis in ramis brevioribus approxi- 
matis, hirtulis, brevissime mucronulatis, floribus numerosis in panicula 


brevi condensatis, sepalis densius glanduloso-hirsutis, seminibus sscpe 
(non semper) omnibus apteris, stipulis argenteis maximis.) 
Mar. oecid. — In insula Mogador banc formam insignem legimus ! 

. 7, TENUE. Ramis brevioribus tenuibus, ereetis vel ad- 

sceudentibus, foliis ssepius brevioribus mucrone ipsorum diametrum bis 
terve longiore armatis, seminibus apteris etfimbriato-marginatis com- 


Mar. oceid. — In arenosis juxta Ain el Hadjar! 
Mar. merid, — In regione inferiore, prsesertim versus radices Atlantis Ma- 

joris sat frequens. Legimus in prov. Shedma! prope Seksaoua! 

Milhain ! et alibi vidimus. 
Permultis capsulis scrutatis semina fimbriata nonnulla semper detexi sed 

in ditione nostra semina aptera certe frequentiora, et in var. /3 nostra 

semina fimbriata sat rara, Stipulae elongatse liitentes in hac sjiecie in- 

signes. Notse diagnosticae in hocgenere parum firmae, sed hsec inter 

formas probe distinctas enumeranda videtur, 
Ar. Geog, In Hispania Gaditana rara, in territorio Maroccano verisimiiiter 

communis, et in Macaronesia nascitur, nee, quoad sciam, alibi detecta. 

Spergularia rubra (L., etDC.Pr. i. 401, sub Arenaria; Fers. Syn. i. 

504 ; Boiss. FL Or. i. 7^2), = Lepigonum rubrum {FrieSy Fl. Halland. 

p. 76; Kindb. Mon, Lepig. 40), 
Mar. merid. — Prov. Shedma, J. D. H, ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa fere tota (exclusa arctica). Regio Mediterranea 

omnis (inclusa Macaronesia). Asia temperata. * 
, var. PiNGUis {Fenzly in Led, FL Ross. ii. 167),=Lepigouum 

salinum {Fries, Nov. Fl. Suec. Mant. iii. 34 ; Kindb. Mon. Lep. 36). 
Mar. sept. — In maritimis juxta Ceuta! 
Mar. occid. — In maritimis prope Mogador ! 
Mar. merid. — In prov. Shedma! 
var. SPERGULOIDES, «o5.,=Lepigonum sperguloides (Fisch, 

et Meyer, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1853, ex Kindb. Mon. Lep. SJ). 
Distinguitur panicula racemosa, pedunculis subaphyUis, seminibus in 

spec, nostris nigrescentibus nitidis auriculato-excavatis. 
Mar. occid.— Legi cum var. priore in maritimis prope Mogador! 
Notse diagnosticEe ab auctoribus, et praesertim a cl. Kindberg in Mono- 

graphia allatse, ad species plurimas hujus gregis firmandas, fallaces vi- 

dentur. Stirpes enim summopere variabiles sunt Spergularia omnes ; 

et quot species defimre credunt auctores, tot formas intermedias natura 

S. DiANDRA {Guss. Fl. Sic. Pr. i. 515, sub Arenaria ; Boiss. Fl. Or. i. 
733), = Arenaria salsuginea (Bunge in Led. Fl. Alt. n. 163, Ic. tab. 
409, flores errore lutei), = Spergularia salsuginea (Fenzl, in Led. Fl. 
RossAl 166; Gr67i.e/ Go J. F/.Fr.i. 275), = Lepigonum8alsugineum 
(Kindb. Mon. Lepig. 42),= Spergularia patens {Hochst. in Schimp. 
PI. Arab. Exs. No. 193, ex Boiss. L c). 

370 Mu. J. ball's sriciLi:GiUM: floe^ maroccak.e. 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! 

Mar. merid, — Frequens in saxosis aridis reglonis inferioris. Prov. 
Shedma! Mesfioua! Misra ben Kara ! 

Ar, Geog. Species Mediterranean verisimiliter per totam regionem cali- 
diorem diffusa. In Macaronesia nondum detecta. In desertis Asise 
raediffi etiam obvia, 

Eodem ])acto quo congeneres ha;c species etiam ludibunda est. Folia 
sa^pe *' obtusiuscula " {Kindberg), interdum " mucronata" (.Bom.), 
" glabra" (FenzL), vel sxpius puberula {spec, nostra); sepala occur- 
riint " margine tenuissime scariosa " {Kindberg),\e\ margine scariosa 
dorse herbaceo sequilata ; stipula? ssepissime pro genere rainimse, 
interdum longiores et nitentes. Semina in spec, nostris semper ad 
calcem diagnosis Boissierianae " triquetro-obovata, aptera, scabrius- 
cula, margine incrassata,'* nee margine elevata angustata eristata sicut 
ea descripsit et delineavit Kindberg L c. Nomen Gussonianum anti- 
quius a Kindberg perpcram praitermissum. Flores sunt revera saepis- 
sime, sed non semper, diandric sed nomen triviale nisi plane erro- 
neura non mutandum. Stirps non semper in locis salsis uascitur, et 
eodem pacto nomen S. salsuginea baud exacte convenit. 

PoLTCAEPON (J. Gen, 105). 

P. TETRAPHYLLUM {L., sub Mollughie \ L. JiL SuppL; DC. Pr. iii. 

Mar. sept. — Pr. Cap. Spartel! Inter Tanger et Tetuan ! Juxta Tetuan 


Mar. occid.^Casa Blanca ! Mazagan ! Mogador (Lowe), 
Mar. merid. — Sat frequens in regione inferiore prsesertim ad radices 
Atlantis Majoris. Legimus in prov. Sbedma ! Prov. Mtouga ad Ain 
Tarsil ! In convalle Ourika ! In convalle Amsmiz circ. 1400 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Europa media. Regio Mediterranea omnis (inclnsa Macaro- 
** nesia). Per orbem terrarum bine inde cum semiuibus allatum. 

P. alsinefolium (Bit?. St. Bar. Sic, Man. iii. 7, sub Hagea ; DC 
Pr. iii. 376), var. leiospermum, nob, 

A P. alsincfolioy cui simillima, diffcrt insigniter var. nostra seminibus 
Isevibus dorso leviter canaliculatis. A P. peploidi difFert imprimis 
radice annua, nee perenni, sepalis acutis, nee obtusis subcucuUatis. 

Mar. occid. — In rupibus insulae Mogador! et in maritimis baud procul 
Mogador ! Ain el Hadjar! 

Mar. merid. — In distr. Mesfioua baud procul urbe Mogador! Juxta 
Amsmiz spec, unicum legit J. D. H. ! 

Ar. Geog. P. ahinefolium esttotius reg. Mediterranese (inclusa Macaro- 
nesia) civis, procul a litore maris rarius obvium. 

Var. nostrtc proximum est P. arabicum (Boiss. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. 1, 

MR. J. b\ll's spicilegium tlor.e maroccan^. 371 

X. 13). Hoc est etiam P. tetraphyllo arete affine et cum P. alsinefolio 
sicut subspecies euumeraiulum. 

PoLYCARPON BivoN^ {J. Giiy in Duchartrc, Rev. Bot. ii. 5/2; JValp. 
Ann. Bot. Si/st. i. 82), var. herniarioides, 7ioS.,= P. hcrniarioides 
{Ball in Journ. Bot. 1873, 301). 

Mar. merid. — In convalle Ait Mesan a 2300 m. usque 2500 m.! In 
monte Djcbel Tezali circ. 2400 m. (J. D. If.) ! 

Cel. Cosson certum me fecit stirpera Atlanticam fore nil nisi var. P. Bi- 
vonce, Gay, sp. polymorpha; in Europa rarissimre, sed in Algeria e 
reo-ione calidiore usque subalpinara late diffusae. Var. nostra differt 
ramis brevibus condensatis, cyrais paucifloris, laciniis calyc inis obtusJs 
apice paululum iiiflexis. Stamina in spec, ex Ait Mesan 3, in illis ex 
Djebel Tezali ca;terum similliuiis 5, semiua nirais immatura, Calycis 
laciuise prorsus ecarinata;, exteriores linea tenui dorso notata. 

P. Bivonce, monente b. Gay, est ipsissima Ilagea polycarpoides (Biv. 
St. Ear. Sic. Man. ii. No. 3) a Candolleo et Bertoloni erronee ad 

P.peploides, DC, relata. 
Ar. Geog. Africa boreali-occidentalis. Sicilia. Occurrit etiam ex cel. 

Gay, I. c, in insulis Cauarieusibus. 

a-FLi>'GTA (i. Geti. 52). 

L. HispANiCA {L.,DC.Pr. iii. 380; Schousb. Gew.MaroJc. 12). 

Mar. occid.— In arenosis ad ripam fluvii i)rope Mogador! {Schsb. I. c). 

Prope Ain el Hadjar ad radices montis Djebel Iladid ! 
Ar. Geoy. Per regionem Mediterraneam imprimis occidcntalem diffusa, 

sed iiifrequens ; deest in Italia continentali et in Griccia, necnon in 

Macaronesia, in Oriente rarissime occurrit. 

PoLTCAEPiA {Lam. Journ. Hint. Nat. ii. ^,exDC. Pr. i. 371 ; 

Wehb, Fhyt. Can. i. 150, nomen emenJatum). 

P. NiVEA {Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 1. i. 286, et nUld. Sp. PI. i. 1110. sub 
Achryranthe; Webb, Spic. Gory. v. 10-J), = P. gnaphalodes (Sc^ou.i. 
Gew. Marok. 104, sub Illecehro; Poir. Diet. Suppl. iv. \^6,Dt Ir. 
iii. 373), = P. microphylla (Car. Aaal. Cienc. Nat. lu. 25). = P- g a"<^a 
Chr. Sm. in Tuck. p. 250, ex Webb I. c.), = P. Candida (W ebb, Phyt. 

Can. i. 158, tab. 21). , , ^. ■ t * 

Mar. occid.-In arenosis maritimis pr. Mogador! (ub. jam legemnt 

Schousboe et Broussonnet et Balansa). 
Nomen triviale nivea prioritate gaudet et a b. ^U-bb nte rest. utum. 
Ar. Geoy. Species Canariensis et ins. Cap. Vir.d.s, deest m Madera, et 

ultra plagam Mogadorensem in terris continentahbus nondura 

372 MR. J. ball's spicileoium flob^ maroccan^. 

PoETULACACE^ {Juss. Gen. 313; Endl. Gen. 940, ordo 

reformata et nomen emendatum), 

PoKTTJLACA (Z. Gen. 602). 

P. oLERACEA (L., DC* Pt. iii, 353). 

Mar. occid. — Saffi ! Mogador (Lowe Caf.)* 

Mar. merid. — Seksaoua (J. D. H.)l et alibi visa in ruderatis. 

Ar. Geog. Planta cosmopolita per regiones temperatas calidiores totius 

fere orbis difiFusa. 

MoxTiA (i. Gen. 101). 

M. FONTANA (L., DC. Pr. iii, 362). 

Mar. inerid. — In regione subalpina Atlantis Majoris, Legimus in con- 

valle Ait Mesan vix florentem circ. 2500 m. ! 
Ar. Geog. Herba per Europam omnem et Asiam temperatam diffusa. 

Nee in Macaronesia, nee in Algeria indicatur. 

Tamariscine^ (Desv. Diss. List. Gall. Led. ex DC. Pr. 

iii. 95). 

TAMARix(i. Gen. 375). 

T. AFRiCANA {Poir. Voy.ix. 189 ; DC. Pr. iii. 95). 

Mar. sept. — Tetuan {Webb Herb.) ! Inter Tetuan et Ceuta! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis, Deest in Macaronesia. 

T. GALLiCA {L., DC. Pr. iii. 96; Schousb. Gew. Marok. 131). 

Mar. sept. — Tanger! {Schousb. spec.) I Tetuan {Webb Herb.) ! 

Mar. occid. — Mogador! {Lowe Cat.). 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis (exclusa Macaronesia). 

Specimen a nobis prope Tanger lectum^ T. Canariensi simile, non differt 
a specie. Proxime affinis T . Anglican Webb, habitat secus litora At- 
lantica Galliae occidentalis. In Anglia vix indigena est 

T. speciosa {Ball in Journ. JBot. 18/3, 301). 

Frutex 8-10-pedalis ; cortex fusco-purpureus, nitidusj racemi coetanei 
in ramis lignosis et in hornotinis subsessiles ; bracteae ovatse, minus 
quam in T. gallica acutae ; sepala oblongo-rotundata, rarius ovata 
subacuta; petala cito caduca; flores pentandri; capsula (pro grege) 
longa, pulchre rosea. 

Mar. merid. — Copiose secus torrentem in distr. Mesfioua ! ad 600 m. 
Frutex elegans speciosa, herba viridi, fructu roseo; a T. Gallica et T. 
Africana facie valde diversa. 

Sicut subspecies hie enumerata, forsan melius cognita pro sp. omnino 
diversa retinenda. 

T. ARTicuLATA {Vakl, Symb. ii. 48, tab. 32; DC. Pr. iii. 96). 
Mar. merid. — Vidimus sine fl. vel fr. in planitie hand procul urbe Ma- 
rocco, ramus sterilis tantum lectus! 


Ar. Geog. Regio desertonim ; verislmiliter ex Marocco meridionali usque 
fines Indise Orientalis diffusa. 

Htpkeicine^ {DC. TMor. EUm. p. 214). 

Htpemcum (i. Qen. 902). 

II. PERFORATUM (L., DC. Pr. i. 549), 

Mar. sept.— Tanger (ear Herb. Schsb. spec.) ! {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! Tetuan 

(1851) ! Specimen eheu vermibus erosum ! 
Mar. merid.— Ad radices Atlantis Majoris. Tassereraout ! Ait Mesan 

versus 1250 m. ! Amsmlz ! Tamarut {R. et Fr. spec, in Herb. Kew.) I 
Ar. Geog. Europa omnis (exclusa arctica). Regio Mediterranea fere 

omnis (inclusa Macaronesia). In America boreali videtur spon- 

Specimina ex Mar. meridionali habent lacinias calycinas longiores quam 

in typo Europaeo. 

H UNDULATUM {Schousb. in Willd. Enum. p. 811), = H. quadrangulum, 
var. € {Choisy in DC. Pr. i. 548), = H. ba^ticum {Boiss. Voy. Esp. i. 

114, tab. 34). 
Mar. sept.— Vidi in Herb. Kewensi specimen Tmgitanum a Salzmann 
receptum cui scheda "H. tetragonum, var. acutangulum," H. bcetico, 

Boiss., satis eouforme. t , « • 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa borealis. Madeira. Insul. Azoricae 

(H. rfccipien*, Wats.). • ^ 

Suadente eel. Trevirano (in Hyp. Geu. Ammad. p. 9) nomen anti- 
quum Schousboeanum H. bcetico restitui, et, donee experientia melius 
docebit, velut speciem distinctam enumeravi. 

H AUSTRALE {Ten. Syll. Fl. Neap. 385 ; Gren. et God. Fl. Fr. i.315), 
H. repens {Poir. Voy. ii. 224; Choisy in DC. Pr. i. 548, non L., 

nee Boiss. Fl. Or. i. 801). 
Mar. sept.-In monte Beni Hosmar supra Tetuan ! In monte Djebel 

Dersa pr. Tetuan ( Webb Herb.) 1 . , tu • 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis (quoad peninsulam Ibencam 

incertum). Forma affinis in Gallia occidentali. 
Quid sit H. repens, L., dijudicare non audeo. Suadente, 
eel. Boissier. erit idem ac H. perforatum «. punctatum ( m DC 
Prod)=H. alpestre {Stey. Verz. p. 95). = H. /.««no,rfe* (Bosse m 
Ott et Dietr. Gartenzeit. iii. 90). Specimina plurima Onentaha 
nu^ vidi a stirpe Gallica (H. repens, DC. Pr.) certe d.versa sunt, 
et propius accedunt H hy ssopifolio , Vdl. H.cnovxss:ma est spaces 
aide polymorpha quacum eel. Boissier (Fl. Or. . 799) plunmas 
formas'ab'ipso oUm pro speciebus novis propos.tas semel conjunx. . 
Dubium mihi adest an not« differentmles qu.bus vir celeb. //. 
repens suum ab H. hyssopifolio distinxit stabdes sint : quoad rat.onem 

37-1 MR. J. ball's spicilegium flor^ maroccax^. 

cal)-cis et capsulae maturse hsec certe variabilis est. ff. repens (Sibth. 
et Sm. Fl. Gr. tab. 775, non L.) est species Cretensis^ H, trichocaulon 
(Boiss. & Held. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. 1, viii. 110). Hoc mihi valde 
proximum H. australi. Ten., viiletur, sed sec. auctores in sectione 
Millepora, Spach, collocatur, dum species nostra inter Toiniocarpia, 
Spach, enumeranda est. 

Hie notandum est spccimina H, australis ex Italia mevidionali et Sicilia 
quae vidi (e. g. spec, ab ipso Tenore in Herb. Gay, hodie Kewensi), et 
Algeriensia plurima a me scrutata cum spec. Gallicis et Maroccanis 
hand adamussim convenire. Pluribus notis priora inter H. australe 
et H. linarifoUum (Vahl, Symb. i. 65),= ff. linearifoUum (DC. Prod, 
et auct. plurim.) media sunt. Re vera characteres quibus distinguitur 
species Tenoreana, scil. folia latiora, sepala margine glandulis paucis 
sessilibus, nee numerosis pedicellatis, pra^dita, non gravis momeuti 
sunt, et hjec melius ad subspeciem reducenda erit. 

Hypericum tomentosum (L., DC. Pr. i.551). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm, Exsicc.) ! 

Mar. occid.— AinelHadjar! Prov. Halia prope Mogador ! Agadir( Co//. 
Indig, 1871)! 

Mar. merid. — Prov. Shedma! Mskala! Mtou^-a ! 

Ar, Geog, Regio Mediterranea occidentalis ex insulis Sicilia et Melita 

ad litora Atlantica. Deest in Macaronesia. 


Boiss. Elench. 42; Walp. Rep. i. 383), = H. suberosura 

{Salzm. Exsicc). 

Mar. sept.— Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! {Schousb. spec, ex Herb,) ! {fVebb 
Herb.) ! Tetuan prope urbem ed ad ostium fluminis, 1851 ! 

Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca ! Mazagan ! 

Mar. merid.— Sat frequens in regione inferiors Ain Beida ! Mesfioua ! 
Mzouda! Sektana (R. et Fr. spec, in Hh. Kew.)\ 

Ar. Geog. Peninsula Iberica. Africa boreali-occidentalis. 

T^m H. tomentosum quam H.pubescens, quod pro subspecie teneo, in 
reg. meridionalibus fiunt glabriora et minora. 

Specimina typica H.pubescentis omnino diversa ab H. tomentoso videntur, 
sed non desunt formse intermediae (e. g. spec, prope Alemque in Estre- 
madura Lusitanica a Bar. de Paiva lecta, in Herb. Kew. asservata). 
Spec, nostra ex Mesfioua etiam subintermedia sunt. 


Canar. i. 45, tab. 4), var. atlanticum, nob. ? 


Mar. merid.— Nondum florens legimus in convalle Ait Mesan circ. 
1700 m. s. m. ! 

Folia et caulis foliaceus cum spec. Canariensibus adamussim conveni- 
unt, sed spec, nostra nimis incompleta. Cel. Cosson benevole com- 
municavit spec, in monte Djebel Ouensa ab indigeno Ibrahim lecta, 
cui scheda " H. atlanticum, Coss. MSS.," verisimiliter hue etiam 


referenda. Douec eel. auctor meliora docebit, hoc mihi videtur nimis 
proximum H. coaduuaio. A sp. Canariensi parum distant H. Nuudinia- 
mim (Coss. et Dur. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. ii. 308) stirps Algerlensis, et 
H. caprifolium (Boiss. El. 41 ; Voy. Esp. tab. 35) Hispaniie australis 
incola; et haiC forsan sicut subspecies vel varietates ad ff. coaduna- 
turn ducenda. 
Ar. Geog, Species in insulis Canariensibus ; varietasin Atlante Major! ; 
formae proximse affines in Algeria et Ilispania. 

Hypericum perfoliatum (L., Sibth. et Sm, Prod. FL Gr. ii. IIG; 
Oris. SpiciL i. 224),= TI. ciliatum {Lam. Diet. iv. 1/0; DC. Pr. i. 
652; Boiss. FL Or. I 812),=II. dentatum (Lois. Ft. Gall p. 499; 
DC. Pr. i, 552), = 11. montanum (Desf. FL Atl ii. 216, 7ion L., nee 

Mar. sept.— Tanger {Sahm. Exsicc.)l {Webb Herb.)! Tetuan (IVebb 

Herb.) I Inter Tetuan et Ceuta! 
Ar. Geoff. Regie Mediterranea fere omnis. 
Cel. Grisebach no men Linnseanum ab auctoribus recentioribus practer- 

missum vindicavit. Specimen in Herb. Linn, est omnino H. ciliatum. 


MALTACE-a: (i?. Br. Cong. p. 8). 

Malope (i. Gen. 841). 

M. MALACOiDEs (L., DC Pr. i. 429), var. stipulacea, = M. stipu- 
pulacea {Cav. Anal Cienc. Nat. iii. 74', DC. Pr. i. 429). 

Mar. sept.— Frequens circa Tanger ! Tetuan (1851) ! 

Mar. occid.— ? Mogador sec. Broussonnet in Cav. loc. cit. B. Broussonnet 
interdura plantas originis diversse semel miscuisse certe scimus. Ilanc 
speciem legit in ditione Tingitana, ubi frequenter occurrit. Nemo 
recentiorum earn vidit in vicinitate urbis Mogador. 

Ar. Geog. Species per regionem Mediterranean! (exelusa Macarouesia) 
late diffusa; varietas in Africa boreali-occidentali et in Ilispania aus- 
trail obvia est. 

M. TKiFiDA iCav. Diss. Ii. 85, tab. 27 ; DC. Pr. i. 429). 

Mar. sept. -Tanger {Schousb. spec.) ! (Salzm. Exsicc.) ! Tetuan {Webb 

Herb.) ! 
Ar. Geoff. Hispania Ba;tica et ditio Tingitana. 

Alth^a (X. Gen. 839). 


Bot. 1873, 302). 

Hot. l»/c>, ouz;. ^- V 1 • 

Differt a typo corolla suWuplo majore, purpureo-rosea, stipul.s longm- 
ribus angustioribus, subcuneatis, nee ut in typo ovatis, foins mag.3 
divisis, laciniis angustioribus, planta tola minus Inrsuta. 
Mar mend -Specimina manca Icgimus in proT. Mtonga ! et Shedma ! 


Melius explorataforsan sicut species nova distinguenda. In herb, beati 

J. Gay (nunc Kewensi) adsunt specimina duo prope Monspelium lecta, 
quibus adjecit in scheda "Althcea muticay Gay MSS. (1824)/' In his 
corolla macrna ut in nostra, sed stipulse et folia omnino A. hirsutce, 
Ar. Geog, A, hirsuta per Europam mediam et regionem fere omnem 
Mediterraneam (exclusa Macaronesia) diffusa est. 

LAyATEEA(i. Gen. 8i2), 

L. TRiMESTRis (L., DC. Pv, i. 438). 

Mar. sept. — Frequenspr. Tanger ! iSalzm. Exsicc) ! Tetuan (1851)! 

Mar. merid. — Sat frequens ad radices Atlantis Majoris, Mesfioua ! 
Tassereraont ! Oui'ika ! Sektana (jR. 8f Ft, spec, in Herb. Kew.) I 

Ar, Geog. Per regionem Mediterranean! (exclusa Macaronesia) late dif- 
fusa; in Algeria rara. 

, var. MALV^FORMis, nob. 

Floribus ininoribus pallide purpureis, foliis subrotundatis, superioribus 

vix angulatis. Herba tota longius pilosa. 
Mar. merid. — Distr. Reraya versus 1100 m, ! 

L. Olbia (L., DC. Pr. i. 438). 

Mar. sept. — In monte Beni Hosmar pr. Tetuan nondum florentem legi- 



Ex indumento et calycibus fructibusque emarcidis anni prsecedentis 
potius ad typum quam ad var. sequentem referenda. 

, var. HispiDA, = L. hispida {Desf. FL AtL ii. 118, tab. 1/1 ; 

DC. Pr. i. 438). 
Mar. sept. — Tanger {Salzm. Exsicc.) ! In rupibus pr. Cap. Spartel ! 

In raontibus Djebel Dersa et Beni Hosmar (Webb Herb.) ! 
At, Geog. L. Olbia^ cum var. L. hispida^ in umbrosis et rupestribus re- 
gionis Mediterranese occidentalis habitat, nunquam a niari remota. 
Deestin Macaronesia. Species proxime affinis {L. ungutculata, Desf.) 
Graeciam, Siciliam, Cyprum et Oretam Incolit. 

L. MARiTiMA {Gouajiy III. p. 4&y tab. 11 ; DC. Pr. i. 439). 

Mar. merid, — Prope Ain el Hadjar! 

Ar. Geog. Regio Mediterranea occidentalis (exclusa Macaronesia)., 

L. CRETiCA (L., DC. Pr. i. 439), =L. sylvestris (Prot. Fl.Lus. ii. 227, 
non Cyr.), = Malva pseudolavatera {Webb, Phyt. Can. \. 29), = M. 
hederscfolia (Vis. FL Dalm. iii. 205), 

Mar. sept. — Tanger ! (Salzm. Exsicc.) ! Tetuan (1851) ! Inter Tetuan 

et Ceuta ! 
Mar. occid. — Casa Blanca! Rabat (R. et Fr. spec, in Herb . Kew .) I 

Mogador! (Lowe Cat.; Balansa; Coss. Index). 

Mar. merid. — Pluries visa ; legimus prope Amsmiz ! etin ruderatls urbis 

M arocco ! 



From VoL IX. the Zoological and Botanical portions of the 
Journal have been published separately, and each consists of Eight 

The price of each separate number, whether Zoological or 
Botanical, is 2s. to the public, and Is. 6d. to Fellows. 

Each volume of eight numbers, when subscribed for and paid 
in advance, will be charfred 125. to the nublic. a,TiH 9.e tn ^^'p.ll^wa. 

Ajstt Cf 



Fellows, on their election, pay an Admission Fee of £6, and 
are thenceforth liable to an Annual Contribution of £3, which may 
be compounded for at any time by one payment of £30 in lieu 
of all future contributions. 

Fellows residing abroad, and not compounding, are required to 
provide such security for the payment of their Annual Contribu- 
tions as shall be satisfactory to the Council. 

The Fellows are entitled to receive, gratis, all Volumes, or Parts 
of Volumes, of the Transactions and Journal, that may be pub- 
lished after they shall have paid the Admission Fee ; and they 
may be supplied with any of the Society's publications at a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent, under the common selling prices. 

The 1st Series of the Transactions is now completed in 30 vols. 
Sets of the first twenty volumes will be supplied to the Fellows 
at the reduced price of £20 ; or of the first twenty-five volumes, 
with the General Index to the whole, for £30. Any Fellow pur- 
chasing, at one time, ten or more volumes, may obtain those 
from the 1st to the 20th at £1 per volume, from the 21st to 
the 25th at £2 per volume ; and single volumes, or parts, to 
complete sets, maybe obtained at the original prices. The price 
of the Index to Vols. 1-25 is 8s. to the public, and 6s. to Fellows ; 




the Apartments of the 


delivered gratis to a Fellow whose yearly Contributions are in 
arrear, nor can any be delivered urdess applied for within five 
years from the time of publication.— Of the 2nd Series, of the 
Transactions, Vol. 1, Parts I.-VI. Zoology, and Parts I.-IV. Botany, 
are now ready for delivery. A few copies of the severd papers 
contained in the later volumes (from Vol. 26 onwards) have been 
printed ofi* for separate sale ; and most of them may still be had. 

The Library is open to the Fellows and their friends daily, 
between the hours of 10 and 4, and on Meeting-days at 7 p.m. 

"With certam restrictions. Fellows are allowed to borrow Books 
from the Library. 

The Council-room, which will in future be used as a reading- 
room, will be open daily from 10 a.m. till 6 p.m., except on Satur- 
days, when till 4 p.m. only. 

Communications intended to be made to the Society may bo addressed to the 
President, or to the Secretary, at the Sodety*s Apartments, Burlington Hoose, 
Piccadilly, London.